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Pollajuolo to Gibson, Mr. Perkins justly German and narcotic, life by Herr considers has practically ruined Italian Grimm, of which a translation has just sculpture. The dead subjects of Greek been issued, contains the strange stateor Roman mythology were substituted' ment that the letters so long preserved for subjects which appealed to living by the Buonarroti family have been hearts and heads. In place of the sacred handed over to the State authorities, figures of Christian art, we have the foul with an injunction to forbid any revelarevel of the Satyr, the heavy extrava- tion of their contents. Should this irragance of the Neptune, or the nastiness tional entail be broken through (as comof the painted Venus. But it is only mon sense demands), we may hope to the earlier portion of this “road down- return to a subject which is little likely wards” (for no one can deny real, though to lose its interest as a tale, or its immisdirected, creative power to Polla- portance as a lesson. juolo, Torrigiano, or Giovanni Bologna) which falls within Mr. Perkins' province. To these artists, with the less important

Blackwood's Magazine. though once European reputations of Sansovino, Bandinelli, and others, he

DAY AND NIGHT. has devoted the same conscientious labor The days were once too short for life and mewith which he has illustrated their pre- The sunset came too soon—the lingering dawn decessors. But we can only glance at Awoke the world too late; the longest day this subject, adding that Mr. Perkins Still lacked that hour supreme, which, flying far gives—to the dismay, again, of collectors And said, "I come, I come!" yet came not yet,

On the horizon, beckoned as it fled, —the brief list of best-authenticated Though longed and looked for still from day to day. specimens of the base but skillful Cellini, and that his print of the “ Jonah,” Too short for life-too short for hopes that made ascribed to Raffaelle, fully confirms that Too short for all the joys that had to be

Within the visible form a larger lifeimpossibility of successfully “ cutting in” Conceived, and planned, and fathomed in their to sculpture from painting on which we time. dwelt in the course of last autumn. And but for glories sweet of stars and moon, Michel Angelo is of course the great It had been hard to sutter the long night

And dreams that were more sweet than any stars, name—we may truly say, the one and The silent night, that neither spoke nor stirred, only great name-during the last days But with the shadow of its folded wings of the Tuscan school. Once more, in Shut out the ardent eyelids from the day. Mr. Perkins' pages, we traverse that

Thus was it on the other side of Time; most inelancholy of all artist-biographies While set the path wound dubious up the heights -the misdirected training, hesitating Through mists that flew aside as the winds blew between the frescoes of Ghirlandajo and Betimes, and opened up, in glimpses sweet, the counsels of Lorenzo; the design for A roval road that clomb the very heavens

A road divine, that, still ascending, led the Julius monument of colossal impos- O'er virgin heights by no man trod before, sibility; years wasted in ignoble dispute, And vales of paradise

, where vulgar foot or buried in the quarries of Cararra ; the Had ne'er profaned the flowers: a road for kings, insults of the unworthy, the cabals of Worthy of one who in his right of youth

Was heir of all things worthy, and was born the jealous; and last, but alas! not least, To be all that was possible to man. in the long series of misfortune, the sensitive nature and obstinate disposition of And on that path amid the rising mists the misunderstood and unhappy Buo- Great figures stood, that, vailed from head to foot,

Waited the traveler's coming; wondrous shapes, narroti. A sadder picture, we repeat, On whom hot Fancy rushing forth before, can hardly be found. Even the Sistine Curious of all things, blazoned hasty names. “Jeremiah” of the great painter-great- Love this, and that one Joy; and one beyonder here, as is now generally recognized, Grief: but all vailed, the foremost like the last. than he was in sculpture-does not express more predominance or hopeless-And on this road there was no need of night. ness of sorrow. But the materials for a The hours were tedious that detained and scaled complete judgment on Michel Angelo The curious eyes, the hasty lips, and heart, have not yet been published, at least in No need of night; but only light, and space,

e. England. The elaborate, but eminently And time, to be all, see alî, learn and know

The sweet and bitter of cach unknown thing, This is the very morn, the selfsame morn, And of all the mysteries the soul and heart. That was so bright of old; the gladsome day,

That to my neighbor with a friendly voice Now it is changed: up to the mountain-head Says sweet, “ Arise! arise! the sun is up, Now have we climbed apace, both life and I. And life waits smiling at the chamber door;" The mists are all dispersed, the pathway clear, For I am not so rapt in my poor woes And they who waited on the road have laid As to suppose the cheerful world has grown Their vails aside, and as they know are known. Dim with my shadow. 'Tis enough to say, The very air that breathes about the height I am so deep discouraged with my life, Has grown articulate, and speaks plain words, Although I have but thrid the maze half way, Instead of the dear murmurs of old time,

That the fair daylight smiles and strikes at me And of all mysteries there lasts but one.

