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but be aware that a busy emulation was / whom he had taken it into his head to at work among the benches of the audi- have the refreshment of a paper controtors, leaving few absolutely unaffected, versy. There were phrases of his which and that, where there did chance to be a he had flung out on such occasions with young mind of due capacity, there was tongue or pen—one of them being this probably no one of the logical lectures dreadful one, “the brutal ignorance of the from which it would not come away clergy”—that were among the favorite exercised and supplied as it could hardly quotations of his admirers in the college have been in any hour elsewhere, and no quadrangle. In the calm, bold face and one of the metaphysical lectures from powerful though not tall frame of Sir which it would not come away glowing William, as he was to be seen any time with some new conception extending after we had been talking of these things, the bounds of its ideal world. Most evi- there was no difficulty in recognizing the dent of all was the power that lay, here sort of man from whom such manifestaas in other parts of the system of the tions of passion might have come, and in university, in the fact of a personal lead- whom there might be plenty more of the ing exerted to the uttermost. It may like, if more were called for. Alas! hardly be known to those who never saw within a year or two, I was to see him Hamilton, and whose knowledge of him physically a very different Sir William is only by inference from his writings, from what he was when this impression what an impression of general massive- might have been most easily received ness and manliness of character was given from his appearance. Ere I left Edinby his very look, and what an equipment burgh he was going about crippled by of passionate nature went to constitute the paralysis which had suddenly killed the energy of his purely speculative rea- one side of his noble frame, though it
Calm as was his philosophic de- had left his great intellect utterly unmeanor, clear and unclouded as he kept touched. Year after year I was to hear the sphere of abstract investigation or of him, when I inquired, as still going contemplation around him to the farthest about in this sadly crippled state, visibly range to which his reason could sweep, ageing and ailing, and his hair grizzling there was no man who carried in him a and whitening from the brown which I greater fund of rage or more of the spirit remembered, but still carrying on his of a wrestler. Stories, perfectly authen- classes personally or by deputy, still tic, are and were told of him which invest reading or thinking night after night in his character with an element almost of his library, and now sending forth more awe—as of the agony, relieving itself by actively than ever volumes in which, paroxysms of prayer, into which he was when he should be gone, some fragments thrown by the sense of his not being of his soul should remain. It is not sufficiently prepared with lectures to meet longer ago than May, 1856, since he his class in the first session after his ap- died, leaving the fragments to tell their pointment; or of the fright into which tale. he once threw old David Irving, the Of the Professors of the Medical Fackeeper of the Advocates' Library, when ulty in Edinburgh, worthily keeping up, one of the rooms of the library from in time at the university, the high repuwhich Sir William wanted a volume tation of the Edinburgh Medical School, chanced to be locked by official orders, I do not remember that I dropped in and David demurred about giving him upon the lectures of any except old the key; or of the vehement outbreaks Jameson, the mineralogist
. He was of his temper occasionally even among Professor of Natural History, and had his colleagues of the Senatus Academicus, been such since 1803. It was pleasant when his language about individuals to look at the thin, venerable man in among them, or about the whole body if whom the science of the last century was they stood in his way, would be very far linked with that of the present, and to from measured. More patent to the hear him proceeding in his dry and expublic was the violence of his combats act way from this to that, duly traversevery now and then, on some topic or ing every bit of the map of his subject, other, with any man or class of men with whether there was any thing of interest
in it or not, and formally winding up at and legal. You might be an active the end of every topic with some such member of two or three of these sociefarewell phrase as This, then, is the ties, if you were so inclined; and, natural history of the Dolphin.” One though the societies were not then assolecture of his has haunted me more than ciated in a federal body as they have I should have expected. It was on the been since, there were occasional meetcause of the seeming blueness of space. ings of several societies in common for He enumerated the various hypotheses great conjunct debates by their assemon the subject, and dwelt on that which bled champions. It would be easy to he was disposed to make chiefly his own. I make fun of my recollections of these * But I do not think he concocted out of gatherings, and there was absurdity all the hypotheses together any satisfac- enough in many of them. But to this tory explanation; and, as I really dol day I have known nothing of the sort not know yet with any adequate dis- better on the whole, and it remains a tinctness the imperative cause of the question with me whether the exciteblueness of the sky, it sometimes occurs ment and mutual invigoration afforded to me as a horrible imagination that by them were not that agency in the space might have been blood-colored, or university-life of Edinburgh which gave copper-colored, quite as comfortable for zest and unity to all the rest.Oh, what itself, without the least ability on our essays, on all things human and divine, part to prevent it.
