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three weeks of his accession, Pius, at politics. He was stone-blind. Early the request of his people, granted an study had first injured his sight; unskiledict for the organization of a National ful treatment in an operation had comGuard. This was the signal for the vig- pleted the mischief.

“ Believe me, ilance of Austria to rouse itself. The citi- said Giusti, writing of him in an ebullizens of Ferrara were rejoicing over their tion of enthusiastic friendship, “ believe newly acquired privileges, when a troop me, the more you know this man the of German soldiers was suddenly sent to more you feel his value, and the pain of seize the city, under pretence of defend- seeing him cut off and almost separated ing the Pope from the dangers his rash from himself. Born of a truly illustrious indulgence had brought upon himself. family, rich, learned, possessing a noble And now the Florentines felt it was time mind and a most noble heart, in excelto look to their nearest interests. The lent health, strong, handsome, in the liberty of the press was the point on flower of his age, you see him reduced which they joined issue with their rulers. to a struggle not to bend beneath the There were three parties among the lib. misfortunes which have rained upon erals: the two sections of the moderates, him, and which would make him despair led respectively by Baron Ricasoli (after- were he not the man he is. When we wards prime minister to Victor Emman- see such things, we have no longer a uel), and by the Marquis Gino Capponi; right to complain of our own trials. and the more ardent reformers, led by God knows best what he has ordered.” the gifted but somewhat visionary Pro- The 11th of September, 1847, was a fessor Montanelli, and by Francesco joyful day in Florence. Fifty thousand Guerrazzi, a turbulent advocate, and persons assembled in the Piazza Pitti to writer of "sensation" romances, who celebrate the institution of the National wielded great influence over the lower Guard, and to greet the prince who, by orders at Leghorn, and subsequently at inaugurating this popular measure, had Florence. Government met the malcon- given hopes that the days of Austrian tents by a partial concession, which supremacy were over. It was at this filled the good-humored people with joy time that Giusti composed his poem enand gratitude. But it was not in the titled Il Congresso dei Birri, in which nature of things that popular demands he supposes the members of the police should stop here; and about the end of force to meet and utter their lamentaAugust, the Florentines, following the tions over the encouragement rendered example of the Romans, demanded a by their deluded master to the pestilence National Guard. This, too, was granted; of free opinions. “Why," says one of the police system, the stronghold of au- these police agents," why speak smooth tocratic government, was abolished; and words to a rabble who would fain play as a further pledge of liberal intentions the master, or suppose that brute beasts on the part of the Grand Duke, the Mar- can have right and reason ?” quis Capponi was taken into the minis

“ Lisciare un popolo try. To no one of his friends did Giusti

Che fa il padrone ? look with such entire trust and adhesion

Suppone in bestie in political matters, as he did to this

Dritto e ragione ?" wise, liberal, and large-hearted noble No; the galley and the headsman are man, who, happier in this respect than

the true resource : himself, still lives to witness the resus

“ Ecco la massima citation of hopes which the events of 1848-49 were doomed for a time so

Spedita e vera;

Galera e boia, bitterly to disappoint. The magna

Boia e galera." nimity with which Capponi devoted himself to the interests of his country Ah! but this is not a time for violence, was of a rare and exalted kind; for he retorts another. Time was when the suffered from a calamity which would word Italy was only known to the learnhave held most men justified to the ed few; but now every nurse teaches it world and to their own conscience for to her pursling. Watch-is the advice preferring a life of ease and self-indul- of this speaker wbich side fortune gence to the stormy sea of revolutionary seems likely to favor, and take part ac

cordingly. A third then rises, and ex- middle of October he was forced to give horts that above all things the prince place to a levelling administration headand the people should be kept from ed by Montanelli and Guerrazzi. The understanding each other, for should a measure now demanded was a complireconciliation take place, farewell indeed ance with the summons issued by the to the golden age:

Revolutionary Triumvirate, which had

seized the reins of power at Rome, for a “Quando uno stato e sano e in armonia,

constituent assembly to meet in that Che figura ci fa la Polizia ?”

metropolis, and decide as to a form of Ten thousand copies of the Congresso government adapted for the whole Pendei Birri were sold in three days. insula. Leopold II. had yielded much,

