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opening to designing men to misrepresent the
policy rights, and claims thereto belonging, in the hands of the government. At Shahabad, Behar, Patna, of the East India Company, “and that the surand Sarun, there were serious disturbances. Be- plus revenues should be at the disposal of the nares itself, the very nursery of Hindooism, was Company." The province, however, declared saved only by prudential concessions from becom- British territory was, according to this scheme, ing the scene of a sanguinary outbreak. All this not to be incorporated with the British do occurred between 1845 and 1852. Hindoo mis- minions. The scheme did not in itself exclude construction and discontent were reinforced by annexation, but the distinction without a differMohammedan mendacity and curiosity, for the ence” upheld by the Governor-General was overMoulavee was scarcely less alarmed than the Pun- looked by the Government at home, the Court of dit by the tendency of our educational measures, Directors, the Board of Control, and the British and many old Mussulman families resented the Cabinet all consenting to the annexation of Oude. resumption of the land tenures. To all these ele- The annexation of Oude accordingly took place. ments of discord must be added the predisposition It was the last act of Lord Dalhousie's governto mutiny of the Sepoy soldier, irritated by the ment. The processes of settlement and resumpuncertainty which prevailed with respect to pay tion now came into operation. The bad feeling and allowances, secretly emboldened by conces- engendered by the appropriation, and which in sion and unable to reconcile himself to the British happier times might have gradually died out, was theory of annexation. The annexation of Oude, sustained and invigorated by a combination of in particular, weakened the attachment of the maleficent influences. st, there was an imSepoy to his colors, till, finding what the revolu- pression that our resources were exhausted by the tion had cost him, he was ready to join hands Crimean and by the Persian wars. Then the aniwith other sufferers over a common grief." In mosity of the ejected nobles and Brahminical 1801 the Newab Wuzeer entered into engage- party was inflamed and extended by the cartridge ments with the British Government for the good panic, which, in Mr. Kaye's belief, was a real administration of the provinces in question. How motive, and by the movement under Nana Sahib, these engagements were violated may be learned whose claim, he thinks, did not receive the confrom page 120 of Mr. Kaye's volume. A succes- sideration to which it was entitled. The account sion of rulers in Oude abandoned themselves to of the increasing disaffection occasioned by the sensual pollution, neglected State affairs, and greased cartridges and the bone-dust flour, and of trafficked in place, honor, and justice; corrup- the various outbreaks which ensued, carries the tion, murder, extortion, outrage, and robbery narrative down to the insurrection at Meerut, were the characteristics of their reign. A crisis with which critical event Mr. Kaye concludes the occurred while Lord Auckland was Governor- first volume of this excellent history. The bioGeneral of India. The new king pledged himself graphical notices of the Lawrences, Dalhousie, to sign a new treaty. This treaty provided, that Canning, and other eminent men, in whom Mr. in case of prolonged misrule the British Govern- Kaye recognizes the existence of high, sometimes ment should be entitled to appoint its own func- supremely high, moral and intellectual qualities, tionaries to the management of any part of the are clear, discriminating, and vividly written, and province; that there should be a new military much of the expository portion of the book is valuforce, commanded by British officers, but sup- able for its perspicuous statement and philosophiported by the Oude Government; but the reve cal insight. In the two volumes intended to comnues of the country were not to be applied to any plete the work—the publication of which we shall other purpose than that of its maintenance. This gladly welcome-the author promises to describe treaty, which Mr. Kaye disparages as an abortion, the progress of the mutiny and rebellion in the was often citel in later years as the Oude Treaty North-Western provinces, the mutiny in the Punof 1837. It was, he says, wholly and absolutely jab, the rebellion in Oude, the rising in Behar, disallowed by the Home Government that is to the insurrection in the Southern Mahratta country, say, he explains in a note, by the Secret Commit- the siege and capture of Delhi, and the first retee specially empowered by Act of Parliament, lief of Lucknow. The third volume will comprise If this be so, it is uufortunate that Lord Auck- a narrative of the operations of the army under land had too much pride to acknowledge its nuli- Sir Colin Campbell, of the recovery of Oude, of ty; unfortunate that—though in 1838 the Home the campaign in Central India, and finally of Government in general terms denied the existence those measures by which Lord Canning sought to of any treaty with the King of Oude, duly ratified restore confidence to the princes and people of and approved—the treaty, years after this date, India, and general prosperity to the land.- Vestwas still held to be valid, and described as such minster Review, by Colonel Sleeman in a letter to Sir James Hogg. It is still further unfortunate—if indeed we ought not to substitute throughout a stronger term—that
