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ed him, were furnished by the owners | rest of Germany from the degrading of the originals. There is a deep mean yoke of foreign domination. ing in these mystical designs and hiero. It was an accident-to some extent a Glyphic inscriptions, though intelligible trick played by destiny--that led 10 only to the initiated: but they serve to Gneisenau being born at Schilda. His show how art always has, and always mother had no other spot where she will, lend an effective hand to the pro- could lay her head. Her husband, the motion of knowledge.

Electoral Saxon and Protestant artillery We have preferred giving an outline lieutenant, Neithardt, had partly ab. sketch of Mr. King's plan of treating ducted her from her Catholic family. his subject to making our own comments, In those war times he left her behind which would have occupied too much with some worthy people at Schilda, space. He scarcely attempts to discuss and there she was delivered of a boy on the philosophic question of Gnosticism, October 27th, 1760. Only a few days' giving as his reason for abstaining from rest was granted to the mother.

For it, that, “As Matter treats of the doctrine Frederick the Great passed through alone, and only quotes the monuments Schilda en route for Torgau, where, on in illustration of his remarks, and the November 3d, he won one of the most present essay is designed to be subsidiary sanguinary battles in the Seven Years' to his invaluable treatise, I refer the read-War, and drove off the Imperialists left er to him for the complete elucidation there. Frau Neithardt followed the of the philosophy of the subject, and troops in a peasant's open cart, and on have given my chief attention to the her falling asleep through exhaustion on archæological portion (which is cursorily the cold November night, the child passed over by him), in which nothing slipped from her arms and fell on the has been done since the publications of ground. There a soldier found him, Chitlet and of Montfaucon."

picked him up, and brought him on the They who, not knowing anything of next morning to the despairing mother. the subject, may think it too abstruse, Many years after, Field-Marshal Gneisedry, and mystical to interest them, will nau described this rescue as the first of rise from the perusal of this valuable the many happy events of his life, and book with very different notions, or we said: “Ilad not that grenadier picked are greatly mistaken.

me up, the next cart must infallibly have passed over my body. But it was not to be!

My mother could never recover Bentley's Miscellany.

from the fatigue of the journey and the

fright of having lost me, and died shortly A SOLDIER OF TIIE OLD SCHOOL.* after."

The mother was dead, the father was On the wooded heaths which are visi: obliged to follow the drum. The boy ble on the banks of the Elbe lies one of was entrusted to strangers, to whom those small towns which people, with a Lieutenant Neithardt gave seventeen want of politeness, are accustomed to bad groschen as payment for his food, call nests. Its name is Schilda, and its lodging, and education. Gneisenau passpresent inhabitants can carry their heads ed his years of childhood at Schilda in high, for in this town a man was born harsh need and bitter poverty: He kep! who dealt the French many a heavy the geese and went barefooted to school, blow. Schilda is the birthplace of Count where he learnt to read from Luther's Veithardt von Gneisenau, who, being Catechism. As he observed at a later born on what was Saxon soil at the date: “I always had a lump of black time, helped, with other “foreigners,” bread, but not always soles to my shoes.” such as Blücher, Scharnhorst, Stein, and Thus he grew up to his ninth year, not Hardenberg, to raise Prussia from her without great advantage for himself, for deep fall, and liberate her as well as the from the country life he acquired a

healthy, strong, and active body; from * Das leben des Feldmarschalls Grafen Neithardt

his wandering about the heath, the mas01 Gircisenau, Von G. S. PERTZ. Vol. I. 1769- tery of a horse; from the struggle with 10). Berlin: Reimer.

want, a spirit of economy and indepen

dence on necessities; from Luther's Cate. career. If Würzburg has become a chism, a childish faith and pious dispo- focus of Catholic Germany, it owes it sition.

mainly to Canon Oberthür. He connectHe always carried about with him his ed, without prejudice, Catholic learning sole property—the prayer-book of his with Protestant, and his example bore deceased mother, and read it while good fruit. I would not dare to send watching the geese. One day a stroll my portrait, that of a soldier favored by ing journeyman found him on the heath fortune, to so eminent a man, if you

