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FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC TRANSACTIONS OF THE UNITED STATES FROM MARCH 1, 1877, TO DEC. 1, 1882.

PREPARED FROM REPORTS OF THE TREASURY DEPARTMENT.

For year ended For year ended For year ended For year

ended For year ending March 1, 1878. March 1, 1873. March 1, 1880. March 1, 1881. Dec. 1, 1882.

Total receipts.
Total expenditures.
Total debt, less cash in Treasury.
Decrease of debt
Annual interest charge.
Available cash in the Treasury including Resumption fund
Gold coin and bullion held by the Treasury
ellver coin and bullion held by the Treasury..
Esports of live stock
Laports of other food
Total exports, merchandise

Specie..
Total imports, merchandise.

Specie...
Production of cotton, number of bales.
Production of wool, number of pounds.
Production of wheat, number of bushels
Production of cora, number of bushels.
Production of pig iron, number of tons
Production rf coal, number of tons........

$265,342,831 86

218,289,531 58
2,042,037,129 08

46,744,013 96
92,537,283 50
72,920,913 38
121,739,854 95

8,453,909 29

4,205,893 00
269,752,809 00
639,485,209 00

47,103,365 00
475,838,318 00
25,209,050 90

4,485;423
207,000,000

364,194,146
1,842,553,000

2,066,459
54,308,250

$262,058,817 04

235,094,982 91
2,026,207,541 66

15,825,587 12
101,515,647 50
144,635,042 50
133,265,559 43
35,621,660 28
10,858,241 00
326,752,030 00
725,856,296 00

26,391,143 00
432,094,129 00
26,999,280 00

4,811,265
211,000,000

420,123,400
1,388,218,750

2,301,215
52,130,554

$308, 762,742 93

280,047,664 51
1,995,112,221 17

81,095,320 49
82,211,663 00
150,031,706 86
146,720,758 04
62,676,711 57
12,005,459 00
874,568,342 00
767,875,740 00

23,722,972 00
555,569,696 00
92,714,238 00

5,073,531
232,500,000

448,756,630
1,547,901,790

2,741,853
65,808,798

$356,386,715 41

257,823,527 93
1,879,936,414 77
115,155, 358 40

76,845,937 50
160,662,522 20
173,035,253 01
84,108,826 08
20,681,738 00
456,244, 11 00
915,271,563 00

16,C2,503 00
703,189,889 00
98,570,197 00

5,761,252
264,000,000

480,849,723
1,537,1135,900

3,300,000
69,200,934

$403,525,250

257,981,440
1,607,543,676
166,281,506

71,077,207
312,924,016
148,435,473
123,176,912

1,800,227
272,941,533
750,542,257

49,417,479
724,639,574
42,472,390

6,700,000
298,000,000

502,789,600
1,624,917,800

8,780,000
72,150,524

FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC TRANSACTIONS OF THE U. 8.

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Note.-The debt, less cash in the Treasury, March 1, 1878, was $2,042,037,129, and the annual interest charge $92,537,283 50. On the 1st of January, 1883, the debt was $1,607,543,676, and the annual interest charge (which is constantly diminishing) was, on November 1, 1882, $71,077,207, showing a reduction

of the debt in less than five years of $484,493,453, and of annual interest of $21,460,076, or of about $1,500,000,000 in 18 years

31

POSTAL RATES AND REGULATIONS.

Domestic mail matter is divided into four classes;
First-Written matter.
Second-Periodical publications.
Third— Miscellaneous printed matter.
Fourth-Merchandise.

FIRST-CLASS MATTER embraces letters, postal cards, and all matter wholly or partly in writing (except in cases stated under head of third-class matter), and all matter sealed or closed against inspection.

Postage on first-class matter must be prepaid at the rate of three cents for each balf ounce or fraction thereof; except that on "postal cards” the postage is one cent each, and on “local” or drop-letters” postage is two cents per half ounce or fraction thereof, including delivery at letter carrier offices, and one cent for each half ounce or fraction thereof, where free delivery by carrier is not established.

First-class matter, except postal cards or drop letters, deposited in any post-office wholly unpaid, or having only a one cent or two cent stamp affixed, will be held for postage," and unless the postmaster is able to communicate the fact to the sender, the package must be sent to the Dead-Letter Office. Should such wholly unpaid or insufficiently prepaid matter, through inadvertence, reach its destination, it is the duty of the delivering postmaster to collect on wholly unpaid matter double postage, and on insufficiently prepaid matter the ordinary letter rates, giving credit for the amount which may have been prepaid thereon.

