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polished syenite, is about a third of that | Ramses the Great. The other two were of the obelisk of Luxor, which now adorns buried in the sixteenth and twenty-sixth the Place de la Concorde at Paris. years of Ramses respectively. Brugsch, who saw them soon after they The other principal section of the Apis were discovered, says that a couple of catacombs branched out into several galdozen men can stand and move freely in leries, which were successively excavated the cavity. An engraving of that which as occasion required. The first bull contained the mummy of the Apis which whose mummy was deposited in this died in the fifty-first year of Ptolemy newer portion of the souterrains was Euergetes II. (B.C. 119), will be found in buried in the fifty-second year of Psamthe Magasin Pittoresque for 1855. metichus I., and the excavations were

The souterrains of the Serapeum, ex. continued down to the first century of cavated with more or less care in the liv- the Christian era and beyond it, in fact, ing calcareous rock, are divided into two till the transfer of the centre of the worprincipal parts. The first great trunk ship of Serapis to the new capital, Alexline of this vast subterranean cemetery andria. It was here that the most maghad its entrance at the south end, and nificent sarcophagi were found, testifying pursued a northerly direction, forming a to the ever-growing pomp and splendor vaulted gallery like a tunnel. Its sides of the Apis cultus. The least ponderous were pierced by more than a score of of these sacred monolith coffers of costly sepulchral chambers, which were found and exquisitely polished syenitic granite, to be tenanted by the remains of twenty- quarried above the first cataract, and four Apis mummies. The oldest was transported at immense expense to Memburied in the thirtieth year of Ramses phis, weighs 65,000 French kilogrammes the Great, the Sesostris of the Greeks, or about sixty-four tons. Twenty-four and the youngest in the twenty-first year of them were found entire in the forty of Psammetichus I. (B. C. 647), showing, chambers of the subterranean labyrinth that at least that number of generations of Psammetichus. The lintels of the enof catile must have lived and died during trance to these chambers, but not the that chronological interval. The sacred walls of the Apis vaults themselves, bulls whose memorials have been found which were deemed too sacred, were covin the debris of the Serapeum and its ered with hieroglyphical and Demotic catacombs were not all, however, buried inscriptions, the latter greatly preponin these souterrains. There is a still derating in this portion of the catacombs. earlier series of them, whose mummies These funerary stelte or tablets, to the seem to have been deposited each in its number of more than five hundred, are separate chapel or sanctuary. Five of now deposited in the Salle d'Apis at the these more ancient Apises belong to the Louvre. They constitute a mine of archeEighteenth Manethonian Dynasty, the ological wealth, which will furnish proffirst of them having died under Amen- itable subjects of study to the Egyptoloophthis III., the next under his immedi- gers of all nations for many a long year ate successor Tutankamen, the two next to come. Their immense importance in under Horus, and the last under a sov- a chronological point of view, especially, ereign whose family-name has not yet is already universally recognized, albeen discovered, but whose throne-title though even yet it can hardly be said to or prenomen seems to read Acherres, be quite duly appreciated. At first it which is the name of one of the later was somewhat overrated, it may frankly Pharaohs belonging to this Dynasty in be admitted, and thence the reäction, or the Manethonian lists. Following these something like it, which a great disapwere three bulls, the records of which pointment naturally brings with it. were discovered by Mariette, all of For when Mariette's discovery began which belong to the Nineteenth Dynasty, to be talked about amongst the learned, but to that epoch which preceded the it was confidently expected that it would opening of what we may style the Old enable us to reconstruct with perfect Subterranean Gallery. One of these died certainty the chronology of the Pharaolis noder Seti or Sethos, the First, as he is from Amenophthis III., the semi-mythicommonly but as we now know errone-cal Memnon of the Greeks, or at least uosly numbered, the greater father of from their Sesostris, that is, from Ramses

