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ority of the enemy. The hill of the tele-| teries continued its crushing fire on the graph, the culminating point of the cen-retreating troops of Codrington. tre of our position, was occupied by the The troops of General Kiriakow, after French, who planted their flag upon it." | their encounter with the French near the
The whole French army was now ad- telegraph, did not stop again in their revancing, and “thus it came to pass that treating movement till they reached the whilst the right wing of our army was Katcha, and they were followed by the still engaged in a furious conflict, in which regiment of Borodino. The light batthe efforts of the English were broken tery, number two, was the last to quit the against the firmness and courage of our position. It was with great difficulty troops, the combat on the left wing was that it cleared the height in consequence already terminated. The English have of its loss in horses. been described as reaching the right bank At this point the English are again of the river at half-past one, and without brought upon the stage; and it is both attempting to cross, opening a warm fire curious and instructive to compare this of artillery and small arms, from which description of their maneuvres with the Russians, particularly the artillery, those hitherto received in England as suffered much. Here they remained till best authenticated. the whole of Prince Napoleon's division At length, it is stated, the divisions of had crossed the river, on hearing which, the Duke of Cambridge and General about two o'clock, Lord Raglan ordered Evans, having reached the river, began the advance." The order in which the to cross; whilst Brown's division reached English advance was made is correctly the left bank despite of the fire of the stated in the main, and its steadiness is regiment of the Grand Duke Michel, acknowledged. We learn, also, that our and that of twelve guns placed behind artillery played with effect on the Rus- a low earth work * on the right of the sian skirmishers. But when the English main road. Seeing this, Prince Gorthad reached the bridge, two batteries schakow ordered two batteries of the occupying the heights of the two sides same regiment, who had suffered less of the main road, received them with a than the other, to charge with the bayviolent fire of grape, and the riflemen of onet; whereupon the English, drawing two regiments concentrated their fire on back towards the river and letting them them. Codrington's brigade, assailed by approach to within a short distance, cannon and musketry on its advance to opened a deadly fire on them. After the bridge, suffered considerable losses, losing their colonel and several other offiits ranks were thrown into confusion, cers, they retired towards the earth work and it retired in great disorder behind in such a manner as to prevent the batBourliouch.* But the English skirmish- teries from covering their retreat. Close ers opened their fire bebind the inclos- upon their heels followed an English ures, and began to penetrate into the vine- regiment, the Twenty-third, on whose yards of the left bank. The accuracy of approach the gunners in the earth work their aim caused terrible losses, and espe- limbered up and hurried off, leaving two cially contributed to check the fire of guns which they were unable to move; two light batteries on the left of the road. the one from want of horses, and the The situation of these two batteries be other from its disabled state. In another came still more critical when, after a cer moment the English flag was seen floattain time, two English guns succeeded ing from the earth work. But the first in crossing the Alma at a ford lower and second battalions of the Wladimir down than Bourliouch, and after having regiment are at hand to retrieve the discleared a rise in the hill, got into posi- aster. Reckless of the terrible fire of tion and enfiladed them. Whilst this the English, they execute an impetuous was going on, one of the Russian bat- bayonet-charge in a compact mass; the
English are driven out of the breast work,
having hardly time to fire a few shots; * The Light Division, including Codrington's and it is occupied anew by the Russians, brigade, crossed the river higher up than the bridge, and sustained no check till they reached who, sheltered bebind the p:irapet, open the earthwork popularly called the Great Redoubt, which they carried by a rush.
Epaulement--the Great Redoubt.
a very animated fire against the English, and after occuping the telegraph hill, compelled to retire precipitately towards had directed against the Russian right the river. “Whilst this was passing, flank three French batteries and half an the French had occupied the telegraph English battery. This artillery, comheight, and their reserves were already prising twenty-three guns, opened a massed on the left bank, whilst the troops deadly fire, and at the same moment the of General Kiriakow were in full retreat French troops resumed their onward towards the Katcha.”
