History of Europe: From the Fall of Napoleon, in 1815, to the Accession of Louis Napoleon, in 1852, Volume 2

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W. Blackwood and sons, 1853

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The physical circumstances of Spain favoured commerce but not manufac tures
10
Effect of the longcontinued hostility with the Moors
11
Impolitic laws of Spain in regard to money
12
Important effect of the Romish faith
13
Difference of the towns and country in respect of political opinion
14
Disposition of the army
15
The church
16
State of the peasantry
17
State of the nobility
19
Huge gap in the revenue from the loss of the South American colonies
20
how it was formed
21
Its extreme democratic tendency
22
Utter unsuitableness of the constitution to the generality of Spain
23
Universal unpopularity of the Cortes and constitution
24
Influence of the Cortes on South America
25
Its general adoption of English habits and ideas
26
Character of Ferdinand VII
29
Universal unpopularity of the Cortes
30
Decree of Valencia
31
Cortes
33
king
34
Ferdinands despotic measures Reestablishment of the Inquisition
35
Discontent in various quarters
36
Revolt of Mina in Navarre
37
Fresh arbitrary decree of Ferdinand
38
Further violent proceedings of the king and Porliers revolt 2
39
Invasion of France and retreat of the Spaniards Fresh tyrannical acts of the king
40
Change of ministers and policy at Madrid
42
Restoration of the Jesuits and other despotic measures
43
Double marriages of the royal families of Spain and Portugal
44
Creation of the kingdom of Brazil
45
Abortive conspiracy in Barcelona and death of General Lacy
46
Papal bull regarding the contribution by the Spanish church
47
Treaty regarding the Queen of Etruria ib 49 Treaty for the limitation of the slavetrade
48
its army and navy
49
Extreme penury of the finances of Spain Decree April 3 1818
51
Disastrous fate of the first expedition to Lima ib 54 Fresh revolt at Valencia which is suppressed
52
Causes of the revolt in the Isle of Leon ib 56 Efforts of the Cadiz Liberals to promote it
53
Insurrection at Cadiz
54
The conspiracy is at first arrested by dAbisbal
55
DAbisbal is deprived of the command of the expedition
56
Additional measures of severity on the part of the Government ib 61 Yellow fever at Cadiz
57
Sale of Florida to the Americans
58
Marriage of the king
59
Revolution attempted by Riego
60
Vigorous measures adopted against the insurgents
61
Capture of the arsenal and expedition of Riego into the interior
62
Its defeat and failure
63
Perilous position of Quiroga in the Isle of Leon ib 69 Insurrection at Corunna and in Navarre
64
the king accepts the constitution
65
Reflections on this revolution
67
Rapid advances of the revolution
68
Reception of the revolution at Barcelona Valencia and Cadiz ib 74 Massacre at Cadiz
69
New ministry at Madrid
70
First measures of the new government
71
Legislative measures
72
its composition
73
Disorders in the provinces
74
Murder of one the bodyguard and reward of the murderers ib 82 Opening of the Cortes
75
its leaders
76
Establishment of clubs in Madrid and other revolutionary measures
77
Financial measures
78
Tumult at Madrid and dismissal of Riego
79
Closing of the session and rupture with the king
80
Reception of the decree against the priests in Spain
81
Illegal appointment of General Carvajal by the king
82
Return of the king to Madrid
83
New society for execution of lynch law it 94 Identity of recent history of Spain and Portugal
85
Revolution at Oporto
86
Which is followed by a revolution at Lisbon
87
Establishment of a joint regency at Lisbon
88
Return of Marshal Beresford who is forced to go to England
89
Effect of the banishment of the British
90
Reaction and adoption of more moderate measures ib 101 Commencement of reforms in Italy
91
Breach of the kings promise of a constitution
92
103 Progressive but slight reforms already introduced
93
Origin of secret societies
94
Their origin and previous history ib 106 Commencement of the Neapolitan revolution
95
Defection of General Pepe and the garrison of Naples
96
The king yields and swears to the constitution
97
Causes which prepared revolution in Sicily
99
Revolution in Palermo
100
Frightful massacre in Palermo ib 112 First measures of the new junta
101
Failure of the negotiations with Naples
102
Suppression of the insurrection in Palermo
103
Renewal of hostilities
104
Meeting of the Neapolitan parliament
105
Insurrection of the galley slaves in Civita Vecchia
106
Commencement of the revolution in Piedmont
107
Revolt in Alessandria and Turin
108
The king yields and accepts the constitution
109
General character of the revolutions of 1820 ib 123 What caused their speedy overthrow
111
What should the military do in such circumstances ?
