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are mulcted most heavily. Notwith-| Any government officer, who requires standing, they manage to make their horses for the discharge of his duties, way, and some of them acquire consider can countermand the orders of travellers, able wealth. Among the many odd and use the horses himself. Sometimes customs which distinguish the Chinese the journey is varied by a sail on the in Java is one which would startle the canals, of which, of course, there are young ladies of England. Beneath the very many. A Dutchman could not windows of their houses is often to be exist without canals. Some of the canals seen an empty flower-pot, "lying hori- in Java are from eighty to ninety feet zontally on the portico roof." Its posi- in width, and walled on both sides with tion cannot be accidental, because it is solid stone - work. In the canal boats seen in so many cases. Nor can it be the company is often more picturesque looked upon as a religious symbol, for than pleasant. Groups of greasy natives, then there would probably be one on for want of something else to do, occupy each house. It is nothing more nor less themselves“ in examining minutely each than a matrimonial advertisement, the other's flowing tresses men as well as plain English of which is : “A young women-proclaiming ever and anon, by lady is in the house. Husband wanted.” a dexterous movement of the finger and The Chinese in Java are regarded with thumb, the capture made, the victim great jealousy both by the Dutch and slain ! " natives, though they are far more toler The Javanese have no regular police able than in their own country, or in force, and yet they contrive to maintain Singapore and Penang. In 1740 a mob throughout the whole country the most composed of soldiers and natives attack perfect quiet and order. Instead of the ed the Chinese, and slaughtered ten complicated police systems of Europe, thousand of them in a few days. a plan of village government is adopted,
The interior of Java is peopled mainly which has the charm not only of simby the natives, who are of the Malayan plicity and cheapness, but of the sumtype, of short stature, high cheek bones, mary administration of justice. The brown complexion with a shade of yel- townspeople of Java constitute its polow, and keen black eyes. The traveller lice. Each town is divided into so many who wishes to visit the Vorsten Landen, districts, the division being generally or country of the native princes, must regulated by the localities of the various provide himself with a passport, after races. Each of these districts is " under satisfying the authorities as to his pro- the supervision, and to some extent the fession, his last place of residence, and jurisdiction, of the most influential man the length of time he intends to spend of the neighborhood, who is generally in Java. For the convenience of travel- of royal blood, or very high standing." lers a system of posts has been estab. Under this official is the Capalla, whose lished. These are generally at distances duty it is to appoint the watches day of ten miles. “On ordering his first and night, “the male members of every horses, the traveller is expected to state family taking in turn the duty of watchthe intended day's journey, and the in- man.” He occasionally visits the statimation to this effect travels from post tions, reports to his superior, and supplies to post.” Hence little time is lost, es: the night passes,
“ without which none pecially as the horses are kept at full can stir out of their campong after eight gallop, and run at the rate of twenty in the evening." All delinquents are miles an hour. This pace, however, is bronght first of all to him. If their only kept up by the efforts of the lopers, offence is trivial, he disposes of the case. who, like the donkey-boys at Cairo, ter- But when the offender has been guilty rify the poor animals with their voices of a more serious criminality, the affair and whips. The coucer, or coachman, is placed in the hands of the Tumun confines himself merely to volleys of gong, or Pangeran, who, in turn, if the that kind of whip cracking which a matter proves too intricate for him, Javanese driver alone can produce. The sends it up to the European magistrate, great drawback to the postal system is who settles it according to Dutch law.” that you can never be sure of your The grand advantage of this system is, horses when you have ordered them, I that every villager has a kind of respon
So averse to
sibility for the good behavior of his who is called the Sultan. Both of these neighbor, as well as the motive of a per- are spoken of as though they were insonal ambition ; for every sub- official dependent princes. But they are almost may entertain the hope of promotion to nonentities, their only glory being titu: more honorable office. The weapons lar, and their only independence being employed in the constabulary service that they are allowed to manage their are unique. They are the bunday, the own affairs of state, and to let their kumkum, and the toyah. The first of lands to Europeans or Chinamen withthese is "
