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ation was with me a young doctor of Rome ; his name That malice bears down truth. And I beseech you, is Balthasar : I acquainted him with the cause in Wrest once the law to your authority : controversy between the Jew and Antonio the mer. To do a great right, do a little wrong: chant : we turned o'er many books together : he is And curb this cruel devil of his will. furnish'd with my opinion; which, better'd with his Por. It must not be ; there is no power in Venice own learning, (the grentness whereof I cannot Can alter a decree established: enough commend,) comes with him, ai my impor- 'Twill be recorded for a precedent; tunity, to fill up your grace's request in my stead. And many an error, by the same example, I beseech you, let his lack of years be no impediment Will rush into the state : it cannot be. to let him lack a reverend estimation ; for I never Shy. A Daniel come to judgment ! yea a Daniel! knew so young a body with so old a head. I leave O wise young judge, how do I honour thee ! him to your gracious acceptance, whose trial shall Por. I pray you, let me look upon the bond. better publish his commendation.

Shy. Here 'tis, most reverend doctor, here it is. Duke. You hear the learn'd Bellario, what he Por. Shylock, there's thrice thy money offer'd writes :

thee. And here, I take it, is the doctor come.

Shy. An oath, an oath, I have an oath in heaven :

Shall I lay perjury upon my soul ?
Enter Portia, dressed like a Doctor of Laws. No, not for Venice.
Give me your hand : Came you from old Bellario? Por.

Why, this bond is forfeit; Por. I did, my lord.

And lawfully by this the Jew may claim Duke. You are welcome : take your place. A pound of flesh, to be by him cut off Are you acquainted with the difference

Nearest the merchant's heart: Be merciful; That holds this present question in the court ? Take thrice thy money ; bid me tear the bond.

Por. I am informed throughly of the cause. Shy. When it is paid according to the tenour.-Which is the merchant here, and which the Jew? It doth appear, you are a worthy judge ;

Duke. Antonio and old Shylock, both stand forth. You know the law, your exposition
Por. Is your name Shylock ?

Hath been most sound: I charge you by the law, Shy:

Shylock is my name. Whereof you are a well-deserving pillar, Por. Of a strange nature is the suit you follow ; Proceed to judgment : by my soul I swear, Yet in such rule, that the Venetian law

There is no power in the tongue of man Cannot impugn 7 you, as you do proceed. — To alter me : I stay here on my bond. You stand within his danger 8, do you not?

Ant. Most heartily I do beseech the court

[T, ANTONIO. To give the judgment. Ant. Ay, so he says.


Why then, thus it is. Por.

Do you confess the bond? You must prepare your bosom for his knife: Ant. I do.

Shy. O noble judge ! O excellent young man ! Por.

Then must the Jew be merciful. Por. For the intent and purpose of the law Shy. On what compulsion must I ? tell me that. Hath full relation to the penalty,

Por. The quality of mercy is not strain'd; Which here appeareth due upon the bond. It droppeth, as the gentle rain from heaven, Shy. 'Tis very true: O wise and upright judge ! Upon the place beneath : it is twice bless'd; How much more elder art thou than thy looks ! It blesseth him that gives, and him that takes : Por. Therefore, lay bare your bosom. 'Tis mightiest in the mightiest; it becomes


Ay, his breast : The throned monarch better than his crown: So says the bond; Doth it not, noble judge ? His sceptre shows the force of temporal power, Nearest his heart, those are the very words. The attribute to awe and majesty,

Por. It is so. Are there balance here, to weigh Wherein doth sit the dread and fear of kings; The flesh. But mercy is above bis scepter'd sway,


I have them ready. It is enthroned in the hearts of kings,

Por. Have by some surgeon, Shylock, on your It is an attribute to God himself;

charge, And earthly power doth then show likest God's To stop his wounds, lest he do bleed to death. When mercy seasons justice. Therefore, Jew, Shy. Is it so nominated in the bond ? Though justice be thy plea, consider this,

Por. It is not so express'd: But what of that? That, in the course of justice, none of us

'Twere good you do so much for charity. Should see salvation : we do pray for mercy ; Shy. I cannot find it; 'tis not in the bond. And that same prayer doth teach us all to render Por. Come, merchant, have you any thing to say? The deeds of mercy. I have spoke thus much, Ant. But little; I am arm'd, and well prepar'd. -To mitigate the justice of thy plea;

Give me your hand, Bassanio; fare you well! Which, if thou follow, this strict court of Venice Grieve not that I am fallen to this for you ; Must needs give sentence 'gainst the merchant there. For herein fortune shows herself more kind

Shy. My deeds upon my head! I crave the law, Than is her custom : it is still her use,
The penalty and forfeit of my bond.