112
CHAPTER VIII
113
Increase of Russia by the treaties of 1814 and 1815
114
Important acquisition of Russia in the grandduchy of Warsaw
115
Statistics of the grandduchy of Warsaw
116
Establishment of the kingdom of Poland ib 6 Biography of the Grandduke Constantine
117
His character
118
His first acts of administration and training of the army
120
Great advantage to Poland from its union with Russia
121
Great increase of its military strength
122
Failure of the representative system in Poland
123
Great influence of Russia
124
Great wisdom of its external policy
125
Their unity of purpose 1 26
126
its population
127
Great fall in the price of all sorts of produce
128
Great rapidity of increase of the Russian population
129
Great room for future increase in its inhabitants ib 18 Unity of feeling in the whole empire
130
Reason of this unity Their Asiatic habits and religious feelings
131
Unity of interest in the empire
132
General insufficiency of the schools to produce enlightenment
133
The clergy
134
the Tchinn
135
Great power given by the Tchinn
136
Caste of the nobles
137
Of the bourgeois and trading classes
138
their number and condition
139
Privileges and advantages they enjoy
140
its advantages and evils
141
Way in which it is carried into effect
142
Contrast of English and Russian cultivators
143
Opinion of M Haxthausen on the serfs and their enfranchisement
144
Evils of the Russian serf system
145
Foreign conquest ever forced upon Russia by its climate
146
Fear the universal principle of government in Russia
147
General use of corporal chastisement
148
Character which these circumstances have imprinted on the Russians
149
Causes which have led to this character
150
Great effect of the distances in Russia
151
Civilisation depends entirely on the higher ranks
152
Strong imitative turn of the Russians
153
Military strength of Russia
154
The military colonies
155
The Cossacks
157
The admirable discipline and equipment of the army
158
Russian navy
159
Positions of the principal armies
160
General corruption in Russia
161
Enormous abuses which prevail
162
Striking instances of this corruption
163
Emigration in Russia is all internal
164
Great impulse to agricultural industry in Russia from free trade
166
What is the destiny of Russia ? ib 55 Two different people in Russia
168
Liberal ideas with which the troops returned from France and Germany
169
First steps of Alexander on his return to Russia in 1814
170
His beneficent measures
171
Incessant travels of Alexander from 1815 to 1825
172
Various beneficent measures introduced by him
173
His arrival at Warsaw in 1818
174
Alexanders memorable speech to the Diet
175
Journey of Alexander to his southern provinces ib 65 His efforts for the enfranchisement of the peasants
176
Transactions of 1819
177
Expulsion of the Jesuits
178
Great changes in the emperors mind from the revolution of 1820
179
Violent scene and dissolution of the Polish Diet
180
Congress of Troppau
181
its resolutions
182
Congress of Laybach
183
Reflections on the division among the allied powers
184
Limits of the right of intervention
185
What share had the Holy Alliance in this?