UNCLAIMED LETTERS. all letters remaining uncalled for thirty days in a post-office, after being adver. tised, are sent to the Dead-Letter Office, except letters bearing a request to return to the writer if not called for within a specified time, and letters bearing the name and address of the writer on the outside. Such letters are returned direct to the writers without advertising.

FORWARDING LETTERS FREE. Prepaid and free letters are forwarded from one post office to another, at the re. quest of the persons addressed, without additional postage. But a letter which has been once delivered at its address cannot be remailed to a new address without the prepayment of additional postage. Drop-letters, when forwarded by mail to another post-office, must be prepaid at 3 cents per half ounce. No mail matter, except letters or postal cards, can be forwarded to a new address except on prepayment of postage by stamps at regular rates.

REGISTERED LETTERS. Letters can be registered to any part of the United States and Territories and to foreign countries, on payment of a registration fee of 10 cents. All registration fees must be paid by stamps, and the postage on all registered letters must also be prepaid in full by stamps. The public are desired by the post-office never to send money or valuable articles in unregistered letters. Postmasters at all post-offices are obliged to register letters and packages when requested to do so.

SECOND-CLASS MATTER. Regular publications—This class includes all newspapers, periodicals, or matter 'exclusively in print, and regularly issued at stated periods from a known office of publication or news agency, except regular publications designed primarily for advertising purposes, or for free circulation, or for circulation at nominal rates. Second-class matter can only be mailed by publishers or newsdealers. Postage two cents a pound or fraction thereof. Weight of packages not limited.

THIRD-CLASS MATTER. Mail matter of the third class embraces books (printed and blank), transient newspapers and pers odicals, circulars, and other matter wholly in print, proof-sheets and corrected proof-sheets, and made uscript copy accompanying the same, prices current and prices filled out in writing, printed commercial paper filled out in writing (providing such writing is not in the nature of personal correspondence, and the papers are not the expression of a monetary value), such as papers of legal procedure, unexecuted deeds of all kinds, way bills, invoices, handbills, posters, chromo-lithographs, engravings, envelopes with printing thereon, heliotypes, lithographic and stereoscopic views with titles written thereon, printed blanks, printed cards; and postage shall be paid thereon at the rate of one cent for each two ounces or fractional part thereof.

Upon matter of the third class, or upon the wrapper inclosing the same, the sender may write bis own name or address, with the word "from" above and preceding the same, and in either case may make simple marks intended to designate a word or passage of the text to which it is desired to call attention. There may be placed upon the cover or blank leaves of any book or of any printed matter of the third class a simple manuscript dedication of inscription that does not partake of the nature of a personal correspondence.

The "paturo of a personal correspondence" referred to in the preceding soction cannot be ascribed to the following, viz.: 1st. To the signature of the sender or to the designation of his name, of his prosession, of his rank, or the place of origin, and of the date of dispatch. 2d. To a dedication or mark of respoct offered by the sender. 8d. To the figures or signs merely intended to mark the passage or & text, in order to call attention to them. 4th. To the prices added upon the quotations or prices current of exchanges or markets, or in a book. 5th. To printed commercial papers, Alled out in writing, cir culars, hand-bills, etc. 6th. To instructions or requests to postmasters to notify tho sender in case of the non-delivery of matter, so that he may send postage for its return. 7th. Lastly, to annotations or corrections made upon proofs of printing or musical compositions, and relating to the text or to the execution of the work.

All packages of matter of the third class must be so wrapped, with open sides or ends, that their con. tents may be readily examined by postmasters.

Third-class matter may be registered on payment of a registration fee, in stamps, of 10 cents. The limit of weight of packages is four pounds, except in cases of single volumes of books in excess of said weight, and books and documents published or circulated by order of Congress, or official matter emanating from any of the departments of the government, or from the Smithsonian Instie tution.

The following specified matter, partly writton and partly printed, and provided they are not in the nature of a personal correspondonce or the pression of a monetary valuo, are ruled as being entitled to pass through the mails in unsealed envelopes as third class matter, viz.; notices of premiums or of promissory notes due; assessment notices; printed circulars filled out in writing, whether signed or unsigned, and reproductions from circulars or other matter produced by the electric pen, papyograph, metallograph, hectograph, chirograph or copygraph processes; unreceipted bills for merchandise, etc.; bills of lading; invoices; statements of account; transcripts of evidence; policies of insurance to which the final signature has not been attached; manuscripts when accompanied by proof. sheets or corrected proof-sheets; pension blanks, except "pension vouchers," filled out in writing with matter which is the appropriate filling thereof; completed legal papers not having " the expression, eta, of an obligation assumed, or a release or receipt given.