The government moved with hesita- but here he resisted; till at last, at his tion indeed; and its popular measures ministers' persuasions, he promised his were hampered by timid restrictions. signature and assent: having done which, Still it moved; and on the 17th of Feb- he surreptitiously took flight with all his ruary, 1848, just before the outbreak at family, and repaired to the friendly shelParis, which resulted in the abdication ter of Vienna. Montanelli and Guerand flight of Louis Philippe, the Grand razzi, with an insignificant third, MazDuke, following the example of Naples zoni, now found themselves raised to a and Piedmont, granted a representative triumvirate on which the whole direction constitution to Tuscany. A few weeks of affairs devolved. Next followed a later he found himself compelled, in fur collision between Guerrazzi and the ther compliance with the will of his wandering prophet of “Young Italy," people, to send troops in aid of the na- Giuseppe Mazzini. That notorious agitional cause to Lombardy, where the tator arrived at Florence just as the war had commenced between Sardinia Grand Duke had fled. He urged the and Austria; and when Charles-Albert union of Tuscany with Rome, and the entered Peschiera in triumph, on the 1st immediate proclamation of a republic. of June, the culminating moment of his Montanelli and the man of straw, Mazfortunes, Leopold, with what grace he zoni, were gained. Guerrazzi alone opmight, went with his ministers to return posed the scheme, and urged that it thanks publicly for the Austrian discom- should be left to the decision of the confiture in the cathedral at Florence. stituent assembly about to be held for

The Tuscan parliament met at the all Italy. After some stormy discusend of that month. Giusti, in spite of sions, Guerrazzi was appointed dictator himself, for he was weak in health, and of Florence, while Montanelli consented distrustful of the hot-headed partisans to leave the city. And now, at the of innovation, was elected as one of the summit of his ambition, Guerrazzi set deputies. But the times were growing his sails to court the reäctionary breeze, too urgent for the indulgence of talk. which was setting in from the Austrian Reverses began to attend the arms of heavens. His object was, as he said, to Charles-Albert. The people waxed im- play the part of General Monk in Tuspatient. There was an agitation for cany, and to restore the Grand Duke deposing the reigning dynasty, and join with guarantees for the preservation of ing Tuscany to the Sardinian kivgdom. the constitution. Alexander Gavazzi, the demagogic priest, But his schemes were frustrated by added fuel to the flame. The lawyer Gu- an accidental street riot. The mob rose errazzi, ever restless and revolutionary, and demanded his life, under an impres. was acquiring more and more influence sion that he was betraying them. He both in Leghorn and Florence. At this was placed in safe custody by those who moment the Marquis Gino Capponi con- wished to preserve him from extremities. sented, at the Grand Duke's request, to Supported by Austrian troops, and styl. form a ministry: and the weight of his ing himself an “ Imperial Prince of the character, his high position and tried House of Austria,” Leopold II. returned virtues, beld the balance for a brief in- on July 28, 1849, having given his promterval between the terrors of the reäc- ise to maintain the constitutional form of tionists and the impetuosity of the demo- government. Three years later he abolcrats. For a brief interval only: for by the ished that constitution by proclamation,



Giusti survived the Grand Duke's re- / Guelphs and Ghibellines, and realizing, turn by eight months only. The dis- by the light of his own experience, the appointment of the hopes he had enter-motives which prompted the ardor and tained for his country precipitated the the scorn of Dante's verse.

It was action of disease on his enfeebled frame. under the roof of his friend, Marquis The sight of the Austrian uniforms in Capponi, that he breathed his last. The his native city almost broke his heart. conclusion of his life is related by Miss “We have the Germans in Pescia,” he Horner with much simple pathos, and wrote to Capponi. “They poured in we cannot do better here than transcribe unexpectedly this morning, numbering her words: about 2000; and it appears they intend

"Faith in the goodness and wisdom of the advancing upon Pistoia. I have neither Creator had sustained Giusti in his hope for heart nor health to bear the sight of the renovation of his country, amidst scenes them, and I stay at home in shame and the most hopeless, the most discouraging;

and the same faith did not fail him in the Yet Giusti had long mistrusted the contemplation of his own approaching end. issue of the Revolution. To satisfy

His time was not spent as if in the expecta

tion that death would change his soul in an him, reform should have proceeded on instant, either in being or in aim; or that in a broader basis, and with more cautious departing this life he was to enter upon a steps. He honored and trusted the gen. world alien to ours. As he lived, so he died, uine impulses of the people; but the filled with the thought of all that is pure and theories of demagogues were his abhor- great and good, and with that perfect Chrisrence and his dread. And demagogues tian charity which, while teaching him to distrusted him in turn, and branded his love his fellow-creatures whom he had seen,

led him to love the Father whom he had not honest moderation as timidity or even

Writing to the Marquis Capponi in worse. “ He helped us to pull down,” 1845, he expressed sentiments which appear said Guerrazzi of him," and then got to have continued with him to the end of his frightened at the ruins.” He said him-life: self, with a juster sense of his own ser- "I wish that reverence for that which is vices to the national cause, “They have above us should be united with reverence for