the Great, downwards. For the opinion / tervening centuries.” Alas! the intelliwas universally prevalent, that the Apis gent and honest traveller who thus in Cycle of twenty-tive Exyptian years, com. good faith promised to quench our thirst prising an exact number (309) of lunar only thought he saw water, and it was months, of which Plutarch speaks in his after all only a mirage of the Lybian destreatise on Isis and Osiris, was the inva- ert, whence he dates his letter! Plutarch's riable duration of the lifetime of the dei Apis Cycle of twenty-five vague Egypfied bull, as it really proves to have been tian years, in the sense - if sense that its normal term. Scholars did not stop to can be called which sense has none-pit inquire how the sacred ox could be al- upon it by that lazy deference to great ways kept alive to the end of this some names which is the special weakness of what unusual age. This notion, the irref. even the best scholars, has been tried by ragable authority of the official stela, re. the touchstone of monumental reality, cording the year, month, and day of the and demonstrated to be a chimera. birth, solemn enthronization as the royal Moreover, there are now known to be present deity, death, and burial of sev- terrible gaps, caused by the desolations eral successive Apises, has for ever ex. of two thousand years, in the series of ploded. Had it been well-founded, the Apis records. The sixty-four bulls of value of such a cycle is obviously incal- which traces are left, were by no means culable. It would have saved us many all whose epiphanies, installations, deaths, bitter but fruitless lamentations over the and burials, were originally written down lacunae, which are now known to exist in the papyrus and stone archives of the in this series of official Apis dates, given, Serapeum between Amenophthis III. and be it remembered, not in terms of any the Roman Emperor Caius. Still they era, but only in regnal years of the constitute a vast and precious augmentaPharaohs. The broken links in this tion of the paltry five or six of which wonderful chain of fifteen centuries of we find mention in the classical writers. chronological history before the Chris. One of these is that written of by Hetian era, would have been of infinitely rodotus and said by him to have been less importance than they are now felt stabbed by that mad King Cambyses in to be. But, indeed, it was at first im- a rage, caused by his mistaking the naagined that there were no broken links tional rejoicings at a new avatar of the at all, and that, at last, the long desid- god for exultation over the discomfiture erated monumental clew to the chronol- of his Ethiopian expedition. Mariette ogy of the only secular empire before asserts, with the assent of Lepsius, that of the Greeks and Romans, which Brugsch, and the rest of the Egyptolseems to have possessed one, had been ogers, that he has found the official obithappily recovered. Even accom- wary of this very Apis, and that it conplished an Egyptologer as Dr. Brugsch vicis the Father of History of an altowrote to that effect to Europe from the gether erroneous statement. For they Serapeum itself, and after threading its identify the calf spoken of by the great mazy galleries, and spelling out the Greek with that born in the fifth

year

of scutcheous and dates of the inscriptions Cambyses on the twenty-eighth of the in the society of the discoverer. In bis Egyptian month Tybi, and which it is Reiseberichte, or Notes of his Travels, certain lived till the fourth year of Darius. published in 1855, he says: “ These For ourselves, we venture to move for stele have enabled Mariette completely an arrest of judgment on the proverbialto restore the series of the Apis Periods, ly honest historian, and shall insist, for and accordingly also that of the Pha- the present at least, that the Scotch verraohs, from Ramses the Great down to dict Not Proven, will amply meet the the Greek times, exclusively of the XX. justice of the case. For the Apis which (misprint, doubtless, for XXI.), XXIII., died under Darius, though born in the fifth and XXIX. Dynasties, and that in the month of the fifth of Cambyses, may not unbroken succession of kings. By this have been discovered till several months means an impregnable and immovable or even a year or two afterwards. The foundation has been secured on which finding of the Apis which was manifested to build up safely the Egyptian chronol in the twenty-eighth year of Shishak III. ogy and imperial history during the in- I did not take place till “his beauties, that

SO

is, the mysterious marks by which he was passage than that to which the Serapeum recognized, had been sought for three tablets have given the coup de grace. months,” so the hieroglyphical stela re. It is impossible to explain a way the nucords, " in all the nomes, or counties, of merous other ancient testimonies to the Upper and Lower Egypt.” Polyænus, effect that the Apis was not suffered to too, records that the finding of the Apis survive a certain term of life, which was was so long delayed in one instance at prescribed in the sacred books of the the close of the reign of Darius, that Egyptians, and that when this fatal day Egypt threatened to break out into re was reached he was drowned by the volt, and the king was fain to offer a re- priests in the holy well, to be bewailed ward of one hundred talents to the man by every inhabitant of the land of Ilam who should make the fortunate discov. more bitterly than the loss of the dearest ery. Hence, although, as the official relative, and to be buried seventy days stelæ prove, there were only six or seven afterwards with a pomp and magnifimonths intervening between the funeral cence of which it is not easy to form a of the Apis in the Epiphi (the eleventh just conception. If, now, this sacred month) and in the fourth year of Cam- limit, which the Apis was not suffered byses, and the Apis birth in the end of to survive, were one astronomically Tybi in bis-fifth, yet the interval between determined, the mention by Plutarch of that funeral in his fourth, and the dis- an astronomical cycle in connection with covery of that born in his fifth (whose en the subject, is at once explained. This thronization-date, it should be remarked, suggestion has already been thrown out is lost) may have been quite long enough by Dr. IIineks, one of the most penetratto allow of the transaction of the events ing geniuses of this or of any age. If · which Herodotus records. And if these his further suggestion, that the death of events did happen, then his Apis also, the Apis, as a general rule, and the enlike that of Polyænus, and those of thronization invariably, occurred at the Diodorus, Josephus, and Spartian, is un- time of full moon, the revelations of fortunately missing in the extant Sera- the Serapeum tablets would reässert for peum Series. In other words, not one of themselves something more than the inthese classical Apises appears in that terest and value attaching to monuments Series, thus affording the direct proof recording the years of birth, death, and of the existence of very many lacuno, lifetime of any ordinary Egyptian. This, an inference which the due study of the since the explosion of the Apis cycle, in stelæ converts into positive certainty. its old acceptation, is now all their chro