we read and heard; what criticisms, comNowhere in the university was the plimentary or sarcastic, we pronounced crossing of influences from the different on the essays; what traits of character, faculties and professors, and the impor- what comicalities, what revelations of tation at the same time of independent unfledged power, came forth in our deinfluences, more observable than in the bates; how we did go at the question debating societies. All the world over whether Mahomet was an impostor; academic debating societies are, I sup- how some of us defended the execution pose, very much the same; and to de- of Charles I., but others did not see their scribe the debating societies of Edin- way to regicide consistently with the burgh University would therefore be use- Decalogue; how we did anticipate the less, unless it were to be done with very parliament in abolishing the corn laws ! ample local illustration, and plenty of And then, when we turned out late personal anecdote. The very great im- at night, flushed with our oratory to portance of the debating societies as a take several ways homeward non-official part of the apparatus of this in groups, how the rhetorical mood university, deserves to be noted. In and the nimbleness of invention would addition to the famous “Speculative So- last, and what laughs and flashes of wit ciety," of which all the world has heard there would be along the lines of the from Lockhart, Lord Cockburn, and lamp-posts! I remember, as if it were others, and which still existed, though but last night, the going home of one in a more remote state of connection such group. We had passed the South with the actual life of the university than Bridge on our way from the university, in its palmy days, there were I know and had entered Princes street and not how many societies, either general turned westward. There was among us or special, all flourishing, and all baving one whom we all respected in a singular their weekly or fortnightly evenings of degree. Tall, strong-boned, and granmeeting within the walls of the college. 'ite-headed, he 'was the student whom There was the “Theological Society,” Sir William Hamilton himself had sigwhich had existed for nearly a century; nalized and honored as already a sterling there was
“the Diagnostic Society,” thi nker, and the strength of whose logic, some thirty years old ; there was "the when you grappled with him in arguDialectic Society," also of considerable me nt, seemed equalled only by the age; there was the Metaphysical So- strength of his hand-grip when you met ciety,” recently founded by the more him or bade him good-bye, or by the prominent of the young Hamiltonians; man ly integrity, and nobleness of his and there were other societies, medical character. He was also the gentlest and
kindliest of human beings. But, sud- the peninsula; for hardly more specimens denly, when we were in that part of of Italian sculpture anterior to the year Princes street pavement which is nearly 1600 can be found, even in the local opposite to the side of the Scott monu- museums, than of the frescoes to which ment, there appeared before us, in the the artists before 1500 committed their dim light of approaching midnight, a best thoughts and their most graceful spectacle which strangely moved him. /images. And, out of Italy, excepting in It was one of those rotatory imps—the some degree our own recent collection at first of his order, I should think, in Edin- South Kensington, only a few scattered burgh—who earn pennies by tumbling pieces can be found with authentic right heels over head with rapidity five or six to the names of Donatello, Ghiberti, or times continuously. To discern pre- Luca della Robbia. Most of the specicisely what it was at that time of night, ' mens lately brought from the Campana 'especially as the phenomenon was then a collection by the French Government
one, was exceedingly difficult. are simply trash; and we fear that many Maddened, as it appeared, by the sight a cherished Cellini chasing, in private or of the revolving creature, our friend public hands throughout Europe, must rushed at him, hitting at him with his surrender its title before the remorseless umbrella, and sternly interrogating, logic of facts. Add to this that the illus“What are you?" Calling up from the trations hitherto published of the earlier pavement, “ I'm a wheel, I'm a wheel,” Italian sculpture (as those in Cicognara the thing continued to revolve, fast as the and D’Azincourt) are little better than Manx Arms set a-whirling, full half the diagrams, while for the history we have distance between two lamp-posts. Un- had to rely upon the vague notices of satisfied by the information, and still Vasari, the untranslated essays of Cicogpursuing the thing, and striking at it nara, and a few scattered lives of Michel with the hook of his umbrella, ran our Angelo and his contemporaries, in which friend, while we gazed on with amaze- the characteristics of the age of Leo have ment. A great awe fell upon us; and occupied a larger space than the art of even now, when I think of debating so- which they were the last representatives cieties, or of life itself, I seem to see the Mr. Perkins has hence a fair field. The rotatory imp in the lamplit darkness of two handsome quartos before us, though Princes street pursued by the frenzied complete in themselves, embrace about metaphysician.