To let the wretched man out-live his wealth
Por. Is he not able to discharge the money?

To view with hollow eye, and wrinkled brow, Bass. Yes, here I tender it for him in the court; An age of poverty; from which lingering penance Yea, twice the sum : if that will not suffice, Of such a misery doth she cut me off. I will be bound to pay it ten times o'er,

Commend me to your honourable wife :
On forfeit of my hands, my head, my heart : Tell her the process of Antonio's end,
If this will not suffice, it must appear

Say, how I lov'd you, speak me fair in death;
And, when the tale is told, bid her be judge,
Whether Bassanio had not once a love.

7 Opposc.

8 Reach or controu..

Repent not you that you shall lose your friend, Bass. I have it ready for thee ; here it is.
And he repents not that he pays your debt;

Por. He hath refus'd it in the open court;
For, if the Jew do cut but deep enough,

He shall have merely justice, and his bond. I'll pay it instantly with all my heart.

Gra. A Daniel, still say I; a second Daniel Bass. Antonio, I am married to a wife,

I thank thee, Jew, for teaching me that word. Which is as dear to me as life itself;

Shy. Shall I not have barely my principal ? But life itself, my wife, and all the world,

Por. Thou shalt have nothing but the forfeiture, Are not with me esteem'd above thy life :

To be so taken at thy peril, Jew. I would lose all, ay, sacrifice them all

Shy. Why then the devil give him good of it! Here to this devil, to deliver you.

I'll stay no longer question. Por. Your wife would give you little thanks for Por.

Tarry, Jew; that,

The law hath yet another hold on you. If she were by, to hear you make the offer. It is enacted in the laws of Venice,

Gra. I have a wife, whom, I protest, I love; If it be prov'd against an alien, I would she were in heaven, so she could

That by direct, or indirect attempts, Entreat some power to change this currish Jew. He seek the life of any citizen,

Ner. 'Tis well you offer it behind her back ; The party, 'gainst the which he doth contrive, The wish would make else an unquiet house. Shall seize one half his goods; the other half Shy. These be the Christian husbands : I have a Comes to the privy coffer of the state ; daughter;

And the offender's life lies in the mercy 'Would, any of the stock of Barrabas

Of the duke only, 'gainst all other voice. Had been her husband, rather than a Christian ! In which predicament, I say, thou stand'st:

(Aside. For it appears by manifest proceeding,
We trifle time; I pray thee, pursue sentence. That, indirectly, and directly too,
Por. A pound of that same merchant's flesh is Thou hast contriv'd against the very life

Of the defendant : and thou hast incurr'd
The court awards it, and the law doth give it. The danger formerly by me rehears'd.
Shy. Most rightful judge !

Down, therefore, and beg mercy of the duke. Por. And you must cut this fesh from off his Gra. Beg, that thou mayst have leave to hang breast;

thyself : The law allows it, and the court awards it.

And yet, thy wealth being forfeit to the state, Shy. Most learned judge! - A sentence; come, Thou hast not left the value of a cord; prepare.

Therefore thou must be hang'd at the state's charge. Por. Tarry a little ; - there is something else. Duke. That thou shalt see the difference of our This bond doth give thee here no jot of blood ;

spirit, The words expressly are a pound of flesh:

I pardon thee thy life before thou ask it:
Take then thy bond, take thou thy pound of flesh ; | For half thy wealth, it is Antonio's :
But, in the cutting it, if thou dost shed

The other half comes to the general state,
One drop of Christian blood, thy lands and goods Which humbleness may drive into a fine.
Are, by the laws of Venice, confiscate

Por. Ay, for the state ; not for Antonio. Unto the state of Venice,

Shy. Nay, take my life and all, pardon not that: Gra. O upright judge! . Mark, Jew; - 0 You take my house, when you do take the prop learned judge!