187
Attitude taken by England on the occasion ib 77 War declared against the revolution in Naples
188
Unresisted march of the Austrians towards Naples
189
Subjugation of Naples and return of the king
190
Movement of the insurgents in Piedmont
191
Meeting of the Allies and fresh revolution in Genoa
192
Increasing difficulties of the insurgents
193
Total defeat of the insurgents at Agogna
194
Submission of the capital and termination of the war
195
Violent reaction in Italy
196
Reaction in Piedmont and treaty with Austria
197
Revolt in a regiment of guards at St Petersburg
198
Alexander refuses to support the Greeks
199
Extension of the Russian empire in North America
200
Suppression of freemasons and other secret societies
202
General failure of the emperors philanthropic projects
203
Dreadful flood at St Petersburg ib 9394 Description of the situation of St Petersburg 204205
204
Great inundation of St Petersburg
206
Noble charity of the emperor and nobles
207
Internal measures of 1824 and settlement of the boundaries of Russian America
208
her birth parentage marriage and character
209
Amours of the Czar
210
Death of Alexanders natural daughter
211
Reconciliation of the emperor and express
212
Solemn service in the cathedral of Notre Dame de Kazan
213
His departure from the cathedral
214
His arrival at Taganrog
215
His last illness
216
And death
217
And funeral
218
Death and burial of the empress
219
His character
220
His failings
221
State of the succession to the throne ib 112 Constantine refuses the throne
222
How this came about
223
Constantines previous renunciation of his right of succession
224
Nicholas refuses the crown and proclaims Constantine
225
Contest of generosity between the two brothers and Nicholas mounts the throne
226
Account of the conspiracy against him
227
Details on the conspiracy
228
Information given of the conspiracy to Alexander
229
120121 Plans of the conspirators 230231
230
A revolt is decided on by the conspirators
231
Commencement of it
232
Heroic conduct of Nicholas on the occasion
234
Nicholas advances against the rebels
236
Forces on both sides and irresolution of the chiefs of the revolt ib 127 Death of Milaradowitch
237
The Archbishop also fails in reducing the mutineers
238
Seizure of the leaders of the conspiracy and generous conduct of Nicholas
239
to the privates
240
Appointment of a commission of inquiry
241
Its composition and report
242
Leaders of the revolt in the army of the south
243
And in that of the west
244
Arrest of the Mouravieffs and outbreak of the conspiracy in the army of Poland
245
Its suppression ib 137 Sentences on the conspirators
246
Their conduct on the eve of death
247
Their execution
248
Reflections on this event
249
Noble conduct of the Princess Troubetzkoi and the other wives of the convicts
250
Condition of the exiles in Siberia
251
Generous conduct of the emperor to the relatives of the convicts
252
Expiatory ceremony on the Place of the Senate
253
emperor
254
Great legal reforms of the emperor
255
Crime of the insurgents
257
Coronation of the emperor and empress at Moscow
258
Character of the Emperor Nicholas and parallel between him and Peter the Great
259
He is essentially Russian
260
His personal appearance and failings
261
CHAPTER IX
263
Rapid flow of prosperity which succeeded them in the next year
264
Brilliant appearance of Paris
265
Exports imports and revenue of France during this period ib 5 Thorough establishment of representative institutions in France
266
Which have no effect in conciliating the Liberal party
267
Biography of the Abbé Grégoire
277
his biography
278
de Serres
279
His character ib 22 Conversation of Louis XVIII and the Count dArtois on the election
281
Change in the ministry
282
Violent attacks on the new ministry by the press
283
Kings speech at opening the session
284
Comparative strength of parties in the Chamber
285
Designs of the Liberals in Paris ib 28 New electoral law proposed by the Government
286
Electoral law finally agreed on by the Government
287
Violent opposition of the Liberals
288
The Duke de Berri
289
His biography
290
Louvel his assassin
291
Assassination of the Duke de Berri
292
3536 His last moments 293294
293
His death
295
Immense sensation which it produced
296
Chateaubriands words on the occasion
297
General indignation against M Decazes
298
The king resolves to support him
299
He at length agrees to his dismissal
300
Resiguation of M Decazes and the Duke de Richelieu sent for
301
