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ment, or scientific body, or public, to sec- | other religionists, in instances of outond his aspirations for the discovery of rage against such, which were made ancient Nineveh, Lord Stratford author- known to him. But it was more freised and enabled him, at his own risk quently in behalf of converts to Protesand expense, to proceed upon his re- tantism from among the Armenians that searches. In 1847, those interesting rel- his kind offices were sought. To the ics, the Budrum marbles-being, as sup- American Missionaries, whose discretion, posed, the remains of the mausoleum prudence and forbearance as well as zeal erected at Halicarnassus, by Artemisia, in their work, he publicly acknowledged, queen of Caria, to her husband, Mausolus he gave ready access, although the details -were obtained by Lord Stratford, by of the many cases of grievous persecution firman from the Porte, and presented by which they were obliged to present, made him to the British Museum.

large demands on his fully occupied time; We only add what of thanks and and he pleaded for the oppressed for congratitude are due to his Lordship from science sake with a dignity, patience, and the friends of Missions and especially the perseverance, which the fraud and chicafriends of Missionaries of the American nery of the persecutors, and the frequent Board at Constantinople, for his very ill-will of the Turkish officials, could not efficient protection and kindness to them withstand. In the end, his efforts resultextended through many years, which, ed in the formal recognition of the right perhaps no one else could have so effec- of such native Protestants to protection, tually performed.

and enabled Lord Cowley to secure for The services rendered by Lord Strat- them in 1847, during Lord Stratford's ford de Redcliffe to the cause of religious brief absence from Turkey, an oflicial liberty in Turkey, have linked his name decree placing them on the same footing imperishably with the names of the before the law with all other Christian great benefactors of mankind. Confi- subjects of the Porte. ning himself within the sphere of his But the crowning glory of Lord de just influence, in view of the relations Redcliffe's diplomatic career is in the subsisting between the English and stipulations of the remarkable document Turkish governments, he was ever ready called the Hatti Sherif or Hatti Humayoun, to make that intiuence felt in behalf of obtained chiefly by his instrumentality, the persecuted of whatever religious and given by the Sultan as a Magna faith, when the rights of conscience Charta to his people at the close of the were assailed in their persons. In 1843, war with Russia in the begining of 1856. by a decided and firm course of action, Its most important article is in the folin which he was happily sustained by lowing words: “ As all forms of relihis own government, and aided by the gion are and shall be freely professed in representatives of other Christian pow- my dominions, no subject of my emers, he was enabled to gain a pledge, in pire shall be hindered in the exercise of the Sultan's autograph, for the non-ap- the religion that he professes, nor shall plication of the law making apostasy be in any way annoyed on this account from Mohammedanism a capital crime, No one shall be under restraint in reto Moslems who had once been Chris- spect to changing his religion.” tians, and returned to the profession of This was, and was understood to be, Christianity. This was a step of im- a direct annulment of the law forbidding mense difficulty and the greatest impor- apostasy from Mohammedanism, and a tance, as setting aside, in a large class of pledge of the most entire religious freecases, an express injunction of the Koran, dom for all classes of the population. A which is the statute-book of Mohamme- change so fundamental, and so at war dan civil and ecclesiastical law, and im- with oriental fanatical bigotry, Mohamplying as a consequence the abrogation medan, Christian, and Jewish, can be but of religious intolerance.

imperfectly carried out with the best inOn the ground of the understood tentions of the supreme government; meaning of that guarantee, Lord Strat- but during the life of the late sovereign, ford interposed his good offices for pro- this guarantee was carried into effect tection to Jews, Roman Catholics, and with a good degree of fidelity, at least in

the capital and its vicinity. Converts Cotillon I. (Maria Theresa) had succeeded from Mohammedanism have been bap- in winning over Cotillon II. (Elizabeth tized, and dwelt in safety, where but a of Russia) and Cotillon III. (Madame de few years ago they would have been be- Pompadour), the great king of Prussia headed. Recently a reactionary policy was driven to the very brink of the has been inaugurated; the attempts to abyss. crush Protestantism not going however Kaunitz was sent to Paris,in order to gain beyond temporary imprisonments and over the French court for an Austrian alliexile at the capitol. In the interior and ance. The clever diplomatist ostensibly Syria lawless violence and the secret ac. ignored politics entirely, formed the action of unprincipled or bigoted officials quaintance of beaux esprits and artists, and have, as there is reason to believe, taken constantly kept himself before the public the lives of several Moslem converts to in one way or the other. He was imperChristianity. This sad change has arisen ceptibly conveyed by the little waves of from the fact that the British government gossip to the throne, and then he began is now represented at Constantinople, by his game, which consisted in nothing less Sir Henry Bulwer instead of Lord Strat- than doing homage to the Pompadour in ford de Redcliffe. The Palmerston Minis- the way she liked best, and amusing the try have the grave question to determine wearied king better than any one else whether the grandly beneficent fruits of could do it. One fine day, however, it the latter's diplomacy shall be sacrified or happened that he was as little heeded as preserved.