one-half of the subject which he has undertaken; and we wish him the success
to which taste, diligence, and disinterThe Saturday Review.
ested devotion entitle him. He has not, THE TUSCAN SCHOOL OF SCULPTURE. perhaps, treated his matter with the bold
originality and exhaustive research of M. The last six months have been unusu- Cavalcaselle, although not a few correcally fertile in valuable English contribu- tions of popular blunders, and many facts tions to the history of Italian art. Read- new to the English reader, are here colers will remember our recent notices of lected; and his judgments are marked the works of Mrs. Jameson and Lady by fairness and a true feeling for art. Eastlake, and of Messrs. Crowe and Cav- The sketches of Italian history which Mr. alcaselle. What the latter writers have Perkins has introduced, if occasionally done with signal success for the painters they lead one away from sculpture, are is now done for their fellow-laborers in nevertheless essential to a clear comprebronze and marble by an American gen- hension of the peculiar conditions under tleman, who has devoted, we hear, twenty which the sculptors worked; the style is years to the investigation of his subject. clear and pleasing, and the engravings As with the Lives of the Painters, this are by far the best with which any recent investigation had to be mainly conducted book of sculpture, at least in England, has .by diligent visits of exploration through' been illustrated. * Tuscan Sculptors, their Lives, Works and
The small city of Pisa was at first, to Times. With Illustrations. By Charles C. Per- ;
Italian sculpture, what Florence was to kins. 2 vols. London: Longman & Co. painting. The initiative taken in the
former art by Niccola Pisano was so centre for the combination of spire and lately noticed in this journal that we need arcade and pinnacle which the design of do no more now than add that, while the first architect would have probably agreeing with Mr. Perkins in his estimate given us. Such an error would have of the probable impulse given by this been natural in Mr. Joseph Woods, or very remarkable man, we must also con- any of the old fashioned worshippers of cur with Mr. Ruskin and Mr. Crowe in the Renaissance pur sang; but from one holding that the peculiar antique direc- who, like Mr. Perkins, estimates with tion of his art was without effect. At sense and severity the lifelessness of that any rate, his son Giovanni, and his dis- once-vaunted movement, we should have tinguished pupil Arnolfo del Cambio expected better things, architecturally (formerly known as Da Lapo), show no speaking: clear traces of leaning to the Greco But we return to the main subject of Roman style of Niccola. Mr. Perkins the book before us, of which, as in the gives a good print of the singular alle case of Mr. Crowe's, fertile as it is in gorical group of the city of Pisa by new facts and judgments of interest, we Giovanni, in which he finds a German can do no more than give an outline or fantastic element; and another of his which, we hope, will send our readers to celebrated monument to Pope Benedict the original. The school of the Pisani X. at Perugia. This is an excellent is succeeded by those sculptors whom specimen of the strictly Christian tomb. our author describes as “the allegorical” The Bishop is laid out on his couch, the -a title to which "the Giottesque" curtains of which are held back by angels, might perhaps be preferable. Andrea his face bearing that peculiar expression da Pontedera heads this school; his nine -neither precisely of death or of sleep, years' labour on the beautiful gates of but rather something midway between the Florentine Baptistery, lately noticed these sister-powers—which the early by us, might be a useful lesson to the too artists were so successful in suggesting. Often slovenly sculptors of modern EngThe modern caricature of this species of land, were they artists in mind as well monument was exhibited two years ago as in title. Orcagna, Nino of Pisa, and in the cold and inane lifelessness with Balduccio are Andrea's best known folwhich a recumbent figure of Lord Her- lowers. Of these, the last carried the bert was modelled by one of the worst Tuscan style northward under the patrecent offenders in sculpture—Mr. Philip ronage of Azzo Visconti, tyrant of Milan, - who, we believe, under the patronage in which city he has left numerous speciof Mr. Scott, now enjoys the privilege of mens of his graceful hand. Balduccio's disfiguring St. George's Chapel.