The kings inclination for Platonic attachments
302
Her first interview with Louis which proves successful ib 47 Character of M Decazes
305
Merits of his measures as a statesman ib 49 Division of parties in the Assembly after M Decazes fall
306
Funeral of the Duke de Berri and execution of Louvel
307
5152 Ministerial measures of the session Argument against the first 308309
308
Answer by the Government
309
5455 Censorship of the press Argument against it by the Opposition
311
5657 Answer by the Ministerialists 312313
312
Result of the debate
314
Reflections on this subject
315
Alarming state of the country and defensive measures of Government
316
Denunciation of the secret government
317
Ministerial project of a new electoral law
318
6366 Argument against it by the Opposition 319321
319
6771 Answer by the Ministerialists 321324
321
CamilleJourdans amendment carried
325
The amendment of M Boin is carried by Government
326
Disturbances in Paris
328
The budget
330
Military conspiracy headed by Lafayette
331
Their designs and efforts to corrupt the troops
333
Which fails by accident
334
Lenity shown in the prosecutions ib 83 Birth of the Duke of Bordeaux
335
Universal transports in France
336
Congratulations from the European powers and promotions in Franco
338
Rupture with the Doctrinaires
339
Views of the Doctrinaires
340
Views of the Royalists ib 89 Disturbances in the provinces Internal measures of the Government
342
Changes in the household
343
Ordonnance regarding public instruction
345
Result of the elections favourable to the Royalists
347
Effect of the change in the Assembly
348
Accession of Villèle c to the ministry
349
Speech of the king and answer of the Chambers
350
Measures of the session fixing the boundaries of the electoral districts
351
Law for additional ecclesiastical endowments
352
Modifications in the cornlaws ib 101 Law for the indemnity of the Imperial donataries
353
Law regarding the censorship of the press
354
Speech of M Pasquier on the occasion
355
Increasing irritation of parties and difficulties of the ministry
356
Rupture with the Royalists and fall of the Richelieu ministry
358
The new ministry
359
Reflections on this event
360
Great effects of the change in the electoral law
361
Defects of the representative system in France
362
Undue ascendancy of the PartiPrêtre ib 111 Cause of the reaction against Liberal institutions
363
Death of Napoleon
364
Reflections on his captivity
365
Great exaggeration regarding the English treatment of him
366
Lamartines account of his exile
368
Irritation between him and Sir Hudson Lowe
369
All parties were wrong regarding his treatment at St Helena
370
Change on Napoleon before his death
371
His death
372
His funeral
373
Immense sensation it excited in Europe
374
He was the last of the men who rule their age
375
CHAPTER X
376
Difference in the causes which produced discontent in the two countries
377
Great effects of the change in the monetary laws
378
Mr Smiths views on this subject
379
Great effects of any variation in the value of the standard of value ib 6 Examples of this from former times
380
Discovery and wonderful effects of a paper currency
382
vantages of a paper circulation duly limited
383
What is the standard of value ?
384
Vast effect of variations in the currency
385
When this effect takes place
386
Vast importance of an inconvertible currency as a regulator of prices
387
Strain on the money market from the immense loans on the Continent
393
And on prices of all commodities
399
Noble conduct of Lord Sidmouth on the occasion
406
Augmentation of tbe Chelsea pensioners
412
VOL II
417
Death of the Duke of Kent
418
Design of the conspirators
425
Death and character of Mr Grattan
432
Effect of education in leading to the dispersion of mankind
442
Disfranchisement of Grampound and transfer of its members to Yorkshire
443
Rise of freetrade ideas among the merchants and Lord Lansdownes declaration on the subject
444
6567 Lord Liverpools memorable speech in reply 445447
445
Appointment of a committee to inquire into agricultural distress
448
7274 Answer by Mr Ricardo 450452
450
Additional facts since discovered on this subject
453
Commencement of the troubles about the queen
454
Sketch of her life prior to this period
455
Her conduct abroad and proceedings in consequence of it
456
Omission of the queens name in the Liturgy and her return to England
457
Her landing in England and enthusiastic reception
458
Views of the Radical leaders on the occasion
459