SCIENCE. it crept by mistake into a collection of treaties, Heat.-Professor Tyndall has communicated to under the auspices of an Under-Secretary. So the Royal Society the results of his important rematters stood when, in 1852, the misrule in Oude searches on the invisible heat radiation of the was of so fearful 'a description that Colonel Slee- electric light. The distribution of heat in the man, who was opposed to annexation, advised the spectrum of the electric light was examined by new Governor-General, Lord Dalhousie, to assume means of a linear thermo-electric pile. The electhe administration, but not to grasp the revenues tric spectrum was formed by lenses and prisms of of the country. In defiance of advice and warn- pure rock-salt, its width being equal to the length ings, Lord Dalhousie proposed that the King of the row of elements forming the pile. The of Oude should rest all power, jurisdiction, latter standing at right angles to the length o
the spectrum was caused to pass through its vari Petroleum.-The use of petroleum as steam fuel ous colors in succession, and to search the spaces in place of coal, is attracting considerable attenbeyond the region of color in both directions. As tion. Mr. C. J. Richardson is conducting exis in the case of the solar spectrum the heat was periments at Woolwich Dockyard, with the view found to augment from the violet to the red, to test the capability of petroleum to supersede wbile the maximuin heating effect was observed coal and other fuel on board ship. Dr. Paul has beyond the red. The augmentation of tempera- published some calculations, in which he attempts ture beyond the red in the case of the electric to prove that the proposed application of it is light is sudden and enormous, being much greater based upon erroneous impressions respecting the than that obtained by Professor Müller for the composition and character of petroleum as comsolar spectrum. Aqueous vapor acts powerfully pared with coal. He starts with the statement upon the invisible rays, and doubtless the action that the oil can be so utilized that one ton is equal of this substance in our atmosphere has modified for steam purposes to five tons of coal. Now, the the intensity of the rays beyond the red. In the specific gravitity of coal being about 1:44, while experiments now to be referred to, the rays from that of petroleum is from 0.80 to 0.85, the the electric light were converged by a small con- weight of a cubic foot of these materials would cave glass mirror silvered at the back. It was be respectively-coal 90lbs., and petroleum 50lbs brought so near the electric light as to cast an to 531bs. But since petroleum, being liquid, lies image of the coal points five or six inches in ad- in a more compact manner than coal, in estimavance of the light. A solution of iodine in bisul- ting the spaces occupied by these materials an phide of carbon contained in a rock-salt cell was allowance of one-third should be made for the then placed in front of the lamp; the whole of interstices or empty spaces between the lumps of the luminous rays where thereby cut off, the dark coal; so that the spaces occupied by equal heat rays only coming to a focus.
weights of coal and petroleum are about as 1 is to In this focus of intense heat, in which nothing 1.2 or 1:4. Then the relative heating-power of whatever is visible to the sight, what will take equal weights of coal and petroleum, depending place if a solid body is introduced? Will the upon their respective chemical composition, are body become red or white hot; that is to say, will in the following ratio :-Calorific power-coal, the long vibrations of the heat rays be exalted 1.02, petroleum, 1.50 ; and the spaces occuin refrangibility and vibrate in a quicker period ? pied by quantities of petroleum and of coal would We know that rays can be lowered in refrangibili- be in the ratio of 1 to 1:16; a difference in favor ty, but the possibility of rays of low refrangibility of petroleum too small to admit of any advanbeing raised higher has been denied by some phy- tage being gained in regard to stowage. The sicists on theoretical grounds, The experiments question of price, moreover, must not be left out in of Professor Tyndall have conclusively settled the such discussions. Dr. Paul argues that, since the question, and proved that rays can be transmitted price of petroleum varies froin 15l. to 201. per upwards, as well as downwards.
