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Mar. 6-Van Dorn captures a considerable Union force at Franklin, Tenn. 7-Gen. Minty captures a Confederate cavalry force at Unionville, Tenn.

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10-Colored troops captured Jacksonville, Florida.

14-Port Hudson, Mississippi river, attacked by the Union gunboat.
fleet under Com. Farragut. The flag ship disabled and burnt.
17-Gallant and successful exploit of Union cavalry at Kelly's Ford, Va.
19 An English steamer with arms for the South destroyed off

Charleston.

20-Defeat of Morgan (