if he were living in a Trappist monastery This is but a brief and imperfect outline or among the Otaheitans. A delicious of his Lordship’s very useful and brilliant mystery, a Russian woman of marvelous public life, which is still prolonged. He beauty, occupied the court and the king resigned his embassy in May, 1858, and more especially. She seemed to have retired on his pension. He was sent on come to the world's capital, in order to å special mission to take leave of the live there more solitary than on a steppe Sultan, in September, 1858. He was of Southern Russia.

She occupied a chairman of the jury of works in pre- ruined castle in the neighborhood of Paris, cious metals and their imitations, and which had been magnificently fitted up jewelry, in the International Exhibition for her, but to which no one was admitof 1862, and still continues an active ted. At times a wild team of Russian and honored member of the English horses flew through the Champs Elysées, House of Lords at the present time.

or a tall lady appeared at a masked ball, so disguised that little was visible of her

beyond her eyes, which discharged from Bentley's Miscellany.

behind her velvet mask glances like

death's arrows. A PETTICOAT INTRIGUE.

When Richelieu had

reported, in a hunt in the forest of Sénart, A PERIOD of the last century bears in the little he knew about the Russian, the history the name of the period of the king was inflamed with curiosity to learn Adventurers. It comprises the epoch more. From this time the favorite, only when Elizabeth of Parma, Princess Orsi- accompanied by one servant, rode daily ni, Alberoni, Ripperda, and people of a round the mysterious castle, but could similar stamp, kept the world in suspense, discover nothing. A charcoal-burner in and made far more important changes in the adjoining forest had once been led the map of Europe than in our age can into the castle, foreign-looking men be effected with far greater resources. conveyed him through the forest The whole of the last century continu- with bandaged eyes, and it seemed ed to work with adventurous means. to him as if he went downwards and Through annoyance at the paltry in- passed through hollow, damp passages. trigues which were drawn round his poli- His bandage was removed in a turretcy like spider-webs, until he cut them shaped vault. He was asked whether with his sword; Frederick the Great chris- he would remain in the lady's service, tened his enemies Petticoats and num- but he shuddered at the gloomy, damp bered them Cotillon I. II. and III. When spot, and returned to daylight by the New SERIESVOL. I., No. 6.

48

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same route. The charcoal-burner, how castle, or had a hostile camp been formed ever, was unable to tell Richelieu where behind the forest ? According to their the entrance to the castle was; he merely garb, the horsemen were bearers of a flag pointed to the ground, and seemed to wish of truce. Their clothes had a military the duke to understand that a secret sub- cut, and they were armed with swords terranean passage led into the building and pistols. One of them carried a large Richelieu at lenth formed a resolution to white flag, supported on the saddle-bow, watch the castle from one sunset to the while on the shoulder of the other hang next. In the forest he gave his horse to the cavalry bugle of those days. From his servant, and sent him away. The time to time he raised the massive instruduke waited for nightfall at the charcoal- ment to his lips and blew a tremendous burner's fire.

blast, while the other waved his flag simThe full moon favored the adventure. ultaneously, as if to protect themselves At about midnight it emerged from the from a hostile attack or shots. clouds, and threw a pale shimmer over They halted at the foot of the hill on the grey walls and towers of the build- which the castle stood. The trumpeter ing. The duke took a burning log from blew thrice, the other waved the flag the charcoal-burner's fire, and lighted thrice. Not a sound was heard in reply, himself by its means through the forest. no form became visible, the castle and Then he threw it away, and ascended neighborhood remained solitary, desertthe gentle elevation to the building. ed, silent as before. The horseman with Everything was silent in the castle. A the flag shook his head. The trumpet rang few stones stood out from the wall, out again thrice. Then the flag-bearer and Richelieu attempted to clamber up drew a large folded paper from his them, but did not get very high. When- breast, spread out a species of gigantic ever the attempt failed, however, he re- proclamation on his horse's neck, and read peated it, until a merry laugh rang out aloud a declaration of war in the most above his head. He looked up in surprise, tender verses. In the name of the Duke and saw a dark form bending down to- de Richelieu and seventeen other cavawards him; the duke laid hand on his liers, whom he solemnly rehearsed, he sword. “Leave your weapon in its declared war afloat and ashore against the sheath, and go to bed yourself,” a rich, goddess of Love, who had descended wonderful woman's voice cried to him ; from Olympus, and held her court in this “ here there are no victories to be gain- mysterious castle, until she hoisted the ed, either in the battle-field, in a duel, or in white flag, or made the duke and his ala boudoir ; so go to bed. Go to bed, lies her prisoners. After this the horseRichelieu."