Difficulties of this subject and necessity of an assessment
460
Failure of the negotiations and commencement of the inquiry
461
Scene which ensued on the trial
462
Progress of the trial and its difficulties
463
Peroration of Mr Broughams defence
464
Queens defence and failure of the bill
465
General transports of the people
467
Rapid reaction of public opinion ib 90 Consternation of the ministry who resolve to remain at their posts
468
Return of popularity of Government and causes of it
469
Meeting of Parliament and first proceedings
470
Debates on foreign affairs
471
Sir James Mackintoshs efforts to improve the criminal law ib 95 Mr Cannings striking speech on Catholic emancipation
472
Answer by Mr Peel
473
Which is carried in the Commons and lost in the Peers
474
Lord John Russells motion for parliamentary reform
475
Appointment of a committee to inquire into agricultural distress
476
Bank Cash Payment Bill
477
Vehement demand for a reduction of taxation
479
Agricultural committee reports and state of the consumption of articles of luxury
480
Increase of the desire for reform among the agriculturists
482
Coronation of George IV
483
Ceremony on the occasion
484
Aspect of Wellington Londonderry and George IV
485
her death
486
Kings visit to Ireland ib 111 Funeral of the queen
487
Dismissal of Sir R Wilson from the army
488
Changes in the Cabinet
489
Retirement of Lord Sidmouth who is succeeded by Mr Peel as Home Secretary
490
Lord Wellesley appointed Viceroy of Ireland and change in the govern ment there
491
CHAPTER XI
522
ENGLAND FRANCE AND SPAIN FROM THE ACOESSION OF VILLÈLE IN 1819 TO
533
His defects
539
His character as a statesman
545
Law regarding the press
551
Abortive conspiracy at Béfort
557
Insurrection at Colmar Marseilles and Toulon
563
Probable mode of solving
569
Proceedings of the Cortes
575
Fresh agitation
581
Composition of the new Cortes
587
Proceedings of the Cortes and progress of the civil war
591
his appearance and character and followers
593
Desperate assault of Cervera
594
Defeat of Misas ib 59 Severe laws passed by the Cortes
595
Great extension of the civil war
596
Deplorable state of the Spanish finances
599
Commencement of the strife between the guard and the garrison ib 64 Departure of the royal guard from Madrid
600
Progress of the negotiations with the insurgents
601
Attack of the guards on Madrid and its defeat
602
Destruction of the royal guard
603
Defeat of the insurgents in Andalusia and Cadiz
604
Change of ministry and complete triumph of the revolutionists
605
The new ministry and provincial appointments
606
71 Murder of Geoiffeux ib 72 Second trial and execution of Elio
607
Civil war in the northern provinces
609
Vigorous measures of the revolutionary government
610
Capture of Castelfollit and savage proclamation of Mina
611
Continued disasters of the Royalists and flight of the regency from Urgel
612
CHAPTER XII
614
Effect of these events in France and Europe
615
Lamartines observations on the subject
616
Opposite views which prevailed in Great Britain
617
Repugnance to French intervention
618
Danger of a renewal of the family compact between France and Spain
619
Influence of the South American and Spanish bondholders
620
Immense extent of the Spanish and South American loans
621
Views of the Cabinet and Mr Canning on the subject
622
Congress of Verona agreed on by all the powers
623
Members of the Congress there
624
Description of Verona
625
Views of the different powers at the opening of the Congress
626
Brilliant assemblage of princesses and courtiers at Verona
627
Treaty for the evacuation of Piedmont and Naples ib 16 Resolution of the Congress regarding the slavetrade
628
Note of England regarding South American independence
629
Instructions of M de Villèle to M de Montmorency regarding Spain
630
Mr Cannings instructions to Duke of Wellington
631
Measures adopted by the majority of the Congress on the subject
632
Views of what had occurred in this Congress
635
Views of M de Villèle and Louis XVIII
637
Secret correspondence of M de Villèle and M de Lagarde
638
Debate on it in the Cabinet and resignation of M de Montmorency who is succeeded by M de Chateaubriand
639
The warlike preparations of France continue
641
Failure of the negotiations at Madrid and departure of the French ambas sador
642
Speech of the king at the opening of the Chambers
643
King of Englands speech at opening of Parliament
644
Reply of the Spanish government
645
Hyde de Neuvilles address in reply to the speech of the king