That doth sustain my house : you take my life, Shy. Is that the law ?

When you do take the means whereby I live. Por.

Thyself shall see the act : Por. What mercy can you render him, Antonio? For, as thou urgest justice, be assur’d,

Gra. A halter gratis ; nothing else, I hope. Thou shalt have justice, more than thou desir'st. Ant. So please my lord the duke, and all the courly Gra. O learned judge!--Mark, Jew ;-a learned To quit the fine for one half of his goods; judge!

I am content, so he will let me have
Shy. I take this offer then;—pay the bond thrice, | The other half in use, — to render it,
And let the Christian go.

Upon his death, unto the gentleman
Here is the money.

That lately stole his daughter :
Por. Soft ;

Provided, that he do record a gift,
The Jew shall have all justice ;—soft!-no haste ;— Here in the court, of all he dies possess'd,
He shall have nothing but the penalty.

Unto his son Lorenzo, and his daughter.
Gra. O Jew! an upright judge, a learned judge! Duke. He shall do this; or else I do recant

Por. Therefore, prepare thee to cut off the flesh. The pardon, that I late pronounced here. Shed thou no blood; nor cut thou less, nor more, Por. Art thou contented, Jew, what dost thou say? But just a pound of flesh: if thou tak’st more, Shy. I am content. Or less, than a just pound, — be it but so much Por.

Clerk, draw a deed of gift. As makes it light, or heavy, in the substance,

Shy. I pray you, give me leave to go from hence : Or the division of the twentieth part

I am not well; send the deed after me,
Of one poor scruple; nay, if the scale do turn And I will sign it.
But in the estimation of a hair,


Get thee gone, but do it. Thou diest, and all thy goods are confiscate.

Gra. A second Daniel ! a Daniel, Jew ! Sir, I entreat you home with me to dinner. Now, infidel, I have thee on the hip.

Por. I humbly do desire your grace of pardon ; Por. Why doth the Jew pause ? take thy for- I must away this night toward Padua, feiture.

And it is meet, I presently set forth. Shy. Give me my principal, and let me go. Duke. I am sorry that your leisure serves you not.

(Erit SAYLOCK. Antonio, gratify this gentleman;

She would not hold out enemy for ever, For, in my mind, you are much bound to him. For giving it to me. Well, peace be with you! [Ereunt Duke, Magnificoes, and Train.

(Eseunt Portia and NERISSA. Bass. Most worthy gentleman, I and my friend, Ant. My lord Bassanio, let him have the ring ; Have by your wisdom been this day acquitted Let his deservings, and my love withal, Of grievous penalties; in lieu whereof,

Be valued 'gainst your wife's commandment. Three thousand ducats, due unto the Jew,

Bass. Go, Gratiano, run and overtake him, We freely cope your courteous pains withal. Give him the ring; and bring him if thou canst,

Ant. And stand indebted, over and above, Unto Antonio's house : - away, make haste. In love and service to you evermore.

(Erit GRATIANO. Por. He is well paid, that is well satisfied; Come, you and I will thither presently; And I, delivering you, am satisfied,

And in the morning early will we both And therein do account myself well paid:

Fly toward Belmont: Come, Antonio. (Ereunt.
My mind was never yet more mercenary..
I pray you, know me, when we meet again ;

SCENE II. - A Street.
I wish you well, and so I take my leave.
Bass. Dear sir, of force I must attempt you further;

Enter Portia and NERISSA.
Take some remembrance of us, as a tribute,
Not as a fee; grant me two things, I pray you,

Por. Inquire the Jew's house out, give him this Not to deny me, and to pardon me.

Por. You press me far, and therefore I will yield. And let him sign it: we'll away to-night,
Give me your gloves, I'll wear them for your sake; And be a day before our husbands home:
And, for your love, l'll take this ring from you :-

This deed will be well welcome to Lorenzo.
Do not draw back your hand ; I'll take no more;
And you in love shall not deny me this.

Bass. This ring, good sir, — alas, it is a trifle ; Gra. Fair sir, you are well overtaken :
I will not shame myself to give you this.

My lord Bassanio, upon more advice ,
Por. I will have nothing else but only this; Hath sent you here this ring; and doth entreat
And now, methinks, I have a mind to it.

