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Democratic party, then in possession of the administration of the general government, had long been in close relations with the South. It was impossible for it to realize the momentous character of the crisis, or to help sympathizing more or less with the views and feelings of the South; it was near the close of its period of rule; and it left the active management of the herculean difficulties of the situation to the incoming administration of the Republican party. The whole country was quiet, failing, perhaps, as well as the Democrats, to realize the significance of the events taking place. It was a period of breathless waiting for what would come next. The signal was given by the South. Fort Sumpter in South Carolina, a national fort, was bombarded April 12th, 1861. It was an electric shock. The North answered the summons by a note of defiance, and mus tered for war.

The South was better prepared, more alert, more accustomed to arms, and secured, at first, many advantages. She also had the advantage of being on the defensive when the contest became close. But, as the months ran into years, the courage and iron resolution of the North did not falter. She had the advantage of numbers, of the general government, of wealth, and of naval force. Step by step she conquered, holding all she gained, grew skillful and wise by defeat, and, April 8th, 1865, the main army of the Confederates surrendered, and the war was over; the gallant South succumbed to the plucky North. It was a predestined conclusion. The free States were necessarily the strongest, and their strength was supported and inspired by religious sentiment and enthusiasm. The Union, so important to the world and to civil liberty, was preserved, but at fearful cost.

Probably 500,000 lives were sacrificed altogether, on both sides; and eight or nine billions of dollars. The desolation of the South, which had been mainly the theater of these mighty conflicts; the extreme change in pecuniary circumstances and social life there; the affliction, to freemen, of the subjection, however mild and temperate, necessary under the circumstances to be imposed, for the time, by the federal government; the great loss of valuable life to both sides; the immense debt of the government, with the unavoidable demoralization of certain parts of society, everywhere, by the license of war, and many other evils form the dark side of the picture.

Yet, nothing could outweigh the value of the Union especially when freed from the discordant element that now disappeared. It must be long before all wounds can be healed. When that time shall come both North and South will be recompensed for all they have suffered.

1860.

Nov. 6-Four parties contested this election: the Republicans voted for Abraham Lincoln-the Democrats for Stephen A. Douglas and J. C. Breckenridge. The old Whigs or Peace party, ignoring the dangerous political strife, voted for John Bell. Lincoln was

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elected. A simple majority of electoral votes would have been 157. He received 180.

7-News of Lincoln's election received in South Carolina with cheers

for a Southern Confederacy.

9-An attempt made to seize the arms in Ft. Moultrie. "10-South Carolina Legislature propose to raise 10,000 men. Election of convention to consider secession ordered.

Jas. Chestnut, U. S. Senator from South Carolina, resigned.

" 11-Senator Hammond, of South Carolina, resigned.

" 15-Governor Letcher, of Virginia, calls an extra session of the Legis lature.

" 18-Georgia Legislature appropriate $1,000,000 to arm the State. Major Anderson sent to Ft. Moultrie to relieve Col. Gardiner. "19-Gov. Moore calls an extra session of Louisiana Legislature. Dec. 1-Florida Legislature order the election of a convention. Great secession meeting in Memphis, Tennessee.

" 3-Congress assembles. President Buchanan denies the right of a State to secede, and asserts the propriety of coercion. 5-Election of secession delegates to South Carolina Convention. "10-Howell Cobb, U. S. Sec. of Treasury, resigned; P. F. Thomas, of

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Maryland, appointed in his place. Senator Clay, of Ala., resigned. Louisiana Legislature orders the election of a Convention, and appropriates $500,000 to arm the State.

"13-Extra session of the Cabinet held to consider if Ft. Moultrie shall be reinforced. President opposed, and reinforcements not sent. "14-Gen. Lewis Cass, U. S. Sec. of State, resigns. J. S. Black, of Pa., appointed.

"17-South Carolina Convention assembles.

"18-Crittenden Compromise proposed in U. S. Senate.

"19-Gov. Hicks, of Maryland, refuses to receive Mississippi Commis

sioners.