did and asked for alms. He gave the not expressly desire it, and if I did not stranger what he had, his prayer-book, regard such a wish as a command.” and the rascal went to Schilda and offer The beautiful Margarethe taught her ed it for sale. An innkeeper, who recog- young relative to speak French, and nized it, bought it and carried it to the brought him so far in English and boy's foster parents. They supposed Italian, that he could read books in both that Gneisenau had sold the book and languages. He received his regular wasted the proceeds, and therefore pun- school education from Jesuits and Franished him cruelly. A shoemaker, living ciscans. In his heart he never became opposite, looked with compassion on the Catholic, although he externally bechild of respectable people being ill longed to the Catholic Church. As treated. The father's abode was un- zealots have declared ere now that known to him, but he knew that his Gneisenau was a Catholic with head and grandfather was a Lieutenant-Colonel heart, it is necessary to quote his own Müller, who lived at Würzburg, and to explanation: “ When a boy I adhered him he wrote. Some time after a stately as little as possible to the Catholic coach, with driver and footman in grand Church, but shunned à formal going livery, stopped before the house and over to the Protestant, in order not to fetched the boy away. The latter could cause vexation to my Catholic relations. bardly be persuaded to enter the car. My children, both male and female, have riage, for he thought that the footman been brought up in the Evangelical faith, in the fine livery ought to ride inside, and confirmed in that religion.” while he rode on the box with the An elderly, but always merry, Jesuit coachman.

made Gneisenau a good writer. Ile Cheerful and happy years recompensed would not put up with any pothooks Gneisenau. for everything he had gone or orthographical errors.

" You cannot without in Schilda, though he had not know," he said, " what post of command missed it. The grandfather's house was. Heaven may reserve for you, and how one greatly visited. A great part of probably great things may depend on its attraction floated around a beautiful the facile and correct reading of

your niece, Margarethe, who was as lovely orders.” Gneisenau of course did not as she was well educated, for she spoke know that he should one day become a three foreign languages, and was thor- field-marshal, but the reproof was effectoughly conversant with German litera- ive. His inclination for music was not ture. " A Professor Herwig and a Canon remarked or developed. “When a lad Oberthür were of the most benefit to the of nine years of age,” he told his wife, new member of the family. From IIer- “ I went to a school attended by above wig Gneisenau obtained books, among four hundred boys. The preceptors others translations from the Iliad and were ordered to select a certain number Odyssey, and from Oberthür encourage of the boys, to train them as singers, ment. His affection for the canon exist- and thus fill up the choir. This was a ed for more than half a century. " That distinction that fired my ambition), as I Canon Oberthür is still alive,” he wrote was already so fond of music. One boy when field-marshal to Countess Rheden, after the other was summoned to the - fills me with joyful sympathy. The teacher's table, and a note was struck image of the handsome young man which he was to reach. My turn came, stands in lively colors before me. Wo- and I advanced timidly. The preceptor men and girls looked with pleasure on gave the note. I, who, as I learnt a few the young man, and the better portion years after, had a fine tenor voice, tried of the studying youth with envy of his to repeat it, but fear, hope, and a false

shame, made me grunt a sort of bass, | negligence by hard study, and began to which had such an effect on the pre-make himself conversant with politics. ceptor, that he looked at me angrily, From remarks he let fall, it is seen that and thrust me back contemptuously. he acquired a conviction that the old With despair in my heart and tears in system was breaking up, and a new era my eyes, tortured by shame, I returned advancing to assail the existing order of to my bench, and henceforth considered things. As a soldier, he felt himself myself unworthy of the exalted post of bound to compare the recruiting system a chorister.”

of the old world with the militia system At the age of seventeen Gneisenau of the new one. The best soldiers of proceeded to the University of Erfurt. Europe, in spite of their superiority in He found there his father, following the everything purely military, had been profession of a builder, but as he had unable to gain any enduring success made an unhappy marriage, he exercised over Washington's continental militia. no beneficial influence over his son. The On the other hand, the North American young student learned military mathe-army had passed through the most critimatics and the art of fortification, learned cal moments, and must have been infal. to draw plans so well that he was pub- libly annihilated in a more densely populicly rewarded for them, distinguished lated country with a less favorable terhimself in corporeal exercises, and be rain. It may be assumed with certainty came a jolly student, who, as the song that Gneisenau, through his study of the says, fought with the men and got on advantages and disadvantages which he well with the women. At Würzburg noticed in the American militia and the the money left him by his grandfather European recruited soldiers, was led to had been paid him, and in plain and the ideas which found vent in the Landcheap Erfurt he could have managed wehr system of Prussia from 1808 to with it. But he who was always poor, 1813. and did not know the value of money, Richly supplied with new ideas, and had spent his last groschen by the end with a scar on his upper lip, which he of the second term. Under such cir- acquired in a duel, our lieutenant, when cumstances, students of to-day generally in his twenty-fourth year, quitted the turn to literature. Gneisenau enlisted." foreign hemisphere. Storms accompa