ton, while that of coal used for steam-vessels With an eight-inch mirror behind the electric varies from under 1l. to 31. 108., the cost of equal light, the opaque solution of iodine in front, and quantities of heat produced from these materials the focus of invisible rays about six inches distant would be, under the most favorable circumstances, from the electric light, the following effects have' as in the ratio of 151, to 41. In addition to this, been obtained :-Wood painted black, when the highly inflammable nature of petroleum must brought into the dark focus, emits copious vol- be considered. Its storage on board a ship would umes of smoke, and is soon kindled at the two require the use of air-tight vessels, and even then spots on which the images of the two coal points there might be considerable risk of the production fall. A piece of brown paper placed near the of explosive mixtures of the petroleum vapor and focus soon shows a burning surface which spreads air. What, asks Dr. Paul, would be the condiover a considerable space, the paper finally burst- tion of a vessel of war provided with petroleum ing into flame. The end of a cigar placed at the as fuel if a shot penetrated the vessel containing dark focus is instantly ignited. A piece of char- the petroleum, and allowed it to escape in proxcoal suspended in a receiver of oxygen is ignited imity to the boiler fires ? in the dark focus and caused to burn brilliantly. In answer to these objections of Dr. Paul, Mr. A mixture of oxygen and hydrogen is exploded Richardson, the patentee, asserts that the relative in the dark focus by the ignition of its envelope. heating-powers of petroleum and coal, as dependMagnesium wire presented suitably to the focus, ing upon their chemical composition, is not the burns with its intensely luminous fame. In all question; the ability of cach to create steam is these cases the effect was due in part to chemical the real matter to be considered. Petroleum, as action; this, however, may be excluded. For steam fuel, can be very nearly fully utilized ; instance, platinized platinum in thin leaf may be it produces no ash, submits to mechanical manrendered white hot, and on it is depicted an in- agement, and makes little or no smoke; does not candescent image of the coal points. When the require any strong draught or current of air like points are drawn apart or caused to approach coal, which will not burn without it, the conseeach other, their incandescent images conform quence being that a very considerable portion of to their motion. Professor Tyndall proposes that the fuel is lost, as waste heat, in the chimney. the assemblage of phenomena here described, and In careful experiments by Mr. Wye Williams, to others to be referred to in his completed memoirs, ascertain the best form of boiler to obtain the should be expressed by the term calorescence." greatest amount of heat from coal, he gives the This word involves no hypothesis, and it harmo- temperature of the waste heat in the first experinizes well with the term fluorescence, now uni- ment as 1060°; in the second, 760°; and in the versally employed with reference to the more re- third, 635°. If these are the temperatures, with a frangible end of the spectrum. - Quarterly Jour-/ consumption of only three-and-a-half cwt, of coal nal of Science.
