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“They are soothsayers like the Philistines. Behold, I am a dry tree.
Their land also is full of idols.”—2:6, 8. For thus saith the Lord unto the eunuch: "Thus saith the Lord, thy redeemer,
that keep my sabbaths, And choose the things that please me,
And take hold of my covenant ; That frustrateth the tokens of the liars,
Even unto them will I give in mine house And maketh diviners mad;
and within my walls That turneth wise men backward,
A place and a name better than of sons and And maketh their knowledge foolish."
of daughters : -44: 25.
I will give them an everlasting name, that * But ye are they that forsake the Lord,
shall not be cut off.”—56: 3-5. That forget my holy mountain,
Idolatry was becoming darker and That prepare a table for that Troop, And offer a drink-offering unto that Num
Moloch worship was reber." *_65:11.
vived (2 Kings 16:3, 4). The reign of Hezekiah, honored by They shall be ashamed of the oaks which surrounding nations, and zealous for ye have desired, Jehovah, had been distinguished -as
And ye shall be confounded for the gardens
that that of Solomon was before, and that of
ye Josiah afterwards-by a large accession " Against whom do ye sport yourselves, of proselytes of alien birth; and their attachment to their new faith was strong Inflaming yourselves with idols under every er than that of many Israelites. They green tree, were faithful, while others swam with Slaying the children in the valleys in the the stream of evil. Among these were
clists of the rocks ?”–57:5. some officers of the king's hârem, who, As the prophet saw the men of his like Ebed-melech, the Ethiopian eunuch, own generation falling asleep, he looked, in the reign of Zedekiah (Jerem. 38:7), half wistfully, at their end were conspicuous for their steadfast
“The righteous perisheth, and no man layeth ness.f For both such classes the proph
it to heart: et, rising above all national and tradi
And merciful men are taken away, tional feeling, has words of the fullest
None considering that the righteous is taken sympathy.
away from the evil to come. * Veither let the son of the stranger, that
He shall enter into peace : hath joined himself to the Lord, speak,
They shall rest in their beds, each one saying,
walking in their uprightness." The Lord bath utterly separated me from
-57: 1, 2. Neither let the eunuch say,
The sense of being left alone, the last witness for righteousness in an evil gen
eration, mocked and taunted, was almost 'The words Gad and Mem, thus rendered in
more than he could bear. the English version, are probably names of the planets now known as Jupiter and Saturn, the “ Yea, truth faileth; and he that departeth givers of good or evil fortune.
from evil is accounted mad : * + It is, I think, at least probable that we may And the Lord saw it, and it displeased him see in Eliakim, of whom such glorious praise is
that there was no judgment. spoken in 2 Kings 18 : 20-25, one of this class.
And he saw that there was no man, and He is described as being “over the house" (2
wondered that there was no interces. Kings 18:19; Isaiah 36 : 3), and is told that he shall one day succeed Shebna in the office of
sor.”—59:15, 16. sribe (18: 21). Now, in the later history of the The witness which he bore against kingilon of Judah, as in other Eastern monarch- the sins of nobles and priests and people ies, the confidential officers over the king's househuld were, for the inost part, as the case of Ebed exposed him to shame and contumely. melech shows, eunuchs, and in the monuments of He who had been the honored counsellor Assyria the beardless face of the scribe at once of kings was treated as the vilest outidentifies him. On this hypothesis we get once
cast. again a striking coincidence between the earlier and later utterances. The man who has no hope
“The Lord God hath opened mine ear, of children of his own, to whom is promised “a place and a name better than of sons and of * The marginal rendering of the English verdaughters" (55 : 5), is to have a “sure place” sion. Ewald's translation, “ became rare," gives (22: 23), is to be “a father to the inhabitants of nearly as good a meaning, and is etymologically Jerusalem and the house of Judah" (22 : 22). truer.
