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dress the chairman, “Mr. Chairman” or “Madam Chairman,” and the audience, “Gentlemen" or “Ladies and Gentlemen” when he begins. Names of opponents or of colleagues should not be used, nor should personal pronouns take the place of names in referring to other debaters. Instead say, “The first negative speaker” or “My opponent” or “The speaker who preceded me," "The gentlemen of the negative," etc.

233. The gavel. For the convenience of the debaters, particularly of rebuttal speakers, it is helpful for the presiding officer (the teacher or the chairman) to sound a warning one or two minutes before the close of each speech. Of course, a final single stroke of the gavel is the signal that the time is up, and when it is given the speaker should stop promptly. No speaker should be permitted to encroach upon the time of another.

AFTER THE DEBATE

234. Criticism. Criticism should be directed to these things:

1. Material.
2. Organization of material.
3. Manner of presentation.

The practice of having class criticism is useful in compelling attention to the debate, and a class usually points out most of the good and bad features of a debate. Those that are neglected can be added by the teacher. Comment should be both commendatory and adverse.

235. Don'ts for debaters. 1. Don't shuffle when you go before your audience.

2. Don't forget to address the chairman and the audience.

3. Don't look at the floor, nor out the window, nor over the heads of your audience. Look into

their eyes.

4. Don't forget that while you have studied the question and know much more about it than you can tell in your time, the audience knows little or nothing about it. Be perfectly clear.

5. Don't just talk to anyone. Talk to your audience earnestly.

6. Don't lean against anything. Stand straight.

7. Don't put your hands into your pockets, nor behind you, nor try to hide them anywhere. Use them.

8. Don't fail to show your own interest in what you are saying. You cannot expect your audience to be interested if you yourself do not appear interested. Voice, body, hands, arms, face—all of you should show interest if you feel it—and you cannot debate well unless you do.

9. Don't try to make your audience think that your side is the only side in the debate. No debate is possible unless the proposition debated has two strong sides. Try to convey the impression that you realize the strength of your opponents, but show your own strength to be even greater. It is more to your credit to whip a big, hulking fellow than a little, weak one.

10. Don't indulge in personalities.

11. Don't introduce constructive argument into rebuttal speeches.

12. Don't rebut arguments that your opponents have not advanced.

13. Don't include in your summary anything that you have not brought out in your advance speech.

14. Don't forget that final impressions are lasting in debate. Put your best arguments last and hammer them home. Make your summary as clear and effective as possible.

CHAPTER IX

SELECTIONS FOR PRACTICE

236.

THE DERELICT

Drifting about in the lower East Side in New York, is a human derelict known to the children of the streets as Andy." They know him only as an old sailor who is down and out—so down that he scrubs the hallways of a foul tenement for one. dollar a week and board that many a dog would not touch. His “bedroom” is so disreputable that he often sleeps by preference in the Park or in a hallway.

But “Andy” is neither a bum nor a beggar. He stands erect upon his feet, in spite of his seventy-three years, and looks every man squarely in the eye when he talks, and there is no whine in his voice. And if any citizen of the East Side is looking for a fight, an insult to “Andy” will quickly bring it.

For “Andy” is not only a sailor-he is a veteran of the American navy. He knew Admiral Dewey when he was Commodore Dewey; and "Andy" was quartermaster on the Olympia and had charge of the steering of the battleship when it crept into Manila Bay. He left the Olympia only when the ship went out of commission, after Admiral Dewey's triumphal return-and soon thereafter the old quartermaster was put out of commission.

The circumstances do not matter greatly. He got drunk and into trouble with an officer; and with a dis

honorable discharge he had to leave the navy in which he had served with credit for nearly thirty years.

It is “Andy's” misfortune that he became a hero too late; he is not a veteran of the Civil War. Had he served for only a few weeks in some Union regiment that never got to the front; had he been even a bountyjumper or a deserter, he would have a chance by special pension-act to receive a regular pension from a grateful country.

But "Andy" is only one of the heroes of Dewey's fight in Manila Bay, and he has a "bob-tailed! discharge because he hit a superior officer.

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No buildings are more prosaic than the New York city lofts. Among shops, hotels, and office towers, they loom up square-cornered, grilled with windows, commercial and ugly. Nearly every story houses a factory. The building, before you fill it with paper boxes, celluloid, and such things, is absolutely fireproof.

Early in April, 1911, sightseers left Washington Square with its rows of historic houses and its great white arch from which the Avenue 'busses take their stately way uptown, to walk a short block eastward. There, hidden behind a more pretentious building, rose a ten-story loft. The glass had been smashed out of its ninth and tenth story windows, and their frames were blackened. A sign at the corner of the building looked charred. Below, planks covered holes in the thick vaultlights of the sidewalk. That was all. A perfectly good loft, slightly damaged by fire, which the owner, if he could, would certainly have sold cheap. Not an inspiring goal for sightseers.

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