FOURTH-CLASS MATTER. Mailable matter of the fourth class embraces blank cards, card board and other flexible material, Alexible patterns, letter envelopes and letter paper without printing thereon, merchandise, models, ornamented paper, sample cards, samples of ores, metals, minerals, seeds, cuttings, bulbs, roots, scions, drawings, plans, designs, original painti: gs in oil or water colors, and any other maiter not. included in the first, second or third classes, and which is not in its form or nature liable to destroy, destroy, deface or otherwise damage the contents of the mail bag or harm the person of any one engaged in the postal service. Postage rate thereon, one cent for each ounce or fractional part thereof.

Other articles of the fourth class which, unless properly secured, might destroy, deface or otherwise damage the contents of the mail bag, or harm the person of any one engaged in the postal service, may be transmitted in the mails when they conform to the following conditions: 1st. They must be placed in a bag, box or removable envelope made of paper-cloth or parchment. 2d. Such bag, box or envelope must again be placed in a box or tube made of metal or some hard wood, with sliding, clasp or screw lid. 3d. In case of articles liable to break, the inside box, bag or envelope must be surrounded by sawdust, cotton or spongy substance. 4th. In case of sharp-pointed instruments, the points must be capped or encased, so that they may not by any means be liable to cut through their inclosure; and where they have blades, such blades must be bound with wire, so that they shall remain firmly attached to each other. 5. The whole must be capable of easy inspection. Seeds or other articles not prohibited which are liable, from their form or nature, to loss or damage, unless specially protected, may be put up in gealed envelopes, provided such envelopes are made of material sufficiently transparent to show the contents clearly without opening.

Upon any package of matter of the fourth class the sender may write or print his own name and ad. dress, preceded by the word “from," and there may also be written or printed the number and names of the articles inclosed; and the sender thereof may write or print upon, or attach to any such articles by tag or label, a mark, number, name or letter, for purpose of identification, The limit of weight of packages is four pounds.

UNMAILABLE. Liquids, poisons, explosive and inflammable articles, fatty substances easily liquefable, live or dead animals (not stuffed), insects and reptiles, except queen-bees when safely secured, fruits or vegetable matter, confectionery, pastes or confections, and substances exhaling a bad odor; and every letter upon the envelope of which, or postal card upon which, indecent, lewd, obscene or lascivious delineations, epithets, terms or language may be written or printer, and all matter concerning lotteries, som called gift concerts, or other similar enterprises offering prizes or concerning schemes devised and intended to defraud the public or for the purpose of obtaining money under false pretences.

POSTAL CARDS may be procured at any post-office at a cost of one cent each. The message, etc., must be always written on the back of the card. Nothing whatever must be attached to the card. Postal cards will he forwarded from one office to another in case of removal of the person addressed, but will in no case be returned to the writer, nor advertised.

DOMESTIC MONEY ORDERS are issued at any money-order post offices in the United States, payable at any other money-order postoffice, in sums of not more than $50. Larger amounts can be sent to the same person by additional orders.

RATES: On orders not exceeding $15, 10 cents; over $15 and not exceeding $30, 15 cents ; over $30 end not exceeding $40, 20 cents; over $10 and not exceeding $50, 25 cents.

FOREIGN MONEY ORDERS. At the principal money-order post-offices in the United States (including all the larger post-offices), money orders, payable at money-order post-offices in Great Britain, Ireland and Switzerland, may be procured at the following rates : On orders not exceeding $10, 25 cents ; over $10 and not exceeding $20, 50 cents; over $20 and not exceeding $30, 75 cents; over $30 and not exceeding $40, $1; over $40 and not exceeding $50, $1 25. Orders can also he obtained on Germany at the following rates: On orders not exceeding $5, 15 cents; over $5 and not exceeding $10, 25 cents; over $10 and not exceeding $20, 50 cents; over $20 and not exceedlog $30, 75 cents; over $30 and not exceeding $40, $1; over 40 and not exceeding $50, $1.25.

RAILROAD STATISTICS.

WILLAGE OF RAILROADS IN OPERATION, AND ANNUAL INCREASE, 1830-1882.

(From Poor's Manual of the Railroads of the United States.)