And I was not rebellious, neither turned were made perfect by suffering, as they
found that the road to the fullest victory I gare my back to the emiters,
and the most perfect blessedness was And my cheeks to them that plucked off through pain and sorrow, there must be
the hair : I hid not my face from shame and spit- a like discipline, a like pathway to the ting."-50:5, 6.
throne for Him, the greater Prophet, the We know that the fanatic cruelty, of and felt in the reign of Manasseh he was
redeeming King. Through what he saw Manasseh did not end here. He “shed innocent blood very much, till he had taught to think of the Christ that was
to come as one " whose visage was so filled Jerusalem from one end to an- marred more than any man, and his form other” (2 Kings 21:10). Foremost
more than the sons of men (52:14), among the victims of that persecution
growing up as a tender plant, and as must have been the prophets who with Isaiah had bravely borne their testimony, form nor comeliness
a root out of a dry ground,” with “no
(53:2). What “setting their faces as a flint,” asking had been true in part of those who were the question which the martyrs of truth have asked in all ages, in the same tones sins not their own, should be true in its
now bearing His reproach, suffering for and with the same answer :
completeness of Him. “ He is near that justifieth me;
“Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried Who will contend with me?
Yet we did esteem him stricken, smitten Behold, the Lord God will help me;
of God, and afflicted. Who is he that shall condemn me?
But he was wounded for our transgressions,
–50 : 8, 9. He was bruised for our iniquities.” As one after another of that noble
-53 : 4, 5. army was led forth to die by all the The patient, silent suffering of the strange tortures that Eastern cruelty martyr- prophets presented the type of could invent, we may well think of the the higher, more wonderful silence : prophet's mind as learning new lessons “He was oppressed, and he was afflicted, which nothing else could have so clearly Yet he opened not his mouth : taught him. His expectations of the He is brought as a lamb to the slaughter, coming Christ were colored and modi And as a sheep before her shearers is dumb, fied by this new experience as they had
So opened he not his mouth.”_53: 7. been by former ones. If he had been It may at first seem strange that the led to pass from the weakness and cow volume which contains such notes of ardice of Ahaz to the thought of the woe, pitched, as it were, in the sad great battle and the mighty Conqueror minor of a plaintive sorrow, should open is whose name shall be called Wonder- as this opens with such exulting consoful” (9 : 5-7); if, in contrast with man's lation : Comfort ye, comfort ye my injustice, there had risen before him the people, saith your God” (40 : 1). It vision of a righteous king, “ the rod out may be that we shall never know the of the stem of Jesse," upon whom shonla full meaning of each separate portion of rest“ the spirit of the Lord, the spirit this prophecy, or the reasons of its of wisdom and understanding” (11: 1- change from joy to sorrow, and back 9); if the hopes of Hezekiah's youth again to joy. To do that we ought to had formed and fashioned his hopes of be able to connect each section with the one greater than Hezekiah in the far events of the prophet's life, and the future, as the Psalmist's hopes (Psalms thoughts which were working in his 45 and 72) had had their historical start- heart, and these we have no data to ing-point in the glory of Solomon, it decide on, and can but suggest more or might well be that the Divine Education less probable conjectures. Thus much, through which the Eternal Spirit was however, may be said, that the contrast leading him made the latter end of his between the gloom and the brightness life as fruitful as the beginning, and gave had been the same throughout. Out of him yet deeper insight into the myste- the disasters and defeat and guilt of ries of God. So it was that he learnt to Ahaz rose the wonderful prophecies of see that as he and his fellow-prophets chapters 9 and 11 and 25. Was it
the inhabitants of the earth
come down."- Mic, 1: 3.
Is. 26: 21.
strange, if he had been sustained in the " It shall come to pass in the last days, midst of suffering, foreseeing the cap That the mountain of the Lord's house tivity of his people, by the thought of shall be established in the top of the their restoration, that he should begin
mountains, now with words which would give to
And shall be exalted above the hills; and
all nations shall flow unto it. others the same help and comfort with
And many people shall go and say, which he himself had been comforted
Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of God? Was it not in harmony with of the Lord, to the house of the God all his previous history that the strength
of Jacob; of the consolation should be proportion.