He is said to have served in the im- nied him on his return; for three weeks perial hussar regiment Wurmser. At his vessel was obliged to lie in Deal the end of the first year's service he Roads, without his seeing England otherfought a duel, asked for his discharge, wise than in the distance, as no boat as he might anticipate a severe punish- could land. His garrison-town was Bayment, and proceeded to Ausbach. IIis reuth, where only a few years previously hopes of recommendations to the mar- the barrack-window on the esplanade grave's service did not deceive him. In was pointed out from which Gneisenau 1780, or when twenty years of age, he daily surveyed the pleasant landscape, entered as a cadet, was made a non-com- the beautiful shady walks, the rich meadmissioned officer in the following year, ows, and the circle of hills. He had a and in March, 1782, received his com- most agreeable existence, but the idle mission as lieutenant. From this time service of peace times offered no outlet he signed his name as Neithardt von for his energies. Officers who had Gneisenau, from a castle in Austria which fought in the American war were in dehis family had once possessed, but for- mand, and a request for an appointment, feited through their attachment to the which Gneisenau sent to Frederick the Protestant creed at the time of Ferdi- Great, met with a gracious reception. In nand's counter-reformation.

February, 1786, he reported himself at In April, 1782, Gneisenau set sail with Potsdam, and was more fortunate than the Ausbach troops for America. The Blücher and Landor had been before torch of war was on the point of extinc- him. His handsome, powerful person, tion, and there was no occupation for his dignified demeanor, and his noble, him in the field. He spent a peaceful expressive features, pleased the old genand profitable year, partly at Halifax, tleman: Gneisenau became a first-lieupartly at Quebec. He made up for his tenant in the Prussian army.

He was attached to one of the newly- | news to the officer's betrothed, a Fräuformed fusilier battalions, intended to lein Caroline von Kottwitz. The whole serve as rifles. All behaved capitally in fervor of her feelings broke forth when 1806 and 1807; before all, the lower Gneisenau told her how she had lost her Silesian brigade, to which Gneisenau was lover, and she produced a deep impresattached for twenty years. His com sion on the consoling friend, whose chiyrades made the same charge of theorizing alry was perhaps not quite unnoticed by against him, which he so often heard in the lady. When he saw her again the great campaigos of the War of Lib- months later, he asked for her hand. eration. He was called by them Herr He met with a favorable hearing from Magister. His studies had partially a the young lady, but the mother hesitated very prosaic motive: he was too poor to on account of his poverty. Hence she be able to share in the amusements of consulted his commanding officer, Major the officers; of his small pay he was von Püttlitz, a man of high reputation, obliged to divert so much for the pay- and the latter replied, “It is true that ment of old debts, that he had scarce he has nothing, but for all that he will five thalers a month. He managed, get through the whole world.” On this however, to keep his head just above guarantee she granted her maternal aswater by the most extreme economy and sent willingly, and the marriage cereby small earnings - for instance, by mony was quietly performed on October drawing plans for builders, etc.

19, 1796. Our author describes the lady, Ilis battalion was not ordered to take who was then twenty-five years of age, part in the Rhenish campaigns. He was in the following terms: “She had represent at the far less important war in ceived from her excellent mother a plain, Poland, but found no opportunity for religious, and domestic education, such distinguishing himself. The enemy's as was given at that time in the better bullets did not entail nearly such losses houses of the country gentry; she was on the Prussians as did the maladies a sincere Protestant, and the consciousproduced by the unaccustomed living in ness of duty penetrated her whole being, low and swampy regions. Gneisenau, and kept her up in many sad circumtoo, went through a very serious illness. stances. She possessed straightforward, On the march home he received his correct sense, and a calm, modest temcompany, and was thus released from perament; her wishes and inclinations his oppressive position. “For my ad- were confined to a narrow circle. Her vance," he wrote to his father, when behavior was amiable, simple, and uninforming þim of his promotion, “I have pretending. She felt happiest in the neglected every other route but the society of her family and friends; for the straight one. In my simplicity I believed great world she was neither educated that possibly punctuality and zeal in nor had any inclination, and to these duty, pleasure and ardor in exercising, reasons for retirement was added, in and an extension of my slight acquire- later years, a hardness of hearing, which ments joined to attention to my personal completely unfitted her for large parappearance, would interest my superiors, ties." and eventually lead me to my object. The first years of his pleasant and These qualities have been too amply satisfactory domesticity were spent by taken into account, and my bad habits Gneisenau in the usual military duties. forgotten. Hence duty, ever duty, and At times the service was fatiguing, and everything in the remotest degree con. kept him in constant exercise for nine nected with it, is my warning to young hours a day. In less disturbed times men.”