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It is estimated that there are 1,900 miles of railroad track, in double, treble or quadruple tracks, sid. ings, etc.,

making the total length in single track, January 1, 1878, 98,208 miles, and January 1, 1879, about 101,000 miles. The mileage of 1878 is 2,688 against 2,281 in 1877, and 4,609 in 1879, and 7,207 in 1880

MILEAGE OF NEW RAILROADS CONSTRUCTED IN EACH STATE AND TERRITORY FOR

FIVE YEARS,

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327 55

8.50 163 93.50 19 210.93 70 16.62

20 14
37 Missouri

209 Montana, 200 97 192 Nebraska

55 70 109) 529 Nevada 3 73

New Hampshire 35 401.50 493 New Jersey.

3 35.70 O

New Mexico. 680.

431 48 New York.. 129% 1

North Carolina. 16 35 108) 204 Ohio

97 56.54 55

Oregon.

Pennsylvania.. 188% 06 341

Rhode Island... 376

South Carolina. 16% Tennessee

IO 445.39486 Texas...

11871 343.50 159

Utah 17 143

Vermont. 97.20 286 Virginia.

16% 3 32 Washington T. 15 41.11 25 W. Virginia... 16% 46.44 49

Wisconsin 288.75 290 223

Wyoming Ter... 119.60 182

56. 509.65 41.34 42 625 206.50 205.72

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Alabama.

22

7 Alaska... Arizona.

30 152 Arkansas

23
California,
Colorado. 193% 55
Connecticut
Dakota..

225.75

18 Delawaro Florida

32 Georgia.

62

59.50 Idaho

126

110 Tlinois.

103 116.33 Indiana .

74

165.50 Indian 1 erritory low&.. 2557503 Kansas

169 Kentucky...

20 67 Louisians.

86 Maine

20.50 Maryland

5% 20 Massachusetts..

II Michigan

58.50 Minnesota 338% 452.54 Mlegissippi.

26

12.50

340 224 732 149 154 4171 554

38 198 95 464

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83%

110%

Total........

2,688 4,606.17. 7,207.31

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DIFFERENCES IN TIME.-THE LARGE CITIES OF THE WORLD.

35

DIFFERENCE OF TIME. WHEN it is 12 o'clock at noon at New York City, it will be morning at all places

west of New York, and afternoon at all places east, as in tho annexed tablo.

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PLACES WEST. KORN'G.
PLACES WEST. XORN'G.

PLACES WEST.

XORNING H. X. s.

H. X. 13.1 Acapuloo, Mexico.... 10 16 48 Little Rock, Ark...... 10 47 16 Sacramento, Cal.... 8 56 44 Auborn, New York... 11 50 12 Louisville, Ky... 10 14 4St. Augustino, Fla... 11/29 4 Augusta, Ga... 11 28 28 Mexico, Mex..

10 19 44 St. Louis, Mo.

10/55/44 Baltimore, Ma. 11 49 38| Milledgeville, Ga... 11 22 45||St. Paul, Minn.

10 4345 Burlington, N.J.. 11 56 34 Milwaukee, Wis.. 11 4 16 San Antonio, Texas... 10/22 8 Buffalo, N. Y.. 11 4024 Mobile, Ala.

11 02 San Diego, Cal..

9 7/11 Charleston, S. C..... (11 36 22 Monterey, Mex.. 10 14 22 San Francisco, Cal.. 8 46/19 Chicago, Ili.

11 6 2 Monterey, Cal... 8.48 35 Santa Fe, N. Mex.. 9 51 59 Cincinnati, O.... 11 18 16 Nashville, Tenn.. (11 848) Santa Cruz, W. I..... 8 481 4 Columbus,. 0..

11 23 52 Natchez, Miss. 10 50 26 Savannah, Ga... 11 31 32 Dayton, O..

11 19 20 Newark, N. J.. 11 59|24| Scarboro Har., W.T.. 8/3736 Detroit, Mich.

11 23 54 Newbern, N.C.. 11 47 44 Springfield, Ill... 105752 Dover, Del.

11 54 4 New Orleans, La... 10 56 4| Tallahassee, Fla. 11 17140 Ewing Harbor, 0. T.. 838 9 Norfolk. Va.

11 50 49|Tampico, Mex. 10/24/37 Ft.Leavenworth, Kan. 1037 8 Pensacola, Fla. 11 8 0 Toronto, C. W.

11 38/38 Galveston, Texas... 10 36 58||Petersburg, Va. 11 46 44 Trenton, N. J.. 115728 Geneva, N. Y.

11 47 53 Philadelphia, Pa. 11 55 25|Tuscaloosa, Ala.. 11 5/16 Harrisburg, Pa. 11 48 44 Pittsbnrg, Pa.

11 35 56 Utica, N. Y.