Your company at dinner. Bass. There's more depends on this, than on the Por.

That cannot be : value.

This ring I do accept most thankfully, The dearest ring in Venice will I give you,


pray you tell him : Furthermore, And find it out by proclamation;

I pray you show my youth old Shylock's house. Only for this, I pray you, pardon me.

Gra. That will I do. Por. I see, sir, you are liberal in offers :


Sir, I would speak with you :You taught me first to beg; and now, methinks, I'll see if I can get my husband's ring, (To Portia. You teach me how a beggar should be answer’d. Which I did make him swear to keep for ever.

Bass. Good sir, this ring was given me by my wife: Por. Thou mayst, I warrant: We shall have old And, when she put it on, she made me vow,

swearing, That I should neither sell, nor give, nor lose it. That they did give the rings away to men; Por. That 'scuse serves many men to save their But we'll outface them, and outswear them too.

Away, make haste; thou know'st where I will tarry. An if your wife be not a mad woman,

Ner. Come, good sir, will you show me to this And know how well I have deserv'd this ring,



And so,

gifts ;


SCENE I. — Belmont. Avenue to Portia's House. | Medea gather'd the enchanted herbs

That did renew old Æson.


In such a night, Lor. The moon shines bright :— In such a night And with an unthrift love did run from Venice,

Did Jessica steal from the wealthy Jew; as this, When the sweet wind did gently kiss the trees,

As far as Belmont. And they did make no noise ; in such a night,


And in such a night, Troilus, methinks, mounted the Trojan walls,

Did young Lorenzo swear he lov'd her well ; And sigh'd his soul toward the Grecian tents,

Stealing her soul with many vows of faith,
Where Cressid lay that night.

And ne'er a true one.

And in such a night, Jes.

In such a night, Did Thisbe fearfully o'ertrip the dew;

Did pretty Jessica, like a little shrew, And saw the lion's shadow ere himself,

Slander her love, and he forgave it her. And ran dismay'd away.

Jes. I would out-night you, did no body come: Lor. In such a night,

But, hark, I hear the footing of a man. Stood Dido with a willow in her hand

Enter STEPHANO. Upon the wild sea-banks, and wav'd her love

Lor. Who comes so fast in silence of the night? To come again to Carthage. Jes. In such a night,

9 Reflection,

you, friend?

Steph. A friend.

And his affections dark as Erebus : Lor. A friend ? what friend ? your name, I pray Let no such man be trusted. – Mark the musick. Steph. Stepháno is my name; and I bring word,

Enter Portia and NevisSA, at a distance. My mistress will before the break of day

Por. That light we see, is burning in my hall. Be here at Belmont : she doth stray about

How far that little candle throws his beams! By holy crosses, where she kneels and prays So shines a good deed in a naughty world. For happy wedlock hours.

Ner. When the moon shone, we did not see the Lor. Who comes with her ?

candle. Steph. None, but a holy hermit, and her maid. Por. So doth the greater glory dim the less : I pray you, is my master yet return'd ?

A substitute shines brightly as a king, Lor. He is not, nor we have not heard from him.- Until a king be by; and then his state But go we in, I pray thee, Jessica,

Empties itself, as doth an inland brook And ceremoniously let us prepare

Into the main of waters. Musick! hark ! Some welcome for the mistress of the house.

Ner. It is your musick, madam, of the house.

Por. Nothing is good, I see, without respect ; Enter LAUNCELOT.

Methinks, it sounds much sweeter than by day. Laun. Sola, sola, wo ha, ho, sola, sola!

Ner. Silence bestows that virtue on it, madam. Lor. Who calls ?

Por. The crow doth sing as sweetly as the lark, Laun. Sola! did you see master Lorenzo, and when neither is attended ; and, I think, mistress Lorenzo! sola, sola !

The nightingale, if she should sing by day, Lor. Leave hollaing, man; here.

When every goose is cackling, would be thought Laun. Sola! where? where?

No better a musician than the wren. Lor. Here,

How many things by season season'd are Laun. Tell him, there's a post come from my To their right praise and true perfection ! master, with his horn full of good news; my master Peace, hoa! the moon sleeps with Endymion will be here ere morning.