principal work, the lovely allegorical An interesting sketch of Arnolfo's figures of which show Giotto's influence, architectural labors is next given. Seve- is the tomb of the so-called Saint, Peter ral of the most characteristic buildings of Verona, in the church of San Eustorof Florence are due to him—namely, the gio; the story of whose life, as recounted Palazzo Vecchio, frowning with moun- by Mr. Perkins, is one of the many tain weight over that narrow square proofs which medieval history, honestly which is equally rich in art and in his read, affords that no boast can be idler torical memories; Or San Michele, a than that of the Latin communion which church soon afterwards decorated by appeals so strongly to weak hearts—the Orcagna and by Donatello; and that assertion of her perpetual unity. Last in stately Duomo of which the outside bears this first stage of sculpture we may place witness to the exquisite taste of Arnolfo, the great Orcagna, who like the majority while the interior exhibits the almost of the artists here noticed, was not less universal inability of the Italians to distinguished for skill' in architecture. fathom the secret of the Gothic style. To this cause the profound effect which But we must take the liberty to differ the mediaval Tuscan sculpture produces decidedly from Mr. Perkins in his state- upon cultivated spectators may be, we ment that the Duomo has gained by the think, justly ascribed. In spite of the substitution of that clumsy octagon of praise bestowed by fervent admirers, we tiles which Brunelleschi hoisted up to the must hold that neither the statuary nor
the buildings of that period and country let us add for the benefit or the vexation reach, with very rare exceptions, high of collectors, are now counterfeited with excellence in their respective arts. It is such skill, and in such abundance, that, as idle to place the Duomo of Florence like those by Bernard Palissy, hardly any on an equality with the Cathedral of certificate of genuineness, except where Rheims as to speak of the carvings of we can have distinct historical proof, can Donatello or Michel Angelo in the terms be trusted. We know of one dealer in appropriate to the work of Phidias. But Florence who sold six successive reliefs an effect on the mind hardly inferior is by Della Robbia, from the same church produced by the intimate and vital union wall, to six too enthusiastic amateurs of between the masterpieces of the delight- ancient Tuscan workmanship. The wise • ful sculptors of Tuscany and the architec- will pay a visit to the Ginori works at ture which enshrines their treasures. Doccia, and content themselves with the And all our English efforts to restore same thing at the price of a reproducarchitecture are hopeless and valueless tion; or there are skillful hands, much until we have men sufficiently gifted and nearer England, which will supply them trained to model the human form, no less with Luca or Andrea at discretion. But than to design the elevation.
we will not dwell on this torturing topic. The second great epoch of Tuscan Mr. Perkins furnishes a very curious sculpture sees the art fairly transferred history of the equestrian group of Barto that city which was, at the same time, tolomeo Colleoni, cast for Venice by the the centre of painting—Florence. It great Verocchio. He gives no small may be parted into two main sections. share in this justly celebrated work to In the earlier, the influence of the Re- Verocchio's successor in completing the naissance is slightly felt; the religious group, a certain Venetian-Leopardi. elements are yet predominant; gradual We must demur, however, to some of improvement in studying natural form is the praise here awarded to Leopardi, as perceptible, and grace and life more and we can hardly help ascribing to him the more penetrate the bronze and the mar- head of the horse, which is precisely the ble; but the leading wish is to express least satisfactory portion of the group; Christian sentiment in a way .which, although Mr. Perkins is probably correct compared with the Greek, inight be in assigning the style of the drapery at called pictorial rather than plastic. Our any rate to Venetian influence. A notice limits will allow us little more than a list of the similar group modelled by Veof names. Ghiberti, although so far im- rocchio's greater pupil, the all-accombued with the singular and (we must plished and all-capable Leonardo, is also add) the shallow classicality of that age given. This is enough to convince us as to date a visit to Rome in the 440th that we have lost the one work of Italian Olympiad”-a date which naturally de- sculpture which might really have borne feats Mr. Perkins' powers of calculation, comparison with the Hellenic, in that seeing that an Olympiad covered four model which was destroyed by the years—is perhaps the most complete ex- French soldiery of Louis XII., as their ample of the style just characterized. successors, under Napoleon, defaced Le Greater power and variety, with a clearer onardo's "Last Supper.” So France perception of the limits of sculpture, be- "protects the arts”-a protection, let us long to Donatello, whom the author ap- add, too well appreciated in Germany, parently regards as the central or typical Spain, and Italy, to require any comartist of the Florentine school. A bas- ment. relief of “Dancing Children," beauti After these artists the decline comfully engraved after the original at Prato, mences. Study of form for form's sake, seems to us to merit this praise more study of finish for the sake of finish, than the somewhat meagre, though fa- study of grace as an exhibition of balmous, “St. George” from Or San Mi- anced lines, all led the sculptor away chele. Desiderio da Settignano, Mino from the object of his art—the expression da Fiesole, Luca della Robbia and his of religious sentiment or pathetic thought firm or family, may be grouped with through metal or marble. Then came Donatello. The Robbia earthenwares, the last and fatal change which, from