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the lips will be pushed forward and puckered, and the soft palate and the tongue drawn backward,

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leaving the longest and narrowest possible opening from front to rear. The aperture between the lips is small and rounded.

As you go down the "scale"-oh, aw, etc.— the jaws gradually separate, the cheeks relax, and

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the tongue flattens, until at ah the mouth is in its widest open position with the tongue lying flat and inert on the lower jaw and the soft palate hanging straight down.

From this position the jaws approach each other as the sounds er, uh, etc., are made, until

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at ee they are close together; the lips are drawn tight across the teeth, as in a smile; the cheeks pushed apart and the tongue pushed forward and

up, making, in the resonance chamber, the flattest and broadest possible cavity through which a vowel can pass.

One cannot make the sound ee with the resonance chamber and the lips shaped for oo or for ah, or vice versa. Try it and see.

Repeat this “scale” of vocal sounds down and up until you are conscious of the changes in adjustment of the speech organs that have been described. Try to associate each sound with its position, and to remember the position. Practice frequently until the correct habit of producing each sound is fixed.

18. Exercise. Repeat the sounds 00—0h-ah -ay-ee.

Make these sounds slowly at first, then increase the speed. Keep each sound separate and distinct. Work for flexibility in the speech organs, particularly in the jaws and lips.

Practice this exercise daily, and frequently each day until each sound is correctly made and until the muscular action is rapid and accurate.

19. Exercise. Repeat in the same way the vowel sounds in pairs, in the order given in the columns below.

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20. Exercise. Repeat in the same way the vowel sounds in pairs, in the order given in the columns below.

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21. Exercise. Repeat in the same way the vowel sounds in pairs, in the order given in the columns below.

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QUALITY OF TONE As yet no attention has been given to the quality of tone produced in these exercises. Quality is of no less importance than accuracy, and an acceptable quality should be cultivated from the beginning

22. What qualities should a voice have? To be of greatest use, a voice should be clear and agreeable.

23. A voice should be clear. No voice is useful or pleasant to listen to unless it is clear. A clear voice is free from obstruction of all sorts. A voice may be obstructed in various ways: by

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