"20-South Carolina Convention unanimously adopts a Secession Ordi

nance.

"22-Crittenden Compromise rejected in Senate Committee.

"24-People of Pittsburg, Pa., stop shipment of military stores, from the arsenal there, to Southern forts.

Gov. Moore calls extra session of Alabama Legislature. Election to Alabama Convention; secession majority over 50,000. South Carolina Members of U. S. House of Representatives resign. “ 25—Maj. Anderson abandons Ft. Moultrie for Ft. Sumter, Charleston Harbor. He has only 111 men.

South Carolina Commissioners arrive in Washington. President
Buchanan declines to receive them.

"28-South Carolina authorities seize Castle Pinckney, Ft. Moultrie,

U.S. Custom-House, and other government property, at Charleston.

"29-John B. Floyd, U. S. Sec. of War, resigns. Joseph Holt, of Ky.,

appointed.

"31-South Carolina sends Commissioners to Slave States to arrange the organization of a Southern Confederacy.

1861.

Jan. 2-Gov. Ellis, of North Carolina, takes possession of Ft. Macon. Georgia troops seize Fts. Pulaski and Jackson, and U. S. Arsenal, at Savannah.

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4-Gov. Moore, of Ala., seizes Ft. Morgan, and U. S. Arsenal at Mobile.

Fast Day by proclamation of President.

7-State Conventions of Alabama and Mississippi, and State Legisla tures of Virginia and Tennessee assemble.

8-Jacob Thompson, U. S. Sec. of Interior, resigns. Fts. Johnson and Caswell, North Carolina, seized by State authorities.

46 9-U. S. steamer, Star of the West, fired on in Charleston Harbor and driven away.

Mississippi Convention adopt Secession Ordinance. Vote 84 to 15. "10-Florida Convention secedes by vote of 62 to 7. Florida authorities seize Ft. McRae.

"11-Alabama secedes by vote in Convention of 61 to 39. P. F. Thomas, U. S. Sec. of Treasury, resigns. John A. Dix appointed. The Governor of Mississippi siezes Forts Philip and Jackson, on the Mississippi river; Forts Pike and Macomb, on Lake Pontchartrain; and U. S. Arsenal at Baton Rouge.

"13-Florida takes possession of Pensacola Navy Yard and Ft. Barrancas. Lieut. Slemmer, in command of Ft. Pickens, ordered by Com. Armstrong to deliver the Fort to Florida, refuses, and preserves that important post to the government of the Union. 16-Legislature of Arkansas calls a Convention. Col. Hayne, of South Carolina, demands of the President the surrender of Ft. Sumter, and is refused. Missouri Legislature order a convention to consider secession.

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18-The Legislature of Virginia appropriate $1,000,000 for the defense of the State.

19-Georgia adopts Secession Ordinance by vote of 208 to 89.

21-Members of Congress from Alabama resign.

Jefferson Davis resigns his seat in the U. S. Senate.

23-Georgia members of Congress resign.

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24-U. S. Arsenal, Augusta, Geo., seized.

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29-Kansas, the thirty-fourth State, admitted into the Union.

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26—Louisiana Legislature passes Secession Ordinance.

30-North Carolina Legislature submits the question of calling a Con

vention to the people.

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Revenue cutters Cass, at Mobile, and McClelland, at New Orleans, surrendered to Southern authorities.

Feb. 1-Texas Convention passes Secession Ordinance, to be submitted to the people. Vote, 166 to 7. Louisiana government seize the U. S. Mint and Custom House, at New Orleans.

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4-Peace Convention of Delegates from eighteen States, assembles at Washington; ex-President Tyler presides.

Delegates from seceded States meet at Montgomery, Ala., to organize a Confederate Government.

John Slidell and Judah P. Benjamin, U. S. Senators from Louisiana, resign their seats.