Faith in God and in our fellowforgotten that at the time when I spoke great men. out they all held their tongues. The

creatures go hand in hand; and the atheist (if cold looks of former political friends,

such there be, which I do not believe) is of the suspicion that he whose heart and and of himself. For this reason charity is

necessity the first enemy of the human race voice bad done so much to stir the wills the fruit of faith.' of his fellow - countryman was a rene- “Such faith could only be attained by the gade to the cause, was very bitter to wisdom of that true humility which confesses, him. Still, in anxiety for his country in our disappointed expectations, the limits he thought little of himself. When the of human knowledge and foresight, and the brief dream of liberty was at an end he immensity of that scheme of which it is only still refused to despair. “Ten years

permitted to man to know a part.” hence,” he said, in May, 1849, " we shall Giusti's last poem was a prayer, of know the truth." In just ten years which we offer the following translafrom that time Tuscany became a prov

tion : ince of free and united Italy.

Oppressed with doubt and sorrow, True to the advice he had long ago My soul thick shadows veil: given in his letter on education, Giusti O Lord, send gracious succor, sought and found his best consolation

Let Faith's bright beam prevail ! in study; and in that study which to a “Relieve it from the burden patriot's and a poet's heart was most That presseth it so low; . congenial. He devoted his last months O hear my groans and sighing, to the composition of a commentary on

I cast on thee my woe. the Divina Commedia, and was so com- * Thou know'st my life is ebbing pletely absorbed by his occupation, that Full surely day by day; he could speak of little else, and when Like wax before the furnace, confined to bed, would lie with books

Like snow in summer's rav and manuscripts round him, burying his “O to the soul that panteth thoughts in the politics of the ancient

Safe in thine arins to be,


Break, Lord, the earthly fetter

again with a real donkey's head on his That checks its flight to thee!” shoulders—(what was his name? it had “ During the severe winter of 1850, Giusti something to do with it)—and that bold was unable to leave the Capponi Palace. On young woman with nothing but a frill the 25th of March, a friend who visited him of gauze round her waist ! Oh, it was describes him as calm and happy, speaking shameful! I wonder the police don't of his approaching end. Six days later, put down those Shakspeare's plays; but on the 31st of March, he was seized with a they never do what they ought. When sudden rush of blood to the mouth, from the there is a row they merely rap the heads rupture of some vessel, and he had only time of the little boys outside the crowd, and to throw himself on the bed, when he expired."

encourage the fighting.

Well, I and my husband, Anthony He was buried with public honors, Slowman, (a better fellow never breathed though the government made some dif- the air of heaven before marriage and ficulty about granting them, and a mili- the Odd Fellows) with our daughter tary guard was appointed to prevent Keziah, fixed on going to the grand any outburst of popular feeling on the West of England Agricultural Show, occasion. The Church of San Miniato which took place, as everybody knows, received his remains.

at Xeter, on Thursday last. Not that I cared a bit about it; I never did. “ What's the use,

as I remarked to London Society.

Squire Jilly, of Brimblebog, but the

other day," what on earth is the use GOING TO THE CATTLE-SHOW.

of fattening a pig till it cannot see out No one, no, not my bitterest enemy, of the eyes which were given it by : can accuse me of pleasure-seeking; I good Providence to see with ?" No, defy them. The five-and-twenty years mark my words, there is sin and wickI have lived a dutiful wife and thrifty edness enough in the world without mistress at Slowmansleigh, like any snail that. Give me one of your home-bred in its shell-five-and-twenty years come porkers with legs that it can stand upon, blackberrying—I have never had a day and streaks of lean in the fat, and not go out with my husband but once a year or flying in the face of Nature with Thorso, at most; and then never till the ley's food to produce an animal as full lambing is over, and the hay saved, and of oil as an olive. the shearing done, and the corn carried, They told us the train would leave and one is worn out with work, and all Arrowbridge station at eight o'clock; the fine weather gone by. So that and as those impudent young railway when we make up our minds for a day's clerks always try to annoy people by enjoyment, I think I have as much putting their clocks ever so much before reason to respect it as if I had bought the proper time, I insisted on breakfast and paid for it in lawful money down; at five, and the trap ready to drive in at and I ask any sensible human being six to the minute; though we need not whether I am not right?

