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THE FINANCE OFFICE.

This is separated into the divisions of Finano which has charge of the entire cash receipts, transfers, and disbursements of the department; of postage stamps and stamped envelopes, newspaper wrappers, and postal cards; registered letters and seals; and the examination of Dead Letters and their return to the writers. Dead letters are those not taken out of the office to which they were sent. After being advertised three weeks in some newspaper near the office where they were sent, they are returned to the General Post Office, where they are examined; and if they contain money or valuable papers they are returned to the writers and an account of them kept at the General Post Office. The sums, so lost and taken care of, amount annually to tens of thousands of dollars. The Third Assistant Post Master General has charge of it.

THE MONEY ORDER OFFICE.

The Money Orders System furnishes very convenient and safe banking facilities for the transfer of money in small sums. It diminishes as much as possible the exposure of money to loss by theft or otherwise, through the plan of depositing in one office, and sending a certificate of such deposit which is good for the money at another office. Immense sums are so exchanged and business facilitated without any actual passage of the money from one point to the other. When it is necessary to preserve the balances it is done by, and at the risk of, the department.

No more than fifty dollars can be sent in one order, nor more than three orders to the same person in one day. The number of these offices is more than 1,400.

The rates of commission on money orders are,

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No fractions of cents allowed in orders.

When a money order has been lost or destroyed, a duplicate can be got, by the person who bought the order or by the person it was bought for, by applying either at the office where the order was bought or at the office where it should be paid. The Money Order Department is in charge of the Superintendent of the Money Order System.

An international money order system, between the United States and Switzerland, went into operation September 1st, 1869, whereby the exchange of Postal orders between the two countries is effected through the agency of two Post Offices termed International Exchange Offices. The Office of New York City being set apart for the United States, and that of Basle, in Switzerland, for that country. The amount drawn for cannot exceed fifty dollars in one order, three orders only can be obtained by the same person in one day. The system works satisfactorily, and will no doubt be extended to Great Britain, and perhaps other European Nations at an early day.

THE OFFICE OF FOREIGN MAILS.

It has the care of all foreign postal arrangements and the supervision of the ocean mail service. It is presided over by a Superintendent.

THE AUDITOR OF THE TREASURY FOR THE POST OFFICE

DEPARTMENT.

This is a bureau of the Treasury Department, which, for convenience, is located in the General Post Office. To this officer is assigned the duty of auditing the accounts of the Post Office Department, all communications relating to the accounts of postmasters, mail contractors, and other agents of the Department, are addressed to this officer.

The head of so large and important a department of the public service is properly a chief officer of the government and has a seat in the cabinet.

NUMBER OF POST OFFICES AND MILES OF POST ROADS IN THE U. &

In 1790 there were but 75 post offices, and 1,875 m. of post-road

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POSTMASTERS GENERAL.

Samuel Osgood, Mass., Sept. 26, 1789.
Timothy Pickering, Mass., Aug. 12, 1791.
Joseph Habersham, Ga., Feb. 25, 1795.
Gideon Granger, Ct., Nov. 28, 1801.
Return J. Meigs, O., March 17, 1814.
John McLean, O., June 25, 1823.
William T. Barry, Ky., March 9, 1829.
Amos Kendall, Ky., March 1, 1835.
John M. Niles, Ct., May 18, 1840.
Francis Granger, N. Y., March 6, 1841.
Charles A. Wickliff, Ky., Sept. 13, 1841.
Cave Johnson, Tenn., March 5, 1845.
Jacob Collamer, Vt., March 7, 1849.
Nathan K. Hall, N. Y., July 20, 1850.
S. D. Hubbard, Ct., Aug. 31, 1852.
James Campbell, Pa., March 5, 1853.
Aaron V. Brown, Tenn., March 6, 1857.
Joseph Holt, Ky., March 14, 1859.
Horatio King, Jan. 1, 1861.

Montgomery Blair, Md., March 7, 1861.
William Dennison, O., Oct. 1, 1864.
Alexander W. Randall, Wis., July 15, 1866.
J. A. J. Creswell, Md., March 5, 1869.

Marshall Jewell, July, 1874.

Jas. N. Tyner, Ind.. 1876.
D. M. Key, Tenn., 1877.

CHAPTER XL.

RATES OF POSTAGE IN THE UNITED STATES

On each letter weighing not more than one-half ounce three cents, and for each additional half-ounce or fraction thereof, three cents.

All packages containing matter not in itself chargeable with letter postage, but in which is enclosed or concealed any letter, memorandum, or other thing chargeable with letter postage, or upon which is any writing or memorandum; and manuscripts for publication in newspapers, magazines, or periodicals three cents for each half-ounce or fraction thereof. Weight of packages limited to four pounds.

On local or drop letters, at offices where free delivery by carriers is established, two cents for each half ounce or fraction thereof; and where free delivery has not been established, one cent for each half ounce or fraction thereof.

On seeds, cuttings, bulbs, roots and scions, one cent for each ounce or fraction thereof. Weight of packages limited to four pounds.

On pamphlets and occasional publications, all transient printed matter, unsealed circulars, book manuscripts, proof sheets, corrected proof sheets, maps, prints, engravings, etc., one cent for each two ounces or fraction thereof. Weight of packages limited to four pounds.

On samples of ores, metals, minerals, and merchandise, one cent for each ounce or fraction thereof. Weight of packages limited to four pounds.

On books, one cent for each two ounces or fraction thereof, Weight of packages limited to four pounds.

All domestic matter, including newspapers, magazines and periodicals sent to actual subscribers from a known office of publication, must be prepaid by postage stamps affixed thereto.

Newspapers issued weekly, or oftener, and sent from publishers or news agents, to subscribers or dealers, two cents per pound; and if not issued as often as weekly, three cents per pound.

Papers sent miscellaneously, and not regularly, postage the same as on books.

The franking privilege has been restored to the following extent, viz.:

MAIL MATTERS THAT MAY BE SENT FREE

1. All public documents printed by order of Congress. 2. Seeds transmitted by the Commissioner of Agriculture, or by any member of Congress, procured from that depart

ment.

3. Letters and packages relating exclusively to the Govern ment of the United States, mailed only from an Executive Department, or a bureau or office of the same, in specially printed envelopes.

4. The President and Vice-President of the United States and members of Congress may frank written and printed communications, not exceeding two ounces in weight.

5. All newspapers sent to subscribers within the county where printed.

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