a short pole, about four feet in out enforcing the usual tribute of one length, upon the top of which are tied third. They, as well as all the princes two pieces of wood, so placed as to who hold landed property, are permitmeet in an acute angle, and open to ted to maintain a small army-a kind of wards the ends, like the distended jaws militia--but each regiment must have a of an alligator; the resemblance being Dutch major, captain, and ensign. Bemade greater by the addition of dried tween the emperor and the sultan there stems of sharp thorns, tied on the two is some little jealousy, the latter having pieces of wood, and looking somewhat recently declined to offer the homage like rows of teeth." This formidable which his predecessors were wont to weapon is used for the capture of an pay to the Susuhunan; but, on the escaped prisoner. The man into whose whole, they seem very well satisfied keeping it is confided runs at full speed with their position. The present Susuafter the bapless victim, and endeavors hunan, Pakoe Bewono VIII., who was “ to fix the instrument round the neck, seventy-six years old at the time of Mr. waist, arm, or leg of the pursued, who, D’Almeida's visit, was as soon as he feels the sharp thorns en- filling the throne of the Bewonos, that circling his body, generally comes to a on the demise of his father he steadily full stop.” If the bunday should fail, refused to occupy the vacant seat, givrecourse is had to the kumkum, which ing up his right in favor of his brother.” consists of a bar of iron in the shape of The brother's reign was short, and a small sword, attached to the top of a again he waived his right in favor of stave some five feet long. The toyah another brother. On the death of this is more humane in its construction. Its brother, in 1859, the old man had no shape is that of a pitchfork with blunted alternative but to take the reins, and he points, and it is used for the purpose of has managed them to the satisfaction stopping the runaway by bringing him of all parties. His native style and title down on his knees. No native is allow- runs thus: Pakoe Bewono, Susuhunan ed to walk in any town or village of of Soerakarta, Senopati, Ingalago, NgabJava after seven in the evening without doer, Rachman, Ponotogomo. With all a light. Some carry torches made of these titles he is wretchedly poor, and small thin split bamboo, lighted at one cannot obtain credit from the tradespeoend, or of bundles of wood "rubbed ple, without producing a written order over with ignitable compounds.” Others from the Dutch Resident. Indeed, the bave a tumbler of water, with oil on the poor old man is so much under the top of it, on which a wick of pith floats, authority of the Dutch, that he is not supported by corks. This they carry allowed to drive beyond a certain limit about in white pocket - handkerchiefs, without acquainting the Resident of his through which the light shines, without intention, and reporting, on his return, igniting them. The handkerchief has the places he has been to.” His private probably been dipped in some solution life is somewhat eccentric. He spends to render it fireproof.
the day in a house adjoining his palace, Though the island of Java is held by and at night sleeps on a sofa which is the Dutch, a sort of native sovereignty never placed two nights consecutively is yet maintained in the Vorsten Lan- in the same position or the same rooni. dei. The Susuhunan, whose person is Sometimes, even when it is raining, he held sacred by the natives, is called obstinately insists on sleeping out of Kaiser by the Dutch, and by the Eng- doors on a mat. The Duich attribute lish the Emperor of Java. There is a these eccentricities to his fear of the second sovereign, of inferior power, treachery of the natives. The natives
themselves say that “he prefers the on his left breast some orders, one of which open air because he can commune, in was that of the Lion of Holland. He wore, the silence of the night, with the spirits likewise, a medal which, having sided with of by gone monarchs, or hold converse
the Dutch, he had gained during the Java
A Geneva watch, the back of which • with his temporal and spiritual adviser,
was covered with diamonds, and a number Ngaisatomy, who by day hides herself of splendid rings, completed the list of the in a large cannon covered with red old monarch's jewelry.
Beside each cloth, and caged round by trellis-work individual present was placed a spittoon. of bamboo, and is only exhibited to the in the form of a brass vase ornamented with public on grand occasions.” It is be- Howers and filigree work. The one for the lieved that this modest and invisible especial use of the Susuhunan, which was of counsellor warns the emperor of the
solid gold, was placed on the stand.” approach of danger.
His Majesty is a widower, and has Mr. D'Almeida was honored with an interview with his Majesty. After pass of this interview his sister-in-law, niece,
never kept a seraglio. On the occasion ing through a vestibule, the floor of and two daughters, the latter looking which was strewed with ends of cigars, almost as aged and wrinkled as their roccos, tobacco, and other refuse, the walls “ daubed with red in patches, Behind these were dancing-girls and va
father, were seated on his right hand.” marking the spots where the careless in- rious female attendants, whose movemates had expectorated the betel-nut, ments were very peculiar. " Whenever etc., after having chewed it," the visit- they were required to minister to the ors waited until their arrival was an
wants of bis Majesty or the ladies, they nounced by “two dirty old women, crawled with knees doubled, so that the who, to their profession of cake-venders heels almost touched the nether part of to the court, added that of porters also.” the thighs." They never touched the A native band having struck up a wild ground with their knees, and could only air, the procession, marshalled by some have acquired the ability to balance their officers of the court, marched to the bodies by long and painful practice. All Pringitan, or Audience Hall.