And he will teach us of his ways, and we ate to the depth of the distress, that
will walk in his paths : through the thickest night there should
For out of Zion shall go forth the law, and
the word of the Lord from Jerusalem. pierce the rays of the far - off golden
And he shall judge among the nations, and dawn?
shall rebuke many people : Other points indicating at once a con And they shall beat their swords into tinuity of thought such as was natural ploughshares, and their spears into in the writings of the same man, and the pruning-hooks: influence as natural of new circum
Nation shall not lift up sword against nastances, can only, within the limits of
tion, neither shall they learn war any
more! the present paper, be touched on sparingly. The instances given will, how is a verbal reproduction of what had ever, be enough to show that there is
been spoken by Micah 4 : 1-3. Other no difficulty in tracing the same man in instances of a like connection are as folthe two volumes of the prophecies that lows: bear his name, and may help others to
“ Behold, the Lord cometh "Behold, the Lord cometh continue the comparison for themselves. out of his place to punish oue of his place and will (1.) Among the influences which were
for their iniquity." at work on the mind of Isaiah in his ear
“ To what purpose is the
" Will the Lord be pleased lier life, a very high place must be as multitude of your sacrifices with thousands of rams, or signed to the writings of Micah the unto me? suith the Lord with ten thousands of rivers Morasthite. Living at the same time, ings of rams, and the fat of born for my transgression,
the fruit of my body for the witnessing the same evils, we find the fed beasts ; and I delight not
in the blood of bullocks, or seer of Moresheth uttering noble words of lambs, or of he goats...: shewed thee, Oman, what which the more conspicuous adviser of
Wash you, make you clean: is good; and what doth the
put away the evil of your Lord require of thee, but to Hezekiah took up and repeated. It doings from before mine do justly, and to love mercy,
eyes; cease to do evil; learn and to walk humbly with thy would almost seem as if the one prophet, to do well; seek judgment, God.”—Mic. 6 : 7, 8. living not in the capital city, but in an
relieve the oppressed, judge
the fatherless, plead for the ob-cure village, speaking, not in the widow.”—Is. 1 : 11, 16, 17. lofty language of Isaiah's poetry, but in In their outward mode of teaching, in half-humorous allusions to the names of the strange, portentous disregard of conthe towns of Judah (1 : 10-16), and in ventional order, the one prophet reproimagery drawn from the scenery and duced the acted symbolism of the other : occupations of shepherd-life, had been to the other as one who suggests thoughts " At the same time spake
the Lord by Isaiah the son howl, I will go stripped and afterwards to be developed, and sets an
of Amoz, saying, Go and naked."- Mic. 1: 8. example of courage in denouncing evil Inose tlie" sackcloth from off
thy loing, and put off thy atterwards to be followed. The bold shoe from thy foot. words of Micah in the days of Hezekiah, barefoot."-18. 20:2.
did so, walking naked and which a hundred years afterwards avere appealed to as a precedent (Jerem. 26 : Both bear their testimony against the 18), may well be thought of as influenc- same evils in all but the same words: ing the thoughts and teaching of Isaiah.
* Thy princes are rebel “The beads thereof judge Certain it is that the parallelisms be- lives, and companions com for reward, and the priests
thieves: every one loveth thereof teach for hire. tween them are inore numerous and gifts, and followeth after striking than between any other two writers in the Old or New Testament. Both look to the house of David as the The first great vision of a better time in stock from which the deliverer shall Isaiah 2 : 2–4:
come : NEW SERIESVOL. I., No. 1.
sin of my soul?
"Therefore I will wail and
"There shall come forth “But thou, Beth -lehem " The wolf and the lamb “The wolf also shall dwell a rod out of the stem of Ephratah .
... out of thee
shall feed together, and the with the lamb, and the leopJesse, and a Branch shall shall he come forth unto me lion shall eat straw like the ard shall lie down with the STOW out of his roots."
that is to be ruler in Israel." bullock: and dust shall be kid; and the calf and the Is, 11:1.