men galloped round the castle, and blew Days passed away, and the delicious their horn, and read the declaration from enigma was not solved. The mysterious the four cardinal points of the compass. château of the Russian lady extended in Everything remained silent, however. gloomy monotony over the larger portion The flag-bearer, greatly annoyed, turned of a slight elevation, at the base of which his horse and galloped back to Paris, lay a dry sandy plain. In the direction followed by the trumpeter. of Paris it was bounded by a thick wood After sunset a troop of horsemen were close at hand, but on all the others, and encamped on the skirt of the forest, at a greater distance, by farms and vil- looking towards Paris. They were lages. The road which formerly led to young gentlemen belonging to the court the majestic edifice now ran into a deep and garde of Louis XV., all splendidly swampy rut. No sound of a carriage, dressed, armed with swords and pistols, no mark of a hoof or a foot, now showed and wearing bright red scarfs as a badge it to be a human track. The bushes, of recognition. Some were engaged in which advanced beyond the forest, as it dragging withered branches, brushwood, were like videttes, shook with amaze- and even whole saplings to a huge fire; ment in the spring breeze when two while others were unloading a mule, on horsemen emerged in the morning light whose back all the dainties of a French and tried to reach the old road. Was vivandiére tent were packed. A cask here war in the land, a garrison in the was speedily rolled up and tapped, and

maneuvre.

the filled glasses were elinked together declined it, and the duke, consequently, amid singing and toasts. Others still emptied it himself. The cavaliers in the arrived singly, and were greeted with meanwhile, were gazing with some cucries of joy. They dismounted and at- riosity at the mysterious horseman, but tached their horses to some branch. A Richelieu allowed them no time to do young lieutenant, the Marquis de Chau- so. “ To horse!” he commanded. In velin, amused the company by counting an instant the troop were mounted, and them over whenever a new comer ar- drew up in two lines. “ Count Tourrived. At length he arrived at the re-ville,” the duke said, “you will form an sult that they were all present, except advanced post with two gentlemen. their leader, the Duke de Richelieu. It You will ride round the castle and sighad grown almost dark, and only a few nal to us whatever may happen. Prince stars stood in the heavens, when two Conti, you will post yourself with anhorsemen slowly approached the bivouac other gentleman on the skirt of the fire from the direction of Paris. No forest, and cover our rear; and now, sooner did Chauvelin notice them, than gentlemen, forwards !" he alarmed the whole troop. “Two Tourville galloped ahead with his horsemen!” he cried; “that is contrary companions and carried out the duke's to the agreement. The number is full; commands. Richelieu, who had again it is not the duke, for he will come been joined by the mysterious horseman, alone." He quickly leaped into his sad- placed himself at the head of the main dle and galloped to meet them. When body, and led it against the castle, while twenty paces distant he .pulled up his Conti followed slowly and stopped in horse, cocked a pistol, and challenged observation on the forest edge. "Richethem. A loud laugh from Richelieu lieu was just riding round the swamp answered his

Chauvelin into which the road ran, when Tourville bowed politely., " Are you assembled ?" came back at a gallop. the duke asked. The officer bowed. “They are stirring on the walls,” he “We are only waiting for you to begin shouted. “Men are running up and the campaign. But who is your friend?" down; it will be earnest.” he asked, pointing to the duke's com The duke waved his hat joyfully. panion.

- The man with the iron " All the better! the adventure is permask,” Richelieu laughingly replied. fect. To your post, Tourville,” he com

As they rode together towards the manded. forest, Chauvelin noticed that Riche The count returned, and the duke lieu's companion wore a black velvet shouted, “ Dismount!” The cavaliers mask. With this exception, there was leaped from their steeds and fastened them nothing remarkable about his appearance. to the willows which spread out their He seemed a powerful man, and was / withered branches over the swamp. dressed in an elegant black suit and “Forwards!" horseman's boots. On his black hat They crept up the mound to the castle, was a bright red bow, and he wore the Richelieu and the man with the mask in scarf distinguishing the whole troop. front, the rest in open order. Suddenly When they approached the fire, he kept the sound of a galloping horse was behind and a little apart, while Riche- heard, and Tourville dashed up. "Duke," lieu dashed up, accompanied by Chau- he cried, “this is getting beyond a joke; velin. The cavaliers surrounded the they are mounting guns on the walls.” duke with shouts, lifted him off his « Back!” Richelieu commanded. The horse, carried him in their arms with a cavaliers hurried to the hollow, where wild laughing tumult round the fire, and they were hidden from the castle, and seated him on the wine cask.