bave done so as it happened, for Keziah Now to reflect upon all I went and myself had to sit like monuments in through last Thursday, the very recol- a cathedral for three quarters of an hour lection makes my blood boil; as well it outside the station, before they came to may when I think of the infamous

open the doors, while Slowman kept But I will proceed as calmly as my kicking his heels and whistling, till he stinging nerves will let me, and will worked me into a fever with his fidgets. show some people that “mother's tem- Some folks are always so ready with per, when she is up,” is no worse than their “Didn't I say so ?” and “ Í knew . the lion's roaring in the play we went to how it would be,” as though they were see last winter at Arrowbridge theatre, wiser than King Solomon. But men are when the actor declared he would “ag- so provoking ! gravate his voice to roar as sweet as any At length there was quite a crowd sucking pig.” My goodness! Didn't assembled, and others coming in parties we laugh! I never shall forget in all every minute, so I suppose they thought my born days when the man came in it was time for the play to begin, for

they rung the telegraph bell, and up tore my flounce to a rag in his endeavors went the little door where they give out to save us. the tickets.

Whilst I was putting myself straight, “Now then, Mrs. S.,” says Slowman, and scolding Keziah right and left for 6 which class shall it be, bare boards or what had happened, up came Slowman cushions, or shall we run behind ?" with his mouth so full he could scarcely

“Mr. Slowman, I am ashamed of speak, though he was trying to hide it you," I replied; "you will be joking in by wiping the froth of Guinness's porter church next.”

from his lips with a new silk handkerSo I walked straight up to the counter, chief, cost seven shillings last Whitand spoke as loud as I could, for there suntide. were plenty to hear me - " Three first- “Here's a pretty go!” he said ; " do class carriage tickets and no bad half- you know, my dear (the hypocrite! merecrowns in the change, please," and then ly to cover the refreshments !), we shall went on and left Slowman to pay the have to wait here another hour at least, damage. As if we were going in com- as this train will not stop ?” mon second-class with all the tradespeo- I could have slapped any one in the ple and scruff of the town! Keziah and face. myself were not dressed for nothing, I “Not stop!” said I can assure you.

But at that moment some one close by Out upon the platform it was worse affirmed that the train was returning to than May fair. Hundreds upon hundreds take up a few; and sure enough it came I should say; I thought we should never backwards into the station some minutes get to the waiting room. French pianos afterwards, with the passengers glaring going, and men selling ginger-beer and out of the carriage windows at us like cherries reminded me of my little basket red-hot wild beasts. and shawl that I had put down by the The holloaing and shouting that endoor outside, and which, I need not add, sued was fearful. Talk of electioneering, I have never set eyes upon since. it is nothing to an excursion train! You

For more than two hours I remained only wanted the candidate to fling dead fanning myself with my handkerchief. rats and garbage at, and you would have I was ready to faint with heat and vex- believed yourself back, at the time of the ation, for my best gloves were lost in the Reform Bill, when Uncle Trueblue's basket, and Slowman had left me, as he windows were broken, and poor Aunt said, to see about when the trains re- Plumper miscarried with twins. turned in the evening (such a mockery, “I will never go by this horrid train," when there was not even a sign of one I cried, as Slowman, all excitement, was starting !), and Keziah kept whispering tugging like a madman at the handle of with some one at the half-opened door; a third-class door. “You may kill me till, at last, I lost all patience, and burst on the spot if you like, Mr. Slowman, but wildly out on the platform, resolved to nothing on earth shall induce me to go find what Slowman was up to, or to per- by it—there ! ” ish in the attempt. "Keziah," I cried I turned upon my heel and shut my hysterically, as I passed the bold girl, eyes, and pushed straight before me till who pretended afterwards that she had I found myself again in the waiting-room, not been talking to young Bullock who where through the window I could see farms the next estate to ours, as if I had Slowman running from carriage to carno eyes, and did not see him turning riage, as though the last day were come, away from the door as I came out. “Ke- and this was the only train to beaven. ziah!” I said, and seizing her by the arm How he could so demean himself! I I dragged her forward like a Samson to blushed for him. Though for the matter the edge of the platform, when, whirr ! of that, the people were all the same, jast went by a steam-engine with carriage as if they had whitings tied to their tails. after carriage. I screamed out with all I couldn't keep from talking to myself, my might, for it was a mercy and miracle as I stood there, to see them; and I fairly we escaped destruction; and as it was, stamped when I caught sight of our Kea rough fellow, seizing me by the gown, Iziah, as wild as any, hurrying off with that

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