Let us not, however, be too much dis- nological value, according to Professor heartened. Every one of these sixty. Lepsius. These stele would count for four Apises bears a monumental date of more if they be really the epitaphs of the the reign of some Pharaoh, and about Divine Pharaohs of Egypt, who, unlike one half of them are referred by the stelæ their human vicegerents, lived and died to a definite regnal year, mostly with the according to a definitely ascertained addition of the very month and day. astronomical rule. Still more striking This is something, especially since in no would be the rehabilitation of these preinstance are there wanting decisive mon- cious monuments of a people, the knowlumental indications of the relative order edge of whose history and chronology in which each appeared.

Moreover, if becomes daily of greater inoment, if acthe Apis cycle has been effectually dis- cording to another suggestion, the Sev. posed of in a sense which ought never to enty Days of National Humiliation for have been put upon it, it may still have the Apis were invariably marked, as bern, and there is reason to believe it often as not, precisely at commencement was, the measure of the life of the god, or close, but always within the sacred as the well-informed Plutarch asserts, space of time, by eclipses of the celestial according to a less obvious, but certainly bodies, making heaven to sympathize not less rational interpretation of the with earth in the universal mourning for

the god. Should this assertion prove to That spoken of by Ammianus Marcellinus

be well-founded—and the means of testunder the reign of Júlian does not come into ling it with strict mathematical rigor are consideration here.

in our hands-one of the subtlest, we had

almost written sublimest, master-pieces brought together all the known hieroof ancient priestcraft, may be said to glyphical, names of the Pharaohs and have been placed by an overruling Provi- their Persian, Macedonian, and Roman dence within the reach of modern science, successors, with those of their queens as a powerful lever with which to lift the and the princes of their several royal lid of the sarcophagus which hides from houses, to the number of eight or nine our view the litelike features of this em- hundred scutcheons, announced that the balmed nation. For history without era of monumental discovery might be chronology is forever impossible. Chro- deemed as good as closed, the statenology is the mathematics of time, and, ment by Egyptian scholars was receivconsequently, of the past and its events. ed with a sigh of disappointment. HapAs Scaliger long ago said, it is the eye pily, although quite true as regards the and soul of history.

surface explorations, yet the subsequent If the discovery of the Serapeum be finds of Mariette have proved that ihere entitled to as high a rank in the field of is still a subsoil ploughing of the land historical science, as that other great to be accomplished. His delvings in achievement of our century, the discov- " the field of Zoan," in particular, ery of the sources of the Nile, occupies that is, on the site of the Tanis of the in the physical geography of the globe, Greek writers and the Avaris which, it must be remembered that it is only Manetho states, was the bulwark of the the first instalment of a series of brilliant Hyksos power, have thrown a flood of triumphs over the ravages of time and light upon the darkest period of Egypbarbarism, for which the world is in- tian history, the so-called Middle Empire. debted to Mariette. It should be dis- In like manner, his discovery of the tinctly understood that he has inaugura- tomb of Aahotep, the royal mother of ted an entirely new era in the explora. Amosis, the Liberator of Egypt from the tion of the antiquities of the Monumental yoke of the Shepherds, has done much Land, the Written Valley of the Nile. to clear up the obscure beginnings of the In general, it may be said with perfect great Eighteenth Manethonian Dynasty, truth, that former explorers, from those of which Amosis was the head. It will of the great French and Italian expedi- be in the recollection of many of our tions, down to the Prussian, led by that readers, that the jewels from this tomb wonderful Egyptologer, Lepsius himself, were to be seen in the Egyptian stall and his amicable rival, Dr. Brugsch, during the last Great Exhibition, where scratched only the surface of the soil. they attracted almost as much notice as IIow rich was the harvest which this the Mountain of Light itself or the Goldmere tickling of the ground, to borrow en Pyramid. And well they might; Donglas Jerrold's felicitous expression, for the Palais Royal and Cornhill might made it laugh to reward them, may be safely be defied to match these prodncts seen from the plates accompanying the of the Egyptian, or perhaps Phenician, Description de l'Egypt, the works of jewellers and goldsmiths, who lived some Rosellini and Champollion, and espe- fifteen or sixteen hundred years before cially the nine hundred magnificent folio the Christian era! These, however, are engravings, which with the still, alas, only as scantlings of Mariette's discovdesiderated text, will make up that im- eries, made subsequent to Lepsius's disperishable pile of monumental learning, couraging announcement.