[Erit. And would not be awak'd ! [Musick ceases. Lor. Sweet soul, let's in, and there expect their Lor.

That is the voice, coming.

Or I am much deceiv'd, of Portia. And yet no matter; — Why should we go in ? Por. He knows me, as the blind man knows the My friend Stepháno, signify, I pray you,

cuckoo, Within the house, your mistress is at hand; By the bad voice. And bring your musick forth into the air.


Dear lady, welcome home. (Erit STEPHANO. Por. We have been praying for our husbands How sweet the moon-light sleeps upon this bank !

welfare, Here will we sit, and let the sounds of musick Which speed, we hope, the better for our words; Creep in our ears; soft stillness, and the night, Are they return’d ? Become the touches of sweet harmony.


Madam, they are not yet ; Sit, Jessica : Look, how the floor of heaven But there is come a messenger before, Is thick inlaid with patines of bright gold; To signify their coming. There's not the smallest orb, which thou behold'st, Por.

Go in, Nerissa, But in his motion like an angel sings,

Give order to my servants, that they take Still quiring to the young-ey'd cherubins :

No note at all of our being absent hence ; Such harmony is in immortal souls;

Nor you, Lorenzo; - Jessica, nor you. But, whilst this muddy vesture of decay

[A tucket' sounds. Doth grossly close it in, we cannot hear it.

Lor. Your husband is at hand, I hear his trumpet:

We are no tell-tales, madam; fear you not. Enter Musicians.

Por. This night, methinks, is but the day-light sick, Come, ho, and wake Diana with a hymn;

It looks a little paler; 'tis a day, With sweetest touches pierce your mistress' ear, Such as the day is when the sun is hid. And draw her home with musick. Jes. I am never merry, when I hear sweet musick. Enter Bassan10, ANTONIO, GRATIANO, and their


Followers. Lor. The reason is, your spirits are attentive : Bass. We should hold day with the Antipodes, For do but note a wild and wanton herd,

If you would walk in absence of the sun. Or race of youthful, and unhandled colts,

Por. Let me give light, but let me not be light; Fetching mad bounds, bellowing, and neighing loud, For a light wife doth make a heavy husband, Which is the hot condition of their blood;

And never be Bassanio so for me; If they but hear perchance a trumpet sound, You are welcome home, my lord. Or any air of musick touch their ears,

Bass. I thank you, madam : give welcome to my You shall perceive them make a mutual stand,

friend. Their savage eyes turn'd to a modest gaze,

This is the man, this is Antonio, By the sweet power of musick : Therefore, the poet To whom I am so infinitely bound. Did feign that Orpheus drew trees, stones, and floods; Por. You should in all sense be much bound to Since nought so stockish, hard, and full of rage,

him, But musick for the time doth change his nature : For, as I hear, he was much bound for you. The man that hath no musick in himself,

Ant. No more than I am well acquitted of. Nor is not mov'd with concord of sweet sounds, Por. Sir, you are very welcome to our house : Is fit for treasons, stratagems, and spoils : The motions of his spirit are dull as night,

1 A Nourish on a trumpet.

Very life

It must appear in other ways than words,

To urge the thing held as a ceremony ? Therefore, I scant this breathing courtesy.?

Nerissa teaches me what to believe; (Gratiano and Nerissa seem to talk apart. I'll die for't, but some woman had the ring. Gra. By yonder moon, I swear, you do me wrong; Bass. No, by mine honour, madam, by my soul, In faith, I gave it to the judge's clerk.

No woman had, but a civil doctor, Por. A quarrel, ho, already? what's the matter? Which did refuse three thousand ducats of me,

Grn. About a hoop of gold, a paltry ring And begg d the ring; the which I did deny him, That she did give me ; whose posy was

And suffer'd him to go displeas'd away; For all the world, like cutler's poetry

Even he that had held up

the Upon a knife, Love me, and leave me not.