march. Thus taken at disadvantage the The cartridges of the Grand Duke's Wladimir regiment first halted, then regiment being just now exhausted, the made a fresh charge with the bayonet, English, after getting beyond the reach then took refuge behind the breastwork, of the smooth-bore muskets, had only and stood at bay. The brigade Colin to sustain the fire of a handful of Wlad. Campbell threatened to turn it on its imir riflemen; so they balted at some right flank; the division of Prince Napaces from the river, and there having poleon, advancing more to the left, begun to re-form, they reopened their hastened to cut it off from the road to fire. Lord Raglan ordered up the divi- Sebastopol; the French battery thunsions of the Duke of Cambridge and dered on its flank, whilst the divisions of Lacy-Evans, who by this time bad man- Brown, Lacy-Evans, and the Duke of aged to cross the river, to support the Cambridge rained on it a shower of shattered troops of Brown. They ad- shells and musket bullets. But the regvanced again towards the earthwork, iment moved not; althongh it had lost and the situation of the Russians be- its commander, three chiets of battalion, came critical; the more especially be fourteen captains, thirty officers, and cause they had no longer any artillery about thirteen hundred soldiers, it stood at hand to disturb the English in their firm. formation or advance, and the terrible At length, fearing that the retreat rifiemen had picked off a startling pro- would be cut off, and seeing that all portion of their officers. Nevertheless hope was over of restoring the battle in Prince Gortschakow and General Kvizin. the centre and the left flank, Menschisky did not shrink from a fresh sacrifice kow, about four in the afternoon, orderio keep the position; they both com- ed Gortschakow to draw off the troops manded a bayonet charge, and led on of the right flank on the chain of in person the remains of the Wladimirs, heights; and the retreat was effected in who, excited by the example of their good order, with the loss of only two leaders, rushed forward with hurrahs, guns, those already mentioned as abansome over the breast work, some from doned in the breast work. Indeed, the its sides, and flung themselves on the Russian artillery, far from being disfoe. " At the sight of the decisive on- abled as we supposed, now figures as a slaught of this regiment, the first line decisive check on the pursuit. Ilow of the English battalions became con- this opportune efficiency is to be reconfused, broke, and began retiring towards ciled with the prior story of its loss in the bridge. But in this supreme mo. men and horses, and how a single comment our (the Russian) troops were all pany of the Wladimir regiment, surof a sudden taken in tlank by French rounded and out - numbered as it was, artillery, and this unforeseen attack de- ever escaped to tell the tale, we confess termined the success. of the action in ourselves unable to unravel. There is favor of the English."*
also a good deal of minor inconsistency It is then explained that St. Arnaud, and tautology in the narrative, mostly learning the obstinate resistance encoun- suppressed in our abridgment; and the tered by the English, had suspended for General, if he is to be held responsible some instants the advance of his troops, for it, is at variance with Russian offi
cers of rank present at the engagement, This statement, that the guins fired into the whose published statements we have flank of the Wladimirs, is evidently copied from read. None of these mention an infanthe Russian account, quoted and accounted for by kinglake, vol. ii. p. 462, note (fourth edition) try tight at the telegraph, although this The guns in question were either Turner's bat- is just the event which they would have tery on the knoll, or the guns of Evans' division. commemorated for the honor of their
countrymen. Kiriakow says expressly squadrons that so much of them as that the tide of conflict began to turn escaped destruction would not have against the Russians in the centre and ventured to attack the powerful batterthe right wing (where they were oppos- ies of the port; and the allied army, ed to the Britishi), when the first success unaided by the fleet, would not have of the French had been stopped on the been in a condition to render itself masleft wing; and Anitschoff, afier describ- ter of the town. On the arrival of the ing the retreat of the Russian centre and Russian reënforcements, the Allies, so at right, speaks of their being “ followed least thought Admiral Kornilow, could by the left wing, which bad withstood not have failed of being definitively and repelled the attack of the four French crushed by superior forces. divisions till the moment of the general This project was rejected as too hazretreat."
ardous, first by the council, and secondTodleben attributes the loss of the ly by Prince Menschikow; and no alterbattle mainly to the superior discipline native was left but to sink the ships, and arms of the Allies. The smooth-bore seven in number, with a portion of their musket, he says, was utterly unable to armament, which there was not time to contend with the ritle, to which the close disembark. The ceremony is described formation of the Russians gave marked as solemn and melancholy in the exadvantages. lle also thinks that the treme. “The sailors, their hearts swellomission to fortify the heights was a ing with anguish, looked on in silence blunder; and he censures the over-basty whilst the waves engulfed these poble retreat of Kiriakow from the telegraph vessels, to which, for the fleet of the heights.