collected again near the willows. “They “First a glass of wine,” Richelieu have artillery,” Tourville repeated. cried, “and then the war-subordination “Nonsense! they will not fire upon commences. He emptied the glass harmless revellers," Chauvelin objected. which one of the gentleman handed him, “They take us for robbers,” Tourville had it filled again, and carried it to the was of opinion. man in the mask. The latter, however, “Supposing they fire?” others shout

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ed; and the cry of "A flag of truce!" up the rope-ladder, while others tried to was repeated on all sides.

ascend by the help of the holes. The Advance, trumpeter!" the duke head of Richelieu, Chauvelin, and the said. “I will read the declaration of man in the mask were already raised war once again."

above the parapet, when there was a Accompanied by the trumpeter, he flash from the castle keep; Bengal lights hurried up the hill; on the walls he now blazed along the walls, and lit up the distinctly saw the outlines of human country for a long distance. Masked forms planting guns, and pointing them men filled the bastion; the guns were down the hill. At the foot of the walls rolled up to the embrasure, and just as the trumpet was blown thrice, and the Richelieu stood on the wall and set a declaration of war read, but Richelieu re- foot on the nearest gun, a full salvo was ceived no answer, and the spectral, me- discharged at the assailants. A wild nacing movement on the walls continued. cry from the wounded and the dead, as The duke returned to his band. “What it seemed, rang through the air. Then is to be done?” he asked. “I expect came noisy shouts of laughter, and she is not in the castle, and her besotted then again a yell from dripping-wet, serfs will blow us away with their guns splashing, half-drowned men—not bullike summer flies.”

lets, but dense streams of icy water from “To horse!” some shouted; " let us upwards of a dozen immense fire-enreturn to Paris." Others caught hold gines received the cavaliers, and proof their reins. In the midst of the duced a really annihilating effect upon tumult Richelieu's voice could be heard: them. Here flew away a hat, there a

“We will not fly! Shall the nobles sword; one fell off a ladder, and carried of France be intimidated by a couple of two others with him. In vain did Richcannon? We are here, so let us ad- elieu and Chauvelin attack the enginevance."

men with the flat of their swords in Victory or death!" shouted Chau- vain did the man in the mask leap on a velin. And the cavaliers burst into a captured gun and try to defend it against peal of laughter. The enthusiastic lieu- the garrison. Others advanced with tenant turned away at this insult, and hand-squirts, and completed the victory sharpened his sword-blade on the sole of by their musketry fire. his boot. After the duke had attempted The cavaliers ted, laughing, cursing, in vain to make the man in the mask and yelling. Those who had scaled the retire, he asked whether the pistols

were wall were compelled to follow, if they did loaded. “As you ordered,” said Chau- not wish to be captured. They rushed, velin, “one with bullet, the other followed by the salvoes of the engines, blank.”

down the hill to the hollow, where they * Very good, now advance!”

arrived dripping and shivering. “There The cavaliers crept up the hill, covered is nothing to be done,” shouted the duke, by bushes and hollows in the ground, as " but to blow a retreat." The trumpet far as possible. Presently they stopped, rang out, every one tried to gain his sadand Chauvelin alone crawled along the dle, while peals of laughter rang from ground. He reached the wall, and the walls. Tourville and Conti joined climbed up unnoticed, by putting his the dripping army, and, followed for a feet and hands into holes where stones long distance by the laughter of the vichad fallen out. When near the embra- to they galloped back to Paris. sure, he produced a rope-ladder, fastened On the morning after the unsuccessful it to a projecting stone, and let it fall attack on the mysterious castle, the Duke down. At the same instant, Richelieu de Richelieu appeared in the king's anteleaped up and waved his sword. The chamber, and was not admitted. This cavaliers did the same, and rushed to- had never happened to him before. He ward the castle with the shout of “No- asked almost violently for the reason, tre Dame!" This was the moment when and the chamberlain on duty declared, they expected to be received with a salvo, with a shrug of the shoulders, that his but the castle guns were silent. The majesty was very poorly. Richelieu was cavaliers reached the wall; some climbed obliged to content himself with this.

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