647
Mr Canning adopts the principle of noninterference
654
de Chateaubriands reply in the French Chambers 656663
656
Immense sensation produced by this speech
664
Talleyrands speech on the war ib 55 Vote of credit of 100000000 francs
665
his speech
666
Storm in the Chamber
667
Expulsion of M Manuel
669
Dramatic scene at his expulsion
670
General enthusiasm excited by the Spanish war
671
Preparations of the Liberals to sow disaffection in the army
672
Feelings of Mr Canning and the English people at this crisis
673
Views of Mr Canning at this juncture
674
Portrait of Mr Canning by M Marcellus
676
His opinion as to the probable duration of the war
677
Views of George IV and the Duke of Wellington on the subject
678
Difficulties of the French at the entrance of the campaign
679
Which are obviated by M Ouvrard
681
Forces and their disposition on both sides
682
The Spanish forces
683
Theatrical scene at the passage of the Bidassoa ib 73 Progress of the French and their rapid success
685
Advance of the Duke dAngoulême to Madrid ib 75 Advance of the French to Madrid
686
Entry of the Duke dAngoulême into Madrid
688
Advance of the French into Andalusia
689
Proceedings of the Cortes and deposition of Ferdinand VII ib 79 Violent reaction at Seville and over all Spain
691
State of affairs in Cadiz
692
Advance of the Duke dAngoulême into Andalusia and decree of Andujar
693
Its provisions
694
Violent irritation of the Royalists in Spain
695
Progress of the siege of Cadiz
696
Assault of the Trocadero
697
Operations of Riego in the rear of the French
698
Defeat and capture of Riego
700
Sentence of Riego
705
Offer of assistance by Russia to France rejected
712
Effects of this measure on British interests
718
Argument on the other side
724
His declining days
732
The French invasion of Spain was justifiable
738

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Página 717 - It would be disingenuous, indeed, not to admit that the entry of the French army into Spain was, in a certain sense, a disparagement — an affront to the pride— a blow to the feelings of England...
Página 467 - ... from the roots and the stem of the tree. Save that country, that you may continue to adorn it; save the Crown, which is in jeopardy, the aristocracy, which is shaken; save the altar, which must stagger with the blow that rends its kindred throne!
Página 717 - I have already said that, when the French army entered Spain we might, if we chose, have resisted or resented that measure by war. But were there no other means than war for restoring the balance of power? Is the balance of power a fixed and unalterable standard?
Página 717 - Spain might be rendered harmless in rival hands, — harmless as regarded us, and valueless to the possessors ? might not compensation for disparagement be obtained, and the policy of our ancestors vindicated, by means better adapted to the present time ? If France occupied Spain, was it necessary, in order to avoid the consequences of that occupation, that we should blockade Cadiz? No: I looked another way; I sought materials of compensation in another hemisphere. Contemplating Spain such as our...
Página 467 - Save the country, my lords, from the horrors of this catastrophe ; save yourselves from this peril ; rescue that country of which you are the ornaments, but in which you can flourish no longer, when severed from the people, than the blossom when cut off from the roots and the stem of the tree.
Página 398 - The Prince Regent has the greatest pleasure in being able to inform you, that the trade, commerce, and manufactures of the country are in a most flourishing condition. " The favourable change which has so rapidly taken place in the internal circumstances of the United Kingdom, affords the strongest proof of the solidity of its resources. " To cultivate and improve the advantages of our present situation will be the object of your deliberations...
Página 637 - ... opinion, that to animadvert upon the internal transactions of an independent state, unless such transactions affect the essential interests of his Majesty's subjects, is inconsistent with those principles on which his Majesty has invariably acted on all questions relating to the internal concerns of other countries ; that such animadversions, if made, must involve his Majesty in serious responsibility, if they should produce any effect ; and must irritate, if they should not...

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