Black Sea, were attached so many gloriPrince Menschikow having made good ous recollections. But the emotion was his retreat to Sebastopol, anxious con- at its height when the steamer "Gromsultations were held asio the best meth-onossitz' was ordered to fire into the ods of defence. Todleben bimself was "Tri-Sviatitelia,' to hasten is submerimmediately set to work to strengthen sion. Tears restrained till then rolled the fortifications; and orders were given down the cheeks of our brave sailors.” to Admiral Kornilow to block up the In the meantime, the allied armies entry of the roadstead by sinking a cer- had arrived (September 24th) near Bel. tain number of ships, whose crews were beck; their bivouacs could be discerned to be added to the garrison. Before from the Norih Fort. The insufficient executing this order, the admiral assem- garrison of this fort expected thencebled a council of naval officers, and sub- forth from hour to hour to see its feeble mitted to them that the enemy, after intrenchments attacked by a powerful having occupied the northwest side of adversary; and its position seemed the the roadstead, might force the Russian more critical, insomuch as Prince Mensfleet to abandon its actual position, take chikow bad quitted Sebastopol in the possession of the north side, and burn, night to proceed with his army to Bakhtby the fire of their batteries, the ships chisarai by the Mackenzie heights. After moored in the great bay. Starting from his departure, there remained in Sebas. these assumptions, the admiral resolved topol sixteen thousand five hundred and to attempt a very hazardous enterprise : sixty-nine fighting men, including sevhe proposed to sail ont, and attack the eral battalions of sailors. On the 13th, allied tleet at anchor off Cape Loukoul. the North Fort bad twelve guns in posiHe had calculated that, if bis plan suc- tion on the land side; and these were ceeded, the fleet of the Black Sea could so placed as to be unable to concentrate disperse the invading armada of trans- their fire; whilst ships brought close to ports, and thus deprive the allied army the shore could batter it with impunity. of reënforcements and means of subsist-Works constricted under the direction
In case of the failure of the at- of Todlehen had materially strengthentack, Kornilow proposed to grapple with ed it by the 25th, but it still offered a the enemy's vessels, and blow himself front of a verst and a half (about a mile), up along with them. This bold stroke, armed only with twenty-nine guns, and according to the brave admiral, would he gives it as his opinion, " that the ininevitably have so weakened the allied sufficient garrison which was to defend
the northern side of the roadway would " which has but a weak garrison for its defence. hardly bave been able, despite of its I find myself obliged to sink the vessels of bravery and its spirit, to oppose a slight- the squadron intrusted to me, and to unite
the crews, armed with their boarding-weaply- prolonged resistance to a numerous enemy.” The state of the North Fort ons, to the garrison. I am convinced that
cach of the commanders, officers, and sailors, on the 25th of September is thus de- will fight like a hero ; we shall be about scribed:
3000; the rallying-place is the square of the " In the North Fort, there was scarcely time Theatre. Let the squadron hold itself fore
warned.” to elevate its low parapet, of little thickness, and half crumbled away, to give it the eleva On the evening of the 26th the news tion of a field-work, so as to form a protec. arrived in town that the Allies had seized tion against the fire of the enemy. To adapt a part of the baggage-train of Menschithe parapet to musketry, a banquette was
kow's added, and the crest of the parapet, was bus tions with Sebastopol. With the
and cut off its communicaplied with battlements formed of earth-bags.
excepThe old walls of the scarp gave way to the tion of this intelligence, nothing was pressure of the earth freshly brought to aug- | heard of or from the army; at this critment the elevation of the parapet. They ical period, no one in Sebastopol knew crumbled down, and filled up the narrow what had become of it or where it was ditch with their ruins. Thus it fell out that to be found. in the western bastion a practicable breach, quite fit for use, was formed before ever the “ Thus the defenders of Sebastopol had no enemy had approached the work. And all assistance to reckon upon ; we have seen that this happ-ned at the very moment when the it was impossible to repulse the enemy with enemy's columns were already in view of the the unaided forces of the garrison. There North Fort, on the space extending between remained to them no other alternative than the Katcha and the Belbeck."
that of laying down their lives gloriously on
the post contided to the bravery. Admiral Kornilow, however, resolved
“On the morning of the 27th, the clergy to hold the fort to the last extremity, made a procession, with the cross and the and dispositions were made, at his de- boly water, along the whole line of defence. sire, by Todleben for the reception of Kornilow, riding round the intrenchments, the expected assailants. These are mi- harangued the troops, and sought to excité nutely described, and their insufficiency
their courage. against a resolute assault is demonstrat
“My children,' he said, 'we must fight ed by an elaborate train of reasoning, against the enemy to the last extremity; in which the pros and cons are carefully than give way.
