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much interest in this and in foreign countries, since his position makes him intimately acquainted with every subject relating to the public welfare. When he considers that the occasion demands it, or when he is requested by Congress to give information on a special point, he communicates with them by similar documents, called messages.

He may be impeached for treason, bribery, or other high crimes, by the House of Representatives, and tried by the Senate, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court presiding over that body during the trial, and in case of conviction is removed from office.

9. It will be seen that he possesses great power, and that he is almost overwhelmed by responsibilities. The members of his cabinet are his constitutional advisers, and share more or less of this responsibility, although his will may override them all if he so chooses.

There are many provisions for preventing an abuse of power in the Constitution and in the laws of Congress, but all history proves that nothing but watchfulness and wisdom on the part of the people can preserve to them their rights and liberties. Power, wherever lodged, is naturally aggressive. Fortunately the people themselves in this country are the source of power, and may legally restrain its exercise in their representatives and executive officers, when it threatens to become excessive.

The following are the names of all the Presidents, from Washington, the first, down to the present incumbent : George Washington, Va., 30th April, 1789, to 4th March, 1797 -seven years ten months and four days.

John Adams, Mass., 4th March, 1797, to 4th March, 1801four years.

Thomas Jefferson, Va., 4th March, 1801, to 4th March, 1809 -eight years.

James Madison, Va., 4th March, 1809, to 4th March, 1817 -eight years.

James Monroe, Va., 4th March, 1817, to 4th March, 1825 -eight years.

John Quincy Adams, Mass., 4th March, 1825, to 4th March,

1829-four years.

Andrew Jackson, Tenn., 4th March, 1829, to 4th March,

1837-eight years.

Martin Van Buren, N. Y., 4th March, 1837, to 4th March, 1841-four years.

William H. Harrison, O., 4th March, 1841, to 4th April, 1841-one month.

John Tyler, Va., 4th April, 1841, to 4th March, 1845-three years and eleven months.

James K. Polk, Tenn, 4th March, 1845, to 4th March, 1849 -four years.

Zachary Taylor, La., 4th March, 1849, to 9th July, 1850 -one year four months and five days.

Millard Fillmore, N. Y., 9th July, 1850, to 4th March, 1853 -two years seven months and twenty-six days.

Franklin Pierce, N. H., 4th March, 1853, to 4th March, 1857-four years.

James Buchanan, Pa., 4th March, 1857, to 4th March, 1861 -four years.

Abraham Lincoln, Ill., 4th March, 1861, to 15th April, 1865-four years one month and ten days.

Andrew Johnson, Tenn., 15th April, 1865, to 4th March, 1869-three years ten months and twenty days.

Ulysses S. Grant, Ill., 4th March, 1869, to 4th March, 1877-eight years.

Rutherford B. Hayes, O., 4th March, 1877, to 4th March,

1881.

Of these William H. Harrison died 4th April, 1841, just one month after his inauguration. On the death of Harrison, Tyler, the Vice-President, became acting President. Taylor died 9th July, 1850, and Fillmore, Vice-President, became acting President. Lincoln was assassinated on the 14th April, 1865, one month and ten days after he was inaugurated upon his second term, and Andrew Johnson, the Vice-President, became acting President-this being the third time that such an event has occurred since the government went into operation.

CHAPTER II.

THE VICE-PRESIDENT.

This officer is elected by the people at the same time, and in the same manner, as the President, and for the same term. He must be a native citizen of the United States, and thirtyfive years of age.

His high-sounding title would lead one who is but little acquainted with our government to think that he stands next to the President himself in dignity and power; that on his shoulders rests a large amount of the duties and responsibilities of the administration. Such, however, is not the case. He is, in fact, nearer a cipher than any of the high officers of State. He is merely the presiding officer of the Senate, with not even the power to vote, except in case of a tie vote in that body, when he may give the casting vote. It is only in case of the death, resignation, impeachment, or disability of the President to discharge his duties, that the Vice-President becomes an officer of much power or dignity.

The following is a list of all the Vice-Presidents:

John Adams, Mass., April 30th, 1789, to March 4th, 1797, seven years, ten months and four days.

Thomas Jefferson, Va., March 4th, 1797, to March 4th. 1801-four years.

Aaron Burr, N. Y., March 4th, 1801, to March 4th, 1805– four years.

George Clinton, N. Y., March 4th, 1805, to April 20th 1812-seven years, one month, and sixteen days.

Elbridge Gerry, Mass., March 4th, 1813, to November 23d. 1814 one year, seven months, and nineteen days..

Daniel D. Tompkins, N. Y., March 4th, 1817, to March 4th, 1825-eight years.

John C. Calhoun, S. C., March 4th, 1825 to March 4th 1833-eight years.

Martin Van Buren, N. Y., March 4th, 1833, to March 4th, 1837-four years.

Richard M. Johnson, Ky., March 4th, 1837, to March 4th, 1841-four years.

John Tyler, Va., March 4th, 1841. to April 4th, 1841—one month.

George M. Dallas, Pa., March 4th, 1845, to March 4th, 1849-four years.

Millard Fillmore, N. Y., March 4th, 1849, to July 9th, 1850-one year and four months.

William R. King, Ala. Died before he took his seat.

John C. Breckenridge, Ky., March 4th, 1857, to March 4th, 1861-four years.

Hannibal Hamlin, Me., March 4th, 1861, to March 4th, 1865 -four years.

Andrew Johnson, Tenn., March 4th, 1865, to April 15th, 1865-one month and eleven days.

Schuyler Colfax, Ind., March 4th, 1869, to March 4th, 1873— four years.

Henry Wilson, Mass., March 4th, 1873, to March 4th, 1877 -four years. Died Nov. 22d, 1875.

William A. Wheeler, N. Y., March 4th, 1877, to March 4th, 1881-four years.

Gerry died November 23d, 1814; from which time till March 4th, 1817, the Vice-Presidency was vacant.

Tyler became acting President upon the death of President Harrison; and until March 4th, 1845, the Vice-Presidency was vacant.

Fillmore became acting President upon the death of Presi dent Taylor, July 9th, 1850; and until March 4th, 1853, the Vice-Presidency was vacant.

King was elected with President Pierce, in 1852, but died April 18th, 1853. He never took his seat, and the Vice-Presidency was vacant till March 4th, 1857.

Johnson became acting President upon the death of President Lincoln, April 15th, 1865, and the Vice-Presidency again became vacant, and remained so until Márch 4th, 1869.

CHAPTER III.

THE CABINET.

1. The members of the President's Cabinet are seven in number, viz.: Five Secretaries, at the head of their respective departments, of State, Treasury, War, Navy, and Interior, and the Postmaster General, and Attorney General. It is through these departments and their various bureaus, officers, agents, and clerks, that the President performs most of the duties of his position, viz.: that of executing, or putting in force, the laws of Congress. He must, therefore, necessarily take them into his counsels, and arrange, by their assistance, the conduct of public affairs. Each one has the affairs of his department so thoroughly systematized that he can tell, with a little examination, the means at his disposal for carrying into effect any special measure; and precise records of the whole state of the public service may, at all times, be found in their offices.

2. They are also selected for their several positions from among those regarded as the most eminent statesmen of the country, and each is supposed to be specially adapted, by his experience, acquirements, and capacity, for his special position, as well as in harmony with the general policy adopted by the President. They are, therefore, properly, and ex officio (by virtue of their office), his advisers. No one else can tell as well as they the condition of public affairs at any particular time, nor, in consequence, give as good advice on any special measure requiring such knowledge. Without their aid the President would have few means of judging what was best, or

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