in each experiment, what would be the tempera- / second; the square of fth of which is 516.55, ture of the waste heat in the chimney of a furnace which is the height to which a body moving upburning from twenty to thirty tons of coals per ward at this speed would rise. Were this elecday? We know the current is so strong that it trical horse to make a turn upwards at an angle of often carries up small coal and cinders along with 45°, he would describe a parabola 258 feet high it; that the heated gases often take fire by a and' 1,032 feet long. spark from the furnace, and burn at the top of In connection with this subject we may menthe funnel with a fierceness almost equalling the tion an electric brake which has been recently flame from a blast furnace. Is this flame or under experiment on the Strasburg Railway. A Waste heat employed in creating steam? And system of brakes attached to any number of how much of the coal is utilized? In practice, carriages in a train is brought into operation by Mr. Richardson says, the ratio of the heating- interrupting an electric current by means of a power of petroleum and coal is about 1.4 to 0.4. little apparatus attached to the tender, and thus The patented grate, which burns petroleum under the control of the driver. When contact through a porous matter, proves that one ton of is made, and the current is established again, the petroleum does as much work as five tons of brakes cease to act. Connected with this is an coal. If four tons out of five are saved for freight arrangement by which the guard and even the space, the price of the latter being 71. per ton, passengers can communicate with the enginethe profit on every ton of petroleum would be driver. The experiments made showed that all 141. 158.—the coal at 158., the petroleum at 17l. the contrivances were perfectly effective, trains per ton. But a ship-owner might not select the going at great speed being brought to rest in a American crude oil at 171.; he could take the distance of 250 to 300 metres, instead of from Flintshire coal oil, which is quite as good for his | 1,200 to 1,500 as by the usual system of brakes. purpose, and costs only about 101. per ton. The With an improved method of pointing pins average price of coal on a long voyage would be and needles, we will conclude our chronicles of low at 21. per ton. Taking the prices and the physics for this quarter. It is known that if the freight at the reduced sum of 5l. per ton in a ship two electrodes of copper, iron, or steel, are set requiring 500 tons of coal, and using instead 100 vertically in acidulated water, and reaching tons of petroleum, the profit by the exchange nearly to each other, the positive very quickly would be 2,0001. Respecting the highly danger- becomes pointed. The experiment can of course ous inflammable nature of petroleum, Mr. Rich- be made by making the positive pole of a number ardson considers it to be greatly exaggerated. of wires, and carefully regulating the negative If the oil were contained in cast-iron cases, se pole. Two or three Bunsen's cells only are recurely closed, no vapor could escape; or if the quired to do the work. Considering the diseases small amount of spirit which produces the in- which arise from pointing pins and needles in the flammable vapor was first extracted, the residue, usual way, this method, which is a discovery of the burning oil and heavy petroleum, would be M. Cauderay, certainly deserves attention,' alno more dangerous than so much lard or sper- though some supplementary polishing would maceti.—Quarterly Journal of Science.
seem to be inevitably required. - Ibid. Electricity. The adaptation of electricity to the production of motive force is attracting considera Royal and Imperial Honors.—The author of ble attention in France just now. MM. Bellet and the fine Epic poem, “Pelayo,' of the “Olden Rouve are exhibiting at Versailles a small locomo- Moorish Times,” Mrs. E. T. Porter Beach, of tive driven by electricity. This certainly merits New York, received from the Empress of France, some attention since the inventors do not seem to
a gold Medal of rare beauty and value, a year claim any extraordinary powers for their machine. since, and quite recently, as we learn, has received They only propose it for carrying light weights, from the Queen of Spain a golden Bracelet, such as letters by an underground railway. The massive, elaborately wrought, richly enameled, driving-wheel of the engine is made of copper, gemed with a large Oriental topaz of rare lustre through which at equidistant intervals pass a se and value, on the centre of which is the cipher ries of horse-shoe electro-magnets_twenty in the of her Majesty set in diamonds at the top of whole circumference. The current is made to this stone, a crown of diamonds, on either side pass successively through these magnets, contact and at its base pure pearls of great size. The being made and broken by means of two discs at the bracelet contains sixty-three diamonds, and was axis of the wheel, the iron rail attracting these accompanied by complimentry letters from the magnets causes the rotation of the wheel, and in Spanish Minister, and the American Charge d' the absence of great weight the vehicle pro- | Affairs, who expressed his special gratification for gresses at an extraordinary speed; locomotives the royal honor paid to his gifted country woman. on this plan being asserted to be able to travel As the Empress and Queen of Spain are both with ease on existing railways at a rapidity of 120 natives of that country, they both express their miles an hour. The batteries are placed at the high gratification on the perusal of this fine poem termini to save the weight and the carriage, so rich in its historic allusions to Spanish scenes and the current is conveyed by insulated wires and incidents, in Moorish annals. The private running between the rails and over a roller in the Secretary of her Majesty was commanded by the locomotive. With respect to this plan an Ameri- Queen to express in her royal name her great can paper enters into some curious calculations as pleasure in “Pelayo,” as descriptive of her people to what such an engine would do in the way of and country. The poem is beautifully published jumping. The velocity is 181.825 feet per by the Appletons.