every man of us must die on the spot rather
Kill the man who shall dare weighed. It was conseqnently with a to talk of falling back. Kill me myself, , sensation of relief, mingled with aston- should I give such an order." ishment, that, on the morning of the
Had the admiral ever heard of Henri 26th September, the garrison, constant de la Rochejaquelin's address to his folly on the alert, and in mom-ntary ex lowers: “ si j'avance, suivez-moi. Si pectation of an attack, learned that the je tombe, vengez-moi. Si je recule, tuezallied army was moving towards the east in the direction of the Mackenzie ment of Moscow was in the same exalt
moi.” Kornilow's address to the regifarm. The fears felt for the north were ed strain: now transferred to the south, which had been comparatively neglected, under an
“Soldiers of the regiment of Moscow, you impression that it was not likely to be find yourselves here on the extreme limits of the first object of the besiegers. Its sian empire. The Tzar and all Russia have
Russia ; you defend a corner dear to the Rusgarrison consisted only of five thousand their eyes fixed on you. If you do not faithm-n, including sailors, and Admiral fully discharge your duty, Moscow, at your Nakhmikow, the local commander, de return, will not receive you as sons worthy spairing of an effectual resistance, made of the name you bear.” the necessary arrangements for sinking
However, adds Todleben, neither the all the ships of his squadron, to prevent exaltation of the troops, nor their resother from being captured, and (Septem-lution to fight to the last, would have ber 26 h) issued the following order of been able to save Sebastopol, if the enethe day :
my had attacked immediately after his “ The enemy is advancing towards the city | passage of the Tschernaia.
The strategic reasons which at first success, and the hope that the town would . induced Prince Menschikow to leave be saved.” the garrison to their fate are examined Dating from this period, the contest in detail; the principal being the sup- was turned into one of engineering skill, posed impossibility of making head be in which the Allies were certainly worsthind incomplete fortifications against an ed; for the strength of the defences inenemy flushed with recent victory, and creased faster than the means of dstroythe fear of losing his whole army with ing or overcoming them. This reflects the town. His plan, it seems, was to the more honor on Todleben and his hang upon the rear of the Allies, harass branch of the service, because not only their communications, and save at least (as already mentioned) was there an exthe rest of the peninsula. Why he traordinary scarcity of tools, but the abandoned this plan is not explained ; rocky nature of the ground, almost enall we are permitted to know of the tirely denuded of turf, caused great change of intention is the fact, that, on difficulty in getting proper materials the 30th of September, about midday, to for the earth works, which, being more the great joy of the whole garrison, his than half composed of stones and gravel, troops appeared on the heights of Bel- were liable to sink or crumble under beck, and at two in the afternoon the fire. The first decisive trial began at prince arrived in person at the North half past six on the morning of the 17th Fort.
of October, when all the besieging batAs soon as the allied armies appeared teries simultaneously opened fire. In on the south, all the workmen that could full expectation that an assault would be got together were employed to ensue, the Russian troops were drawn strengthen the defences on that side, up behind their intrenchments and sufand a good deal was done within four fered greatly. The works, also, were days in the execution of new batteries damaged in parts, and some guns were connected by earth works; but it is dismounted." But the garrison replied stated over and over again, with weari. with such effect, that in rather more some iteration, that all must have proved than four hours the French batteries unavailing against a combined and resou were completely silenced. lute assault. The only hope of the be
“The cannonade had lasted more than sieged lay in the (to them) unaccounta- three hours with equal vivacity on all points, bly cautious and dilatory proceedings when, all of a sudden, about half-past nine, of the besiegers, who were all along one of our shells blew up a powder-magazine acting on an impression that the place in one of the French batteries on the Rodolph was too strong to be attacked before hill
. This explosion was hailed on our side
The the fire of its artillery had been at least by a loud and triumphant hurrah. partially subdued. They therefore re- French battery was completely orerthrown, solved to construct siege batteries, and which permitted us to concentrate all our on the night of the 27th the first trench hill
. Half an hour after the first explosion
energies on the other French batteries on the was opened by the French.
there was a second. These two explosions
were not without results, for the fire of the “ This," says Todleben, was done with French artillery began gradually to slacken, out our suspecting it, favored as it was by a . and was soon entirely extinguished. Tostrong wind which blew off the town during wards half-past ten its fire ceased detinitively the whole night in the direction of the along the whole line. enemy's works, so that we only became "Such was not the result of our contest aware of it at dawn. Those who know any with the English batteries, which were not thing of siege warfare may imagine what a long in manifesting a great relative superiorijoyful impression we must have felt at ty over our artillery, arising principally from the sight. It became then evident for us the difference of calibre. The Third Bastion that the Allies had not decided on an immedi- suffered especially from the English batteries, ate assault, and that they intended first to es- exposed as it was to the concentrated fire tablish batteries in the hope of disabling our of the Montagne Vert and the Mont Woronartillery ; so that we mighit yet gain time, at zow.” least during some days. Everybody in Sebastopol was gladdened by this happy event; At this point the account of the land they addressed mutual congratulations to attack is interrupted to describe the each other; for all saw in it a guarantee of simultaneous attack of the allied fleets