he turned with the old industry to his Gneisenau could now think about es- studies once more. He constantly watchtablishing a house of his own, and his ed the rising star of Bonaparte, and after six-and-thirty years strongly warned him the memorable fight for Mantua be never to do so. Soon after his arrival at the lost sight of the young and ambitious pleasant mountain town of Jauer, one of commander. While the majority of his comrades fell in a duel. Gneisenau his contemporaries only admired in the had been intimate with him, and received French hero the champion of glory and instructions to break the melancholy liberty, Gneisenau's sharp glance pene

New SERIES_Vol. I., No. 4.

33

trated the deceptive veil, and recognized for action. Gneisenau hurried on ahead the nucleus of unbounded selfishness and of the troops to Stettin, and thence to immeasurable ambition concealed behind Graudenz, the appointed rendezvous. it. At an early date he saw in Bona A short stay at Königsberg was departe the man who would employ, de- cisive for Gneisenau in many respects. ceive, and eventually ruin Prussia. Such There he first entered into_relations remarks frequently aroused among his with the princely house of Radziwill

, friends attention, contradiction, and even and other important personages. The compassion.

prince's house was the gathering-place Up to the year 1806 Gneisenau's life of many eminent men, as Stein, Hardenwent on in the same way. How he berg, Niebuhr, Humboldt, and Clausejudged of the state of affairs prior to witz. Among them Gneisenau found Jena, we see from the words which he the comprehension and appreciation wrote down in the valley of the Saal : which he wanted. The same cabinet As a patriot I sigh. During peace order which made him a major, also anmuch has been neglected, attention has nounced the abolition of the pigtail in been paid to trifles, the public's love of the Prussian army. A peculiar coincisight-seeing indulged, and war-a very dence! With all his heart he joined the serious matter-overlooked. The spirit men to whom Prussia would owe her of the officers is excellent, and from this salvation. In a memorial he advised a I can derive great hopes; but, but-" hearty use of the advantages of sea-comAt Saalfeld he fought in line against the munication, and a common enterprise of French tirailleurs. As he saw that he Prussian, Swedish, and Russian troops should lose all his men by this formation, in the rear of the French. The English he at once resolved to take open order, were merely to supply the arms, and and thus prevented the enemy's advance. were ready to do so, but the king soon On the retreat he received a bullet in inclined to negotiations with the French. the leg, but managed to limp off the In Hormayr's Life Pictures from the field with his fusiliers and join the Prince War of Liberation will be found much von Hohenlohe.

material for the appreciation of that plan. On October 14th ensued the battle of Napoleon had ventured too far into a Jena, at which Gneisenau was present hostile country, separated bimself from on horseback. In the turmoil of the his operating base and his resources, and flight he was by the prince's side. The hence an attack in his rear, combined frightful experiences of this day, on with a popular insurrection, must be which he retained his head and heart, very dangerous for him. But the king produced a deep impression upon him. was despondent, and as he finally refused He had learnt that the bravest army, his assent, the whole scheme fell through. when under the pressure of terror, could In order to get entirely rid of the planbe disbanded into helpless mobs, and maker Gneisenau, he was sent with four be resistlessly destroyed. Gneisenau act- newly-raised battalions into East Prused on the same principle as Napoleon sia. The new year found him at the employed at Jena, when, on the night head of his men, who were nearly all of June 18, 1815, he ordered every barefooted, in spite of the awful cold, man in the Prussian army capable of and dressed in linen, on the march to moving a leg in pursuit of the defeated his new destination. The procession French.

was a very wonderful one. Some sol In Magdeburg he received orders to diers wore long coats, others short ones; provide provisions and fodder for the some of them had three-cornered hats, further retreat to Stettin. In all the others round ones; others, again, fur towns he arranged that bread should be caps, and a few, nightcaps. This motley baked and cattle killed, peas, potatoes, collection the mere sight of which bread, spirits, and beer, procured from would have turned the stomach of a the nearest villages, and billets provided. general of the old school-set out three It can be solely ascribed to the eventual months later to defend Dantzig, gained fatal desertion of the line of march that immortal renown under the walls of Prince Hohenlohe's army did not reach Kolberg, as a reward for their exPrenzlau in good condition, and ready ploits were attached to the king's newly

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