9-Jefferson Davis and Alexander H. Stevens elected provisional President and Vice-President of Confederate States, for one year. 13-Electoral vote counted. Abraham Lincoln received 180 votes; S. A. Douglas, 12; J. C. Breckenridge, 72; John Bell, 39. Majority required to elect, 157.

18-Ft. Kearney, Kansas, seized by Southern forces.

23-Gen. Twiggs, U. S. commander in Texas, delivered his army prisoners of war, and U. S. property valued at $1,200,000 to Confederate authorities.

28-Territorial Government organized in Colorado.

Mar. 1-Gen. Twiggs expelled from the army. Peace Congress adjourned. 2-Territorial government organized in Dacotah and Nevada.

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Revenue cutter Dodge surrendered to the South, at Galveston,
Texas.

4-Abraham Lincoln inaugurated 14th regular President of the
United States.

The people of Texas having voted for the Secession Ordinance by 40,000 majority, the Convention declared the State out of the Union 5-Gen. Beauregard takes command of Southern forces, at Charleston. 6-Ft. Brown, on the Rio Grande, surrenders to Confederate troops.

Federal troops evacuated the fort and sailed for Key West, Florida
Confederate Senate confirm nominations of President Davis to his
Cabinet, viz.: R. Toombs, of Geo., Sec. of State; C. S. Memminger,
of South Carolina, Sec. of Treasury; L. P. Walker, of Ala., Sec. of
War; S. R. Mallory, of Fla., Sec. of Navy; J. H. Reagan, of Texas,
Postmaster Gen.; J. P. Benjamin, of La., Attorney General.
11-The Constitution of Confederate States adopted in convention at
Montgomery, Ala.; afterwards ratified by the several States.

28-Vote of Louisiana on secession-20,448 for, 17,926 against-made
public.

30-Mississippi Convention ratifies the Confederate Constitution, by 78 to 70.

Apr. 3-South Carolina Convention ratifies Confederate Constitution, by

114 to 6.

Apr. 4-Virginia Convention refuse to present a Secession Ordinance to the people, by a vote of 89 to 45.

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7-Intercourse between Ft. Sumter and Charleston stopped by order of Gen. Beauregard.

CHAPTER XXIV.

FIRST PHASE OF THE WAR.

Each side hesitated to strike the first blow; but the South, being best prepared, and to end a suspense that threatened to be hurtful to their cause, opened the conflict by the bombardment of Ft. Sumter. Each now hastened preparations with vigor. Yet so long had been the intimate, friendly relations, that neither could believe in a long, deadly struggle. More than three months passed, during which frequent skirmishes occurred; but the leaders avoided bringing on a general battle. The Southern forces advanced toward Washington, but stopped short of an attack, sending out small bodies to make trial efforts, and get possession of important points.

The battle of Bull Run was the first great, serious combat. The brilliant bravery of Southern troops would have been overcome but for an opportune reinforcement at the decisive moment. The leaders did not feel it safe to pursue the vanquished Federals to Washington. There was a large reserve force there. Thus, if they won a battle they lost the object soughtthe capture of the national Capital-and the Union forces, though defeated, gained the most important point-the protection of Washington.

Both sides now recognized the magnitude of the undertaking; the indomitable resolution of their opponents; and the need of thoroughly disciplining their troops, of organizing all branches of the military and naval service, and gathering stores, and distributing forces in accordance with the plan proposed by each.

This period continued until Feb., 1862. The U. S. Navy was increased from 42 vessels at the beginning of the war to about 300 at the close of this preparatory period. These blockaded the South and served for transport and attack. Two series of operations were planned by the U. S. government for the land forces: one in the Mississippi Valley and one in Virginia. In the meantime the Confederate leaders saw that it was impossible to invade the North as they had proposed without long preparation and large armies. They organized with speed but were thrown on the defensive. 1861.

Apr. 7-Steamer Atlantic, with troops and supplies for Ft. Sumter, sailed from New York.

8-The Federal Government notified South Carolina that provisions would be sent to Maj. Anderson, by force, if necessary.

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