There are to be found only in princely libraries, plenty more of the most absorbing interLepsius's Denkmaeler. But, strange as est, including exquisitely artistic statues the assertion may seem, yet it is strictly in the most perfect condition, and belongtrue, as the words we have cited from ing to the times of Cheops; the new Dr. Birch above strikingly prove, that fragments of the annals of Thothmes the the mountain of materials has only suim- Great, by the translation of which grand ulated the desire for more, and that the inscription-certainly not less important hunger for texts has grown with what it than the Ancyran of Augustus — Dr.

Hence, when, in 1858, Dr. Lep Birch bas achieved immortality ; other sius, on the occasion of presenting to the monuments of the same Egyptian hero's world that other opus magnum of his conquests, containing the long desideratlife, the Königsbuch, in which are ed name of Damascus, amongst others

S;

fed on.

and the Memphis Tablet itself. Of these, the judgment of the sensibility and unand particularly of the last, which may derstanding, acting by a law of harmony be said to furnish for the first time the with his eclectic imagination, resulted in backbone of the history and chronology that evenness, appropriateness, and symof the Old Empire, just as the Apis metry of production, in which he stands Series does that of the New, we hope alone. In imaginative passion he is unto have an opportunity to speak more at rivalled; his genius has energized through length. Meanwhile, we may remark, all their spheres, and embodied each with by way of conclusion, that in the photo individual traits so perfectly that his graphic reproduction also of the monu- characters, whether their ideal be beauty ments, of which his “Sérapéum” fur- or power, goodness or evil, are more like nishes so admirable a specimen, Mariette the natural creations of a human deity, so has opened up a new era, and introduc- to speak, than the productions of a poet ed a reform which was imperatively re. artist. Everywhere he is equal to his quired. And although, owing to circum- subject, which he treats with a

a grasp and stances to which we cannot refer, that subtlety of delineation which places him noble work has been discontinued, yet it above the assumption of parallelism in is a consolation to know that the same ancient and modern days. In his knowlhappy application of the art of photo- edge of dramatic art—for that of nature lithography will be resorted to, whenever was as constantly present to him as the necessary, in the tenfold more extensive air he breathed — he exhibits a regular work, Les Fouilles de M. Mariette, now advance (with the exception of a brief inin course of preparation. May its author terval in his middle period, in which his no longer dim his shining merits by his shorter plays, among them “Timon "and inveterate sin of keeping the world wait- a couple more, which have the appearing too long.

ance of first and untouched sketches, were written) from his first to his

last dramas. In the “Tempest” and Dublin University Magazine.

“Othello" he has produced in the latter

especially) the most perfect symmetry of GOETHE’S FAUST U S.*

effect. His language partakes of the

universality of his genius, it remains at COMPARISONS have frequently been in- once the truest, most lætural, and versastituted between the representative poets tile illustration of imaginative utterance of England and Germany, but the points --whether relecting passion, thought, of difference are much more numerous beauty—which can be discovered in than those of analogy. As natural geni poetry. uses, the one represents at best but a seg The appearance of a Natural Genius ment of the soul of the other. Shaks- so vast as that of Shakspeare circumstanpeare, indeed, is the amplest gifted spirit tially elicited in the age of Elizabeth, is that has ever appeared in any literature. an anomaly not less striking than that of Vever was there such an imagination for Goethe, the Poet of Culture, in the Gercharacter in union with such endless and many of his youth, as yet with a scanty appropriate versatility of poetic power, imitative literature, and in an atmossuch an abnormal development of a sen- phere and surroundment which, so far sitive emotional and passionate system, from fostering, appear's solely calculated controlled by such lofty, various, and to neutralize and annihilate a spirit of subtle intellectual gifts. No one has ever such peculiar tendency. As he says, in given such natural truth to such an ex

“ Wilhelm Meister,” “ The people among tensive range of the creations of person whom I lived had not the slightest tinge ality, since, to use his own words, “mind of literature or science. They were Gerat first in character was done!” An ideal man courtiers, a class of men at that time of individuality once formed in his brain destitute of mental culture.” With their became forth with evolved with the most peculiar relative gifts, however—to the perfect consistency; and this justness of one the age of action in which he lived

to the other, that in which the book Translated by Jons ANSTER, LL.D. London: world was open to any inquiring intelliLongman, Green, and Co. 1864.

gence, became influential in their special New SERIES_VOL. I., No. 1.

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