Like one who, learned in all familiar ways

Of love, turns traitor; and the rapid hours All things have changed; but this most changed Have none so sweet as that which brings the of all,

dark: That I have learned the busy day by heart, Night, that can blur the boundaries of time, And lived my hour and seen the marvels fade, And open graves, and build the fallen house, And all the glooms have oped their hearts to me, And light the household lamp that burns no more. And given their secrets forth. I have withdrawn i The vail from Love's fair face, and Joy has flasheid 'Twas sweet to live when life was fresh and Upon my soul the sunshine of his eyes,

young ; And grief has wrapped me in his bitter cloak; It would be sweet to live if life was old, And, pausing in the mid-way of my life,

And watch, while the faint current ebbed its last, Like him who once scaled heaven and fathomed With calm dim eyes through softened mist of hell,

age, The path obscure* and wild has made me fear. The heavenly headlands heaving slow in sight.

But, pausing thus upon the mountain-top, So now, if there be any praise to say,

To see the dizzy turnings wind below Or song to sing, 'tis of the tender night

All clear and bare, with nought that can be hid; The night that hushes to her silent breast To know that Love, fled from the world, can pass All weary heads, and hides all tears, and stills Into a helpless longing after love; The outcries of the earth. The watchful days To know that Joy flashes his angel wings Gaze in my eyes like spies of fate, and laugh A moment in the sunshine, and is gone; My poor pretence at patience all to scorn;

To know-oh heaviest knowledge of the whole!-But night comes soft like angels out of heaven, That Sorrow kills not, and that life holds fast And hides me from the spying of the light. Its sordid thread long after murderous blows

Have made of it a very life-in-death. And I were glad, if ever glad I were,

All this to know: yet, to the distant west To think a day was done, and so could be Turning a steady countenance, to resume No more, by any power in earth or heaven, The toilsome way, and bear the bitter cross : Exacted o'er again; and Night and Sleep The martyr's passion were less hard to bear. Hold wide the darkling doorways of escape From life and the hard world : well might it And think ye not the darkling night is dear chance

To one with this chill landscape in his eyes? They should shut close behind my flying feet The gloom that blots the weary pathway out, So fast as never more to ope again,

And the dear sleep, which still 'tis possible So might I wake e'er I was half aware

Might stcal the traveler unawares to heaven? Among the angels in the faithful heavens, And ope my eyes upon the Master's face, Thus nightly to the tender night I make And, following the dear guidance of his smile, A welcome in my heart as sweet as death, Find in my arms again what I had lost :

Though sometimes sad as dying. Oh, good Such are the gentle chances of the night.

night!

Beautiful night! that in thy dewy hand But the light morning comes and wakes the world, Dost hold one sweet small blessing like a star; And, switt dispersing all the dews and clouds, By this dear gift I am by times beguiled, Comes to my bed and rouses me once more In all my heaviness and weariness, To take my burden up: and with keen eyes To hold myself beloved of God; for God Inquisitive, that search into my soul,

Gives (He has said it) His beloved sleep. Keeps watch upon me while I slowly fit

M. O. W. O. To my galled neck the aching yoke againAs curious to behold how souls are moved-And mocks, and says: “Not yet escaped ? not yet

Popular Science Review, Escaped ? take up thy cross :' and thus I rise WAVES OF HEAT AND WAVES OF And bind my cross upon me evermore.

DEATH.

BY B. W. RICHARDSOX, M. A., M. D.
** Nel mezzo del carmin di nostra vita

WHILE our sanitarians are busily oc-
Mi ritrovai per una selva oscura
Che la diritta via era smarrita

cupied in pointing out those evils of our Ahi quanto a dir qual era e cosa dura

social condition, on which many disQuesta selva selvaggia ed aspra e forte Cho nei pinsier riuuova la paura!"

