Imagens das páginas
[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]

There are no fans or air-shafts
The only ventilation is by the furnaces and opening the

Opening the windows is impossible in winter on account of

the cold, and in summer because of the noise
Pupils' health has been affected by the bad air. In these

rooms the number of cases of illness has been double the
normal amount in similar grades in newer and better

ventilated schools.
Not enough cubic feet of air to the number of pupils. Room

24x48x9 feet contains 10,368 cu. ft. It is occupied by 72
pupils, an average of 144 cu. ft. each. Each pupil
should have 3,000 cu. ft. an hour. In this room the air is

rarely changed.
Lighting should come from above and from the pupil's left

side—not from more than one side.
In study hall the windows are on three sides. In eight out

of fourteen rooms the light comes from two sides. In
five of the rest it comes from the wrong side. In the
other room the light comes from the front


The lighting is

faulty, for

Directions on chart

posted in room
Inspection and the

report of the
school physician to
the Board of Edu.

The building is a

menace to the
health and safety
of the pupils, for

Sanitary provisions are inadequate and faulty
Heating is faulty
Lighting is faulty
Ventilation is faulty
No drinking fountains. Tin pails still used—one cup
No fire escapes. Dangerous wooden stairways. Improper


[blocks in formation]

Thus one issue is briefed. Then should follow the second, and third, and so on until all are covered. Rebuttal matter may come at the end of the brief of each issue, and be arranged in the same way.

224. Summary. When all issues have been briefed, a summary may be added which will recapitulate briefly what has been proved. If in a debate there are two or more speakers, it is well for each speaker to summarize all that has been proved by his side, the first speaker summarizing his own arguments, the second the first speaker's and his own, and so on. This keeps the whole plan of proof before the audience.

225. Preparing the speech. The actual debate as it is to be delivered should never be written out and memorized. The ability to fix the plan of a speech in mind and to speak extemporaneously from it is one of the greatest benefits to be derived from debating. Written debate cancels this benefit. The issues should be memorized, the assertions to be proved should be memorized, the facts to substantiate each assertion should be memorized, the authority for each fact should be memorized—so that the debater can readily think through what he is to say; but memory work should stop there.

Nevertheless, the delivery of the speech should be practiced sufficiently to enable the debater to think on his feet and go through his argument readily and without hesitation. However, his attention should be on his thought and how to ex

press it to his audience, rather than on his words. Anything that savors of glibness and over-preparedness in a debate detracts from its effectiveness. Debating is a thinking, a reasoning process —not an exhibition of memorized forensics with oratorical or rhetorical elaborations.

Moreover, notes should not be used in debate if the best results are to be obtained. The speaker's attention cannot be divided between his audience and his notes if he expects to hold the attention of his audience. There is no serious objection to the use in rebuttal of brief reminders of points made during the debate, but the reading of cards or evidence of any sort is not debating, either in advance speeches or in rebuttal. It may be useful in some English classes, but it is not debating.

226. Rebuttal. Each debater should pay particular attention to the opponent in the position similar to his own, for to a certain extent the two are paired. Then, for example, the second affirmative speaker should attend strictly to the second negative and should be responsible for the rebuttal of the arguments of the second negative. Of course, he need not be limited rigidly to these, but they should receive his first attention.

Rebuttal should try to overthrow important items and not waste time on little things. Careful analysis will show that an opponent's arguments rest largely on a few fundamental inferences or items of proof. Try to show the inaccuracy or incompetence of these.


227. Order of speakers. Debates are usually presented by four (or six) speakers, two (or three) speakers on each side, each speaking twice, once in advance argument and once in rebuttal. The order in advance speeches is First affirmative

First negative
Second affirmative

Second negative
In rebuttal the order of sides may be reversed,
First negative

First affirmative
Second negative

Second affirmative so that the affirmative may have the last rebuttal speech. This in part offsets the time necessarily taken by the first affirmative speaker in presenting the introductory matter.

228. Time. In a forty-five minute period, four speakers may be allowed five minutes each for advance speeches and three for rebuttal. This will leave a few minutes at the close of the debate for comment by the teacher and critics in the audience, if any have been named. Longer periods make possible longer speeches, or more debaters.

229. First affirmative. The first affirmative speaker must make plain what the proposition means, furnish any necessary explanation as to

why it is to be debated, outline the plan of attack, and attempt to win the sympathy of the audience to his side. Sometimes where a proposition requires considerable introduction the first speaker finds little time for constructive argument. He must be careful, however, not to spend time on useless introduction. Preliminary matter that does not help to make the subject of discussion clear, or outline the plan of debate, or win the approval of the audience should be omitted, no matter how interesting it may be.

230. First negative. The first negative speaker sometimes finds it necessary to discuss the introduction of the affirmative, especially if he thinks that introduction is inaccurate or biased. Ordinarily, however, he can proceed at once to a discussion of the first issue of the debate.

The first two speakers should between them make the audience understand exactly what is to be discussed, and how it is to be discussed.

231. Other speakers. The second speaker on each side should proceed with the constructive argument where the first speaker left it. It is not a bad practice for each to summarize briefly what the colleague preceding him has attempted to prove. If there are but two speakers on a side, the second speaker should summarize at the close of his debate all that his side has proved. If there are three debaters on a side this may be left to the last speaker.

232. Formalities. Strict parliamentary practice should be followed. Each debater should ad

« AnteriorContinuar »