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pause; but if the former, there can properly be no pause after work.

170. Restrictives. In the two examples given there may be an honest doubt about the restrictive relation of the modifiers indicated. In the following, however, there can be no doubt that the relative clause is restrictive and that it cannot be separated from those without destroying the coherence of the sentence: “This is the obvious answer to those who urge the claims of utility in education."

On words coming before restrictive modifiers the downward inflection cannot properly be used. On words before non-restrictive modifiers the inflection is up or down as the emphasis on the word modified requires.

The first example above, if restrictive, is readWhat is the real worth in the market, with an upward inflection on worth and no pause after it.

If non-restrictive it may be read What is the real worth | in the market, with a downward inflection and a pause after it.

The second example above, if restrictive, is readThey have a right to expect a great return in kind, with an upward inflection on return and no pause after it. If non-restrictive, it is readThey have a right to expect a great return | in kind.

POETRY 171. How to read poetry. There is a vast difference of opinion about reading poetry. At one

extreme are those who say that poetry should be read as if it were rhythmical prose, with little or no regard to cæsural or other pause than that required by the sentence structure, and with no more accent than that which the natural emphasis gives. At the other extreme are those who say that readers of poetry should be governed strictly by the metrical structure of the poetry read. Alfred Noyes says that now-a-days it is the fashion of those reading poetry to disregard that which the poet has worked hardest to put into his worki. e., its tone and rhythm; and at times Mr. Noyes' own reading is a musical chant.

The writer believes that the best practice lies between the two extremes. No reading of poetry should neglect either the rhythm or the meaning. Obviously in passages where tone and rhythm are essential to express what the poet wishes to express, these elements must be strongly brought out by the reader.

172. Exercise. Note the necessity of following closely the rhythm in the following.

Take away the rhythm that is carefully wrought into these lines, and you have little left; at least you have lost that which first impresses one who hears the lines, and which remains longest with him.

1. I sprang to the stirrup, and Joris and he,

I galloped, Dirck galloped, we galloped all three; Good speed!” cried the watch, as the gate-bolts

undrew;

“Speed !” echoed the wall to us galloping through; Behind shut the postern, the lights sank to rest, And into the midnight we galloped abreast.

2. The curfew tolls the knell of parting day,

The lowing herd wind slowly o'er the lea,
The plowman homeward plods his weary way,
And leaves the world to darkness and to me.

3. Haste thee, nymph, and bring with thee,

Jest and youthful jollity;
Quips and cranks and wanton wiles,
Nods and becks and wreathed smiles,
Such as hang on Hebe's cheek
And love to lie in dimples sleek.

4.

The year's at the spring,
And the day's at the morn;
Morning's at seven;
The hillside's dew-pearled:
The lark's on the wing;
The snail's on the thorn;
God's in his heaven-
All's right with the world.

5. A hurry of hoofs in a village street,

A shape in the moonlight, a bulk in the dark,
And beneath, from the pebbles, in passing, a spark
Struck out by a steed flying fearless and fleet:
That was all! And yet, thro' the gloom and the

light,
The fate of a nation was riding that night;
And the spark struck out by that steed in his flight
Kindled the land into flame with its heat.

173. Exercise. On the other hand, read the following and note how slightly the rhythmical element is felt.

1. And thus he wandered, dumb,

Till evening, when he paused, thoroughly spent,
On a blind hilltop; down the gorge he went,
Yielding himself up as to an embrace;
The moon came out; like features of a face
A querulous fraternity of pines,
Sad blackthorn clumps, leafless and grovelling

vines
Also came out, made gradually up the picture.

2. Down swept the chill wind from the mountain peak

From the snows five thousand summers old;
On open wold and hilltop bleak
It had gathered all the cold,
And hurled it like sleet 'gainst the wanderer's

cheek.

3. Looking straight at the King, with her level brows,

She said, "I keep true to my faith and my vows.

Examples need not be multiplied to show that frequently regular rhythm may be almost entirely lacking and pauses may come with utter irregularity in lines of poetry. Most poems, however, combine the meaning of the lines with the movement of the rhythm, and it is usually possible to read them so that neither the meaning nor the rhythm is lost. Personal temperament or fancy may emphasize one or the other, but it should not excuse a reader from neglecting either.

CHAPTER V

DIALECT SPEECH

174. American dialect. No language is without forms of speech characterized by local peculiarities. The American speech has a vast number of peculiarities, because the American people come from every corner of the globe and bring with them peculiarities of every sort. No standard speech can be established until these peculiarities are removed. A concrete illustration of the speech condition in many of our schools is found in a recent picture of twenty-two pupils from one room in a Utica, N. Y., school. In this picture each pupil holds a placard bearing the name of his nationality. Twenty-two different sets of speech faults in one room,-it seems incredible; and yet in the seventh grade of a similar Utica school the writer heard a recitation from a class of pupils very few of whom were children of Americanborn parents, but not one of whom showed any strong dialect in his speech.

It is not difficult to remove a dialect from the speech of boys and girls not over sixteen or seventeen years old. Above that age it is not impossible, although it is difficult in many adults.

175. Correcting dialect. There are two methods of correcting dialect peculiarities: 1. By imitating correct sound.

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