the servants who came within a short "As we approached,” says Mr. D'Almeida, distance of the Pringitan" fell on their “within a few steps of the Pringitan we
knees and made obeisance to the Susubowed to his Majesty, who graciously ac- bunan, by raising both hands, clasped as knowledged this mark of respect by a slight though in prayer, till on a level with their inclination of his head. Mounting the steps, nose. The same kind of salute was we stopped again on the top one, and all given to the Sultan, and the same cerebowed, officers saluting him with their monies were observed when Mr. D’Alswords. After advancing a little farther towards him, we came to a dead halt, for the meida paid him a visit. The Sultan keeps third and last time, and, when about a yard a seraglio, which the lady of our travelfrom his royal person, lowered our heads ler was permitted to enter. Her pen
All that remained now furnishes a vivid sketch of this visit: was the process of introduction, and Colonel J
having presented us to his Majesty, “In a low kind of bungalow who shook hands with us, we all set down in assembled several women, mostly very young, a semicircle, in the centre of which, seated and all dressed in a costly native fashion. on a chair, cushioned with red velvet, was Some of the party were playing a Chinese the Susuhunan.
His head - dress game of cards." All looked up on our entrance, consisted of a black kerchief, to which were but soon resumed their occupation, alternately attached several diamond ornaments. In the playing, chewing tobacco, betel, and seri-leaf
, middle, just above his forehead, was a yellow and using their spittoons, one of which was dahlia, cut and trimmed so as to look like a placed by the side of each person. Most of brooch, in the centre of which blazed a large them were good-looking, with magnificent dark diamond. He is the only native prince who eyes, drooping lids, and long, curling lashes. is entitled to wear this tower on his head,
Their hair was dressed with care, bethe ornament being regarded as a distinctive ing all drawn back from the face, and arranged emblem, showing that he is looked upon as in two loops behind, in which chumpaka and the most sacred of native princes throughout molor flowers were inserted by some, whilst the whole archipelago. Round his neck were others wore diamond pins. The ear was made three long collars of diamonds, emeralds, and unnaturally large by immense ear-rings, in gold, in addition to a massive gold chain; and shape exactly like a small cotton-reel, about
the size of one of Clarke's number sixty, the half in thickness, hang. The pods, when centre of each end being studded with bril- ripe, split from top to bottom, showing liants."
the cotton, which runs in parallel lines We are bound to add, that the ladies like rows of pearls.” The natives have of Java have very
a superstitions regard for this tree. It black teeth. The latter distinction, how. is thought to be the abode of the Poonever, is regarded as beautiful; and teeth tiana, or the spirit which destroys chilnaturally as bright as pearls are disfig- dren, and which is supposed to possess ured thus by a gradual process. The a marvellous power of self-transmutation. women of the seraglio, with the exception Most frequently it appears in the guise of one silent and sad-looking girl of some of a female, but sometimes as a black twelve or thirteen years, seemed cheer. dog, or as a human corpse, or as a cat. ful and contented. The privilege of un- Many wonderful tales are told of the limited finery reconciles them to their lot. Poontiana, and almost every cotton-tree
With the exception of the fishing on has a tuft of hair nailed to its bark, as a the north coast, the industrial energies charm against the machinations of th of the Javanese are mainly given to agri- evil spirit. culture. The climate and the natural
Sugar, indigo, maize, and coffee are fertility of the soil offer peculiar facilities. cultivated to a considerable extent. For There is a somewhat extensive tobacco the preparation of coffee and sugar the culture, which has been prompted mainly natives make use of the most recent meby European enterprise.
chanical contrivances. At Boedoeran, Mr. D’Almeida saw
a sugar factory “The tobacco plant is cultivated in rows, worked by steam, in which all the most two or three feet apart, on flat ground. When useful inventions were to be found. He it has attained the height of from four to five also saw the process of preparing coffee. feet, it is cut down and defoliated. The leaves
“ The fresh berries,” he says, are then tied up in bundles of fifteen, twenty, or thirty, and suspended from bamboo poles“
"when gathered, are thrown into a dentated running across the interior of the shed, where cylinder, which is turned round by means of they are left to dry for twenty days or more, steam, and, as it revolves, grates the pulpy according to the state of the atmosphere. covering off the husk or shell in which the
When the leaves assume a yellow berry is contained. These fall into running tinge, they are taken down, piled one over the rills or conduits, which convey them to reserother in bamboo frames, and left for a fort- voirs outside the factory, where, by means of night or threc weeks to ferment. They are rakes and brooms, they are washed clean. then examined, and, if found quite brown, are The reservoirs are then partially opened to tightly pressed and packed up either in boxes allow the exuviæ to escape into some neighor matting for exportation, or in the bark of boring ditch. The coffee is afterwards taken the tree plantain for immediate sale.”