Mic. 5: 2. the serpent's meat. They young lion and the fatling
shall not hurt nor destroy in together; and a little child Materials for a sufficient induction all my holy mountain, saith shall lead them. And the
the Lorul."--Is. 65: 25.
cow and the bear shall feed; have been given as to the connection
their young ones shall lie between the Prophet Micah and the
down together; and the lion
shall eat straw like the ox. chaps. 1-39 of Isaiah. Can we trace
They shall not hurt nor deany like connection with the remaining
stroy in all my holy moun.
tain: for the earth shall be chaps. 40–66 ? The following passages
full of the knowledge of the
Lord, as the waters cover the give the answer:
sea."--Is. 11 : 6, 7, 9. “ Behold, I will make thee "Arise and thresh, O The list might be enlarged indefinitely, a new sharp threshing in- daughter of Zion; for I 'will strument haring teeth : make thine horn iron, and but these are sufficient for our present thou shalt thresh the moun I will make thy hoofs
purpose. One instance only may be tains, and beat them small." brass."-Mic. 4: 18. Is. 41: 15.
added as obscured by the mistranslation “The righteous perisheth, ** The good man is pero of the received English version. and no
man layeth it to ished out of the earth; and heart."-Is. 57: 1. there is none upright among
It will be a familiar fact to most stumen."-Mic, 7: 2. "And dust shall be the ** They shall lick the dust dents of Scripture, that at one period in serpent's meat." like a serpent."
the history of Hebrew literature, the Is. 65: 25.
Mic. 7:17. “ His watchmen are blind. "If a man.
do lie, word Rahab, signifying “the proud, the which can never have enough to thee of wine and af strong haughty,” makes its appearance as
Come ye, say they, I drink; he shall even be the poetical synonyme for Egypt. Thus in will fetch wine, and we prophet of this people." will fill ourselves with
Ps. 87 : 4, 5, belonging probably to strong drink."
* Thus salth the Lord con this period, and describing the admisIs. 56: 10-12. cerning the prophets that make my people err .::
sion of proselytes from many countries, and he that putteth not into their mouth, they even pre
we find Egypt mentioned. “I will pare war against him."
think upon Rahab and Babylon, with Mic, 3: 5.
them that know me.' In what we Hardly less interesting is it to notice have called Isaiah's second volume, the the reüppearance in the later books of name occurs in the same signification: the thoughts, imagery, and even lan
Awake, awake, put on strength, 0 arm of guage of the earlier, just as the old man
the Lord; might be supposed to dwell in the in
Awake, as in the ancient days, in the genertenser thoughts which he had cherished
ations of old. in his youth:
Art not thou it that hath cut Rahab (sc. the
haughty one), and wounded the drag“Bring forth the blind peo “ And he said, Go, and tell ple that have eyes, and the this people, Hear ye indeed,
on?"-51: 9. deal that have ears.'
but understand not; and see Is. 43: 8. ye indeed, but perceive not." But in the first forty chapters as we
Is. : "Yea, before the day was “For the Lord of hosts read them in the Authorized Version we I am he; and there is none hath purposed, and who shall do not find it. In the Hebrew, howthat can deliver out of my disannul it? and his hand is hand: I will work, and who stretched out, and who shall ever, it meets us in a very remarkable, shall let it?"-Is. 43: 13. turn it back?!-Is. 14: 27.
often-quoted passage. This, in English, "For I will pour water " And the parched ground upon him that is thirsty, and shall become a pool, and the stands thus : floods upon the dry ground: thirsty land springs of water: I will pour my spirit upon in the habitation of drag “The Egyptians shall help in vain and to no thy seed, and my blessing ons, where each lay, shall be upon tirine offspring." grass with reeds and rushes."
purpose, Is. 44: 3.
Is. 85: 7. Therefore I have cried concerning this, “Verily thou art a God “And I will wait upon the
* Their strength is to sit still.”” that hidest thyself, O God. Lord, that hideth his face of Israel, the Saviour." from the house of Jacob, and
But the true rendering, in the judgIs. 45:15. I will look for him."
Is. 8:17. ment of nearly all critics, would be this: " Therefore the redeemed " And the riunsomed of the of the Lord shall return, and Lord shall return, and come come with singing unto Zion; to Zion with songs and ever * I cannot refrain from noticing the singular and everlasting joy shall be lasting joy upon their heads: upon their heail: they shall they shall obtuin joy and agreement of this with Isaiah 19 : 24.
* In that obtain gladness and joy; and gladness, and sorrow and | day shall Israel be third with Egypt and Assysorrow and mourning shall sighing shall flee away.' ria.” Was the prophet, or some contemporary of flee away."--Is. 51 : 11.