11 55 12 Honolulu, $. I... 6 24 8 Point Hudson, W.T.. 745 6 Vera Cruz, Mex.. 10/31 30 Buntsville, Ala. 11 8 16 Princeton, N.J.. 11 57 26 Vincennes, Ind.. 11 6/24 Indianapolis, Ind. 11 11 44 Racine, Wis..

11 5 23 Washington, D. C. 11 4753 Jackson, Miss... 10 55 32 Raleigh, N.C.. 11 40 52 Wheeling, W. Va.. 1133/16 Jefforson, Mo..

10 47 32! Richmond, Va... 11 46 15 Wilmington, N.C..... 114324 Koy West, Fla.. 11 28 54 Rochester, N. Y.. 11 44 40 Wilmington, Del.... 11 54 12 Knoxville, Tenn.. 11 20 28 |Sacketts Barbor, N.Y. 11 52 16 Yorktown, Va.. 11 49 48

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Albany, N. Y
Augusta, Mo.
Bangor, Me....
Berlin, Prus..
Boston, Mass.
Constantinople, Tur...
Dublin, Ireland.
Edinburgh, Scotland..
Fredericton, N. B...

H.M. 8.
H.M. 8.

H.M.S.
0 1 6 Halifax, N.S.
041 38 Paris, France.

5) 5 26 0 16 44 Hamburg, Germany... 535 58 Portland, Maine... 0 15 10 0 26 56 Hartford, Conn.. 0521Providence, R. I.... 0 10/23 5 49 39 || London, England. 455 411/Quebec, Canada..

0 11 0 0 11 50 || Lowell, Mass.. 0 10 43||Rome, Italy.

5 45 59 6 52 0 Middletown, Conn. 0528 St. Petersburg, Ros.. 6/57/18 4 30142 Montreal, L. C.. 0 1 44||Stockholm, Sweden... 6 8 18 4 43 21 New Haven, Conn. 01 423 Vienna, Austria..... 6 137 0.291 4

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London.. .4,764,312 Dublin

418,152 Breslau.. Paris

2,225,910 St. Louis. .412,000 Lucknow.. Peking.. .1,650,000 Hamburg.. .410,120 Cincinnati. Canton. .1,600,000/Madras. .405,948 Bangkok. New York.. .1,206,590 Birmingham.. .400,757 Turin.. Tokio

.1,140,586 Nanking.. 400,000 Havana.. Berlin

.1,122,860 Brussels.. 399,986 Buenos Ayres. Vienna ..1,103,110 Manchester. .393,676 Lisbon. Constantinople. 1,075,600 Lyons.

.372,890 Palermo Tien-tsin.

930,000 Madrid.. .367,280 Copenhagen St. Petersburg. 876,570 Boston

.862,838 San Francisco. Philadelphia 847,150 Buda-Pesth.. .359,821 Bucharest... Calcutta .. 794,645 Marseilles .857,530 Barcelona. New Yedo.. 780,621 Cairo..... .349,883 Munich. Bombay.

753,000/Warsaw. .339,340 Edinburgh. Brooklyn. 670,000 Baltimore.. .832,813 Bordeaux.. Macao.... 625,000 Amsterdam. .326,196 Dresden.. Moscow 611,970 Milan

.321,840 New Orleans.. Hankow.. 600,000 Shanghal. 320,000 Alexandria Chicago... 575,000 Mexico.

.318,996 Benares. Kioto.. 560,200 Leeds

309,126 Bristol. Liverpool. 652,425 Rome

300,470 Odesga. Osaka

533,000 Sheffield.. .284,410 Elberfeld Glasgow.. 611,532 Melbourne. 280,836 Bradford Naples.... 493,110 Rio de Janeiro... 274,972 Genoa..

.272,910 Lille..

.177,940 .261,485 Salford. .176,233 255,189 Belfast .174,894 255,000 Florence 169,000 .252,830 Riga

..168,840 252,000 Stockholm.. .168,770 .248,110 Wolverhampton..164,308 246,340 Antwerp. 168,011 244.990 Prague. .162,520 .285,264 Huli

. 161,519 .283,959 Cleveland

.160,146 ..231,805 Lima.

.160,086 .231,161 Patna, India. .158,900 . 230,023 Pittsburgh. .186,389 .228,190 Buffalo. . 155,139 .220,960 Delhi, India.. .154,417 .220,820 Oldham.. .152,511 .216,009 Allahabad. .150,878

212,054 Adrianople .150,000 .207,570 Leipsic .149,080

206,503 Rotterdam .......148,000 .193,510 Wasbington.....147,298 189,480

180, 459 .179,810

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