eases rest that need never be seen or

developed but for our own misdoings, From an unreasonable blindness to sanand while it is our duty to listen to what itary defects, we have gradually drifted they have to say, and to follow the sim- into an equally unreasonable measureple precepts which they lay down for ment of them. In regard to spreading our guidance, it is well for us not to lose diseases we hear now almost exclusively sight of the all-important fact that there of one cause—drains and the smells are certain influences at work in the thereof. The evidence is conclusive that production of diseases over which the certain disorders—some forms of consanitarian has no control. In some sens- tinued fever, for instance-are due to es, indeed, sanitary science, in the midst emanations from sewers and drains; and of great achievements, has, to a certain it is possible that some of the other comextent, been an obstruction to scientific municable diseases are, under special progress. This is no paradox. When circumstances, communicated by the our first sanitary reformers commenced same emanations; but, after all, the their great works they had such a strong drain is only one means for the propacase in their hands, they had such prom-gation of a limited class of spreading inent evils to contend with, they had disorders, and if we continue looking such flattering promises to offer, such only into the drain for all this class, as rewards for the waiting, hoping masses, we have been looking for some few years and such triumphs for the zeal and la- past, we shall lose by our devotion to bors of their own disciples, that when the contemplation more than we ever they once obtained a hearing they were gained by being first directed to that heard to the exclusion of nearly all else. I line of research. We will not forget the Oh! the happy days that were to come drain, however, nor the bad smell, nor —the millennium of health, how near bad water, nor uncleanliness in general, was its advent! Henceforth, we were as causes of diseases. That would, innot to cure diseases in detail, but to pre- deed, be mistaken policy; but we will vent them in phalanx. The epidemics suppose all the drains pure, all the water were to be wiped out, and the nation unexceptionable, and every dwellingthat nurtured them was to be stamped house and the body itself clean, and , uncivilized, gross, and dangerous-a gi- what then? Physical millennium ? No! gantic upas tree, infecting a world else- Death finds dirt an ally, but he can do wise physically pure.

without it, and although cleanliness is I, who have been one of the stanchest sometimes his opponent, it is more comadvocates of sanitary progress, can not, Imonly a neutral. hope, be doubted, in repeating that the Without a word against sane sanitary results of sanitary work, although they science, I want on this occasion to point have fulfilled much, have not been pros- out that there are in nature certain agenecuted without some disadvantage. Icies at work which determine many of think that they have tended rather large- our common and fatal diseases, and ly to damp the energies of many able which lie apart from the ordinary social and observant men in that line of medi- conttol of man, according to his present cal inquiry which professes to treat dis- wisdom and acquirement. To put the ease; I fear they have thrown a cloud matrer in a very strong light, let us look of skepticism over the whole art of treat- at a man struck dead by a flash of lighting; and I am certain they have given ning; that man did not die from any rise to the invention of sundry theories cause over which sanitary science could and speculations, which do not account exert control: he died, and we all confor various common and all-important fess the fact, from the effects of an exphenomena. But that which is most to ternal force which is out of our hands: be complained of is the tendency to there is no reason why science should which they have led, of ignoring pervad- not ultimately be wise enough to come ing influences, active in the production in and restore the man after the accident, of disease, and of supplementing the but it could hardly make every necessary knowledge of these influences by refer- protection against the accident. Just ring forms of disease that have been as purely external in their origins, and observed to some insanitary condition. invincible in their powers, are certain NEW SERIES-VOL. I., No. 5.

37

of

age. of

age. of

other outside agencies, which the sanita- may be considered a definite law. The rian can not touch. These agencies dif- law is, that up to the age of thirty years fer from the lightning flash, because they variations of temperature exert no influare more widely diffused, and, therefore, ence on the mortality of the population; more inappreciable, but they are not the but after the age of thirty is reached, less outside, and not the less unpreventi- then a fall of temperature, which is sufble.

ficient to cause an increased number of We may take, in illustration of this deaths, acts in a given manner—as it fact, the most frequent disease-com- may be said in waves or lines of intenmon cold. Whence comes it? Why sity, according to the years of the peoshould a fourth of England wake in the ple. If we make these lines nine years morning with cold ? Why, for some long, we discover that they double in weeks past, should sore throat have been force at each successive point. Thus, if so prevalent that scarcely any one could the fall in the temperature be sufficient be met who, on inquiry, would not be to increase the mortality at the rate of found with the back of the throat unduly one person of the age of thirty, the inred, and the tonsils large? Why, in a crease will run as follows: given village or town, shall the medical men be summoned on some particular

One death at thirty years of age.

Two deaths at thirty-nine years of age. day to two or half-a-dozen places per Four deaths at forty-eight years haps at once, to visit children with

Eight deaths at fifty-seven years croup? What is the reason that many

Sixteen deaths at sixty-six years age. cases of sudden death, by so-called Thirty-two deaths at seventy-five years of age. “ apoplexy,” crowd together into a few

Sixty-four deaths at eighty-four years of age. hours? Why, in a given day or week, In these calculations nothing seems are shoals of the aged swept away, while to be wanting that should render them the young live as before! These are trustworthy; they result from inquiries questions which are above the answering conducted on the largest scale; they of curative and preventive medicine alike. have been computed by our greatest auCurative medicine, if her interpreter be thority in vital statistics, and they accord honest, at the name of them, stands with what we gather from common daily abashed; and preventive medicine says, observation; they supply, in a word, the if her interpreter be true, “ The ques- scientific details and refinements of a tions are as yet out of my range.” rough estimate founded on universal ex