Of my dear friend. What should I say, sweet lady ? Ner. What talk you of the posy, or the value ? I was enforc'd to send it after him; You swore to me, when I did give it you,

I was beset with shame and courtesy;
That you would wear it till your hour of death ; My honour would not let ingratitude
And that it should lie with you in your grave : So much besmear it: Pardon me, good lady;
Though not for me, yet for your vehement oaths, For, by these blessed candles of the night,
You should have been respective 3, and have kept it. Had you been there, I think, you would have begg`d
Gave it a judge's clerk! — but well I know, The ring of me to give the worthy doctor.
The clerk will ne'er wear hair on his face, that had it. Por. Let not that doctor e'er come near my house :

Gra. He will, an if he live to be a man. Since he hath got the jewel that I lov’d,
Ner. Ay, if a woman live to be a man.

And that which you did swear to keep for me,
Gra. Now, by this hand, I gave it to a youth, I will become as liberal as you :
A kind of boy; a little scrubbed boy,

I'll not deny him any thing I have, No higher than thyself, the judge's clerk ;

Know him I shall, I am well sure of it: A prating boy, that begg'd it as a fee;

Lie not a night from home; watch me, like Argus : I could not for my heart deny it him.

If you do not, if I be left alone, Por. You were to blame, I must be plain with you, Now, by mine honour, which is yet my own, To part so slightly with your wife's first gift; I'll have that doctor for my bedfellow. A thing stuck on with oaths upon your finger, Ner. And I his clerk; therefore be well advis d, And riveted so with faith upon your flesh.

How you do leave me to mine own protection. I gave my love a ring, and made him swear

Gra. Well, do you so : let not me take him then. Never to part with it; and here he stands ;

Ant. I am the unhappy subject of these quarrels. I dare be sworn for him, he would not leave it, Por. Sir, grieve not you ; You are welcome notNor pluck it from his finger, for the wealth

That the world masters. Now, in faith, Gratiano, Bass. Portia, forgive me this enforced wrong ;
You give your wife too unkind a cause of grief; And in the hearing of these many friends,
An 'twere to me, I should be mad at it.

I swear to thee, even by thine own fair eyes,
Bass. Why, I were best to cut my left hand off, Wherein I see myself,
And swear, I lost the ring defending it. [Aside. Por.

Mark you but that!
Gra. My lord Bassanio gave his ring away In both mine eyes he doubly sees himself:
Unto the judge that begg'd it, and indeed, In each eye, one: - swear by your double self,
Deserv'd it too; and then the boy his clerk,

And there's an oath of credit. That took some pains in writing, he begg'd mine : Bass.

Nay, but hear me: And neither man, nor master, would take aught Pardon this fault, and by my soul I swear, But the two rings.

I never more will break an oath with thee. Por.

What ring gave you, my lord ? Ant. I once did lend my body for his wealth * : Not that, I hope, which you receiv'd of me. Which, but for him that had your husband's ring, Bass. If I could add a lie unto a fault,

[ To Portia. I would deny it; but you see my finger

Had quite miscarried : I dare be bound again, Hath not the ring upon it, it is gone.

My soul upon the forfeit, that your lord Por. Even so void is your false heart of truth. Will never more break faith advisedly. By heaven, I will ne'er come in your bed

Por. Then you shall be his surety : Give him this; Until I see the ring.

And bid him keep it better than the other.
Nor I in yours,

Ant. Here, lord Bassanio; swear to keep this ring. Till I again see mine.

Bass. By heaven, it is the same I gave the doctor! Bass. Sweet Portia,

Por. I had it of him. — You are all amaz'd : If you did know to whom I gave the ring,

Here is a letter, read it at your leisure;
If you did know for whom I gave the ring, It comes from Padua, from Bellario :
And would conceive for what I gave the ring, There you shall find, that Portia was the doctor;
And how unwillingly I left the ring,

Nerissa there, her clerk : Lorenzo here
When nought would be accepted but the ring, Shall witness, I set forth as soon as you,
You would abate the strength of your displeasure. And but even now return'd; I have not yet

Por. If you had known the virtue of the ring, Enter'd my house. Antonio, you are welcome; Or half her worthiness that gave the ring,

And I have better news in store for you, Or your own honour to contain the ring,

Than you expect : unseal this letter soon ; You would not then have parted with the ring. There you shall find, three of your argosies What man is there so much unreasonable,

Are richly come to barbour suddenly : If you had pleas'd to have defended it

You shall not know by what strange accident With any terms of zeal, wanted the modesty I chanced on this letter.

I am dumb. 2 Verbal, complimentary form. 3 Regardsul.


4 Advantage

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