out and carted to some two and three storied
sheds, where it is strewn upon the floors, and The natives are great consumers of left until all moisture is gone. In a day or tobacco; but their favorite mode of using two it is taken out and spread upon receivers it is not the pipe. The national taste is of wood or brick in the open air; and when for chewing. They disfigure their under the husk is found to be thoroughly dry and lip by a nasty habit of holding a large brittle, it is carried away into another buildpiece of tobacco on it for hours together,
ing to be shelled." after having chewed it. This is even But the principal produce of Java is worse than the habit of the Malays, who rice. In an average year the country keep the precious morsel under the upper will yield ten millions of quarters; and lip," giving the ignorant stranger the if there be an abundant supply of water, impression that some hard body, which two rice crops may be secured in one only a surgical operation could extract, year. The growth of rice requires a very is embedded in it.”
copious and efficient irrigation; hence The common cotton-tree, the native name for which is cuppoo, is found in "sawahs, or rice reservoirs, are always to be
seen in the valleys, or at the foot of hills; great abundance. It
grows to the height of fifty or sixty feet, with but few leaves the greater facility they afford for keeping the
these situations being preferred on account of on its branches, from which the pods, in fields under water. They are always so arlength four iuches, and one inch and a ranged as to follow one another consecutively,
with embankments of mud around each. Sit- / value is then put upon the license of each uated on a slope, they look from a distance, particular farm, and the bidding combefore the paddy has attained to any height
mences. At an auction at which Mr. like steps of shining mirrors; but a level view D'Almeida was present, the sum of one presents more the appearance of a marsh or hundred and eighty thousand rupees was swamp. The highest reservoir is fed from a spring by means of bamboo pipes, and at one bid for the privilege of selling opium for corner of each embankment there is a small one year in the town of Ngwaie. The puropening to conduct the water from thence to chaser was a Chinese merchant-the Jathe next reservoir, and so on to the lowest vanese are rarely rich enough to engage
When the reservoirs are filled in large speculations. The Chinese genwith water, the husbandman ploughs bis sev. erally assist their calculations, at these eral fields, and then selecting an ari slamat, sales, by the use of a sort of ready reckor lucky day, he throws the paddy broad-cast over one or two fields, which we may call nur- oner, which consists of an oblong frame series. After the lapse of a month, when the of wood, divided lengthwise into two paddy has grown to the height of half a foot, unequal compartments, with parallel
cuts it out in sods, and separating the wires fixed across, leaving equal spaces roots, he plants them in sawahs, whose waters between each. On these wires are arhe has by this time lowered considerably, ranged balls, which can be shifted up and leaving only such quantities as will prevent down, two being in each small division, the ground from becoming hard and dry. and five in the larger one.” On the day
For the two ensuing months, he has no other occupation, until he is summoned to of sale referred to, the government made gather the rich yellow harvest by which his no less than a million of rupees. labor is rewarded."
The native manufacturers are not on.
a level with the progress of the people The cultivation of opium is strictly in agriculture. Their mechanical skill prohibited throughout the island ; but as is very inferior. All their agricultural the demand for it is great, and the rev- implements are rude. Their weaving of enue from its sale considerable, large cotton and silk fabrics is indifferent. quantities are imported from India and They make a coarse, unglazed, and unTurkey. It is due to the Dutch govern- artistic pottery. But they are excellent ment to say that though the traffic in boat-builders, and are clever in particular opium pours vast sums into their ex- departments of metal working. The celchequer, they discountenance its use by ebrated kriss, or native dagger, which almost all possible means. Venders of everybody wears, ladies and little boys it are bound “pot to sell above a given as well as men, is often of very exquisite measure when it has to be taken beyond design and workmanship, and commands the precincts of their shops," and licenses a high price in the market. The paper for its sale are granted to localities which made in Java from a sort of papyrus is are chosen yearly—a fresh selection of very poor. Their architecture, too, is places being made each year. The idea mean in the extreme. Nothing has been of this arrangement is that as the places attempted in the way of buildings since selected one year may be twenty or the conversion of the Javanese to the thirty miles from those chosen the next, Mohammedan faith. In many places are the poorer natives, who cannot afford to found the ruins of once beautiful structravel that distance frequently, for the tures, and yet beautiful even in their depurchase of the fascinating but deleteri- cay; but they all betray their relation to ous drng, are compelled to do without it. Ilinduism, a religion far more poetical, Still further to check the trade, the licen- and therefore more inspiring, than that ses for the sale of it are rated at such of Mohammed. The temples of Java are prices, that none but the wealthiest mer- unimposing and rude, partly because the chants can afford to buy them. The day people are not naturally inclined to their of the opium auction is one of the most creed, and partly because there is nothing exciting in the year. The auction takes in it to call forth artistic taste. place in the house of the regent, and the The Javanese are very musical. Their proceedings are opened by the secretary, music is always extemporary, but singuwho reads out the names of the towns larly sweet. The principal instrument and villages in the residency at which used in their orchestras is the gamalan, opium may be sold that year. A certain which consists of several gongs of vari