Still, we are not altogether ignorant: perience, and they lead us to think very some circumstances appear to be followed gravely on many subjects which may not by effects so definite, that we may al- have occurred to us before, and which most consider we have them before us, are as curious as they are absorbing. in an obscure picture of cause and effect. We often hear small moralizers, who It will be profitable to look at this know little or nothing about vital phepicture, and try to make it out from vari- nomena—by which term I mean nothing ous points of view; but I must confine mysterious, but simply the physics emmyself to one point now, viz., to the sim- braced in those phenomena which we ple influence of a low wave temperature on connect with form and motion under the life.

generic term, life-we often hear, I say, If we carefully observe the fluctuation small moralizers harp on the one string, of the thermometer by the side of the that man knows nothing of the laws of mortality of the nation at large, no very life and death. But what an answer to remarkable relationship seems to be such presumption of ignorance do the traceable between the one and the other. facts rendered above supply! Why, But if, in connection with the mortality, life and death are here reduced on given care be taken to isolate the cases, and to conditions to reasonings as abstract and divide them into groups according to positive as are the reasonings on the their ages, a singular and significant se- atomic theory, or the development of ries of facts follow, which show that force by the combustion of fuel. It is after a given age a sudden decline of the not necessary for the vital philosopher to temperature intluences mortality by what go out into the towns and villages to take

a new census of deaths to enable him to to 212° Fahr. under all ordinary temgive us his readings of the general mor- peratures, which is about the fact, and if tality under this one specific state. He we assume that another man at thirtymay sit in his cabinet now, and as he nine, shall not be able at any temperature reads day by day his thermometer, pre- to respire so much air, and shall not be dict results. There is a fall of tempera- able to evolve as much caloric as would ture that shall be known by experience raise forty-four pounds of water from 32° to be sufficiently deep and prolonged to to 212° we see a general reason why the cause an increase of one death in a giv- latter man should feel an effect from a en community, among those who have sudden change in the temperature of the reached thirty years.

Is it so? Then air which the younger man would not there have died sixty-four in proportion feel; and if we assume, further, that a to that one of those who have reached man of eighty-four, in the same time eighty-four years. This is a good re- would evolve as much force as would flection, and it leads to another reflection, raise only eleven pounds of water from not so good. It leads one to ask what, 32° to 212°, we see a general reason if the law be so definite, are curative and that he should suffer much more from a preventive medicines doing meanwhile, decrease of external temperature than that they should not disturb it? I fear either of the two younger men. that they do not even produce perturba It behoves us, however, to know more tions, and I do not see how they could than this general statement of an approxat this moment; because, as the truth imate fact; we ought to understand the opens itself to the mind, the enormous exact method by which the reduction of external change in the forces of the uni- temperature influences, and the details of verse that leads to the result, is not to be the physiological processes that are congrappled with or interfered with on any nected with the phenomena. I will try efficient known method of human kind and explain these clearly, although I or invention. The cause is too general, know they are not easy of explanation. too overwhelming, too grasping. It is When a human body is living at the age like the lightning-stroke in its distance where the period of growth has ceased, from our command; but it is diffused, and the period of decay has not connot pointed and concentrate; prolonged, menced, and when it is quite healthy, it not instantaneous; and, by virtue of generates, by its own chemical processes, these properties, it is so much the more so much heat or force as shall enable it, subtle and devastating.

within given bounds, to move its own At first it seems very easy to explain machinery, to call forth at will a limited why a sudden fall in temperature should measure of extra force which has been lead to an increase in the number of lying latent in the organism, and to supdeaths, and it is to be admitted that, to ply a fluctuating loss that must be cona certain extent, the reason is clear. 'veyed away by contact with the surWithout entering on the question which rounding air, by the earth, and by other the old Greeks so warmly contended for bodies that it may touch, and which are -Heraclitus above them all—that heat is colder than itself. There is thus evolved the animating principle of all living or in the body, applied force, reserve force, ganisms, we may accept that in the evo- and waste force, and these distributions lution of force from the body, as repre- ! of the whole force generated, when corsented by its power of producing force rectly applied, maintain the perfect orin the form of heat, we have a measure- ganism in such balance that life is true ment of the capacity of the body to sus- and steady. So much active force cartain force, which is only another phrase ries with it the power to perform so for expressing the resistance of the body much labor ; so much reserve force carto death. For example, if we assume ries with it the power to perform a meathat a healthy man of twenty-nine years, sure of new and extra labor to meet respires four hundred and fifty cubic feet emergencies; so much waste force enaof air per day, and by combustion of his bles the body to resist the external viciscarbon, evolves as much heat as would situdes without trenching on the force raise fifty pounds of water at 32° Fahr. ' that is always wanted to keep the heart

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