Is. 35: 10. • Enflaming yourselves " For they shall be ashamed | his, the writer of the psalm, rejoicing that in his with idols under every green
of the oaks which ye have own time, or in the time to come, natives of both tree, slaying the children in desired, and ye shall be con these countries, and even of Philistia, Tyre, and the valleys under the clifts of founded for the gardens that Ethiopia, should be counted among the citizens the rocks,”-Is. 57: 5.
ye have chosen."
18. 1: 29. of Zion, “when the Lord writeth up the people”?
“ Therefore I have cried concerning her, sarily belonging to words originating in She is Rahab, sitting still,"
inspiration. In this case, however, I be(haughty, that is, and impotent.)
lieve there is no sufficient grounds for The self same characteristic word, with rejecting the received belief. The diffithe characteristic play upon the etymol-culties connected with it, though at first ogy, is thus seen to recur in both volumes sight they may appear formidable, are of the prophecy.*
not so great as those which attend the The object which I have chiefly aimed rival hypothesis. Into those difficulties at in this paper has been to make the later it is not my intention within these limits prophecies more intelligible and more in- to enter at any length. That which has teresting by connecting them with the been relied on as decisive, the occurrence life and feelings of a living man. They of the individual name of Cyrus, as the are not Sibylline oracles, devoid of all future king of Persia, has been already impress of human character, but are, as met by anticipation. Another, and, I am the utterances of a true prophet should be compelled to admit, a more serious one, full of it to overflowing. But it would is found in 64: 10, 11: be idle to conceal that another end besides
“His holy cities are a wilderness; this has been kept in view. It is well
Zion is a wilderness, Judah a desolation; known to all scholars—it can scarcely be Our holy and beautiful house, where our unknown to many readers of this article fathers praised thee, is burned up with --that the chapters which have furnished
fire, the materials for this picture of the old
And all our pleasant things are laid waste." age of Isaiah have by very many critics, English as well as foreign, been assigned words is, of course, that they refer to the
The first impression made by such to a different and later writer. The open- destruction of Jerusalem and its Temple ing words, “ Comfort ye, comfort ye my
as already completed. The man who people," have thus with many lost their old divine power. They have come to I desolation of which he speaks. But here
wrote them, we say, must have seen the be associated with the discomfort of per- again the close connection which we have plexity and controversy. Instead of see
seen between the book of Isaiah and his ing, in the whole prophecy which they contemporary Micah supplies the answer. usher in, the completion of the divine The self-same calamities of which the education which had up to that time led former speaks had been foretold by the the prophet to ever new heights of spir- latter in words which no one has thought itual insight and more glorious visions of questioning as a prophecy after the of the future, men have been taught to
event. ascribe them to some
great unknown," to a pseudo (false) — or, where men
“ Therefore shall Zion for your sake be shrank from that epithet, to a deutero
ploughied as a field, (second)-Isaiah. I have no desire to
And Jerusalem shall become heaps,
And the mountain of the house (sc, of the charge all such critics with irreverence
Temple) as the high places of the foror unbelief. Inquiries whether the books
.!! -Micah 3:12. which we find in the Old or New Testament were written altogether by the wri
Assume these words to have been ters whose names are affixed to them known to Isaiah, remember that be, cannot be excluded as lying outside the here also following Micah (4:10,) had a province of legitimate criticism. The
clear view of the coming exile in Baby. titles and superscriptions given to books, lon, remember that he already saw the and, in many cases, the assignment of this sanctuary profaned by the foul image or that book to an individual writer, which Manasseh had set up (2 Chron. were the work of later compilers, and 33 : 2) and the Assyrian armies ready to cagnot be thought of in any case as neces- revenge, as they afterwards did revenge,
the disastrous retreat of Sennacherib (2 * I am anxious to acknowledge my obligations Chron. 33: 11,) and we shall hardly wonto the writer of “ A Plea for a new English Ver- der that the desolation should seem to his sion of the Scriptures, by a Licentiate of the prophetic vision as actually present, the called this fact to my remembrance, and so sug- long-delayed judgment as already exegested the argument which rests upon it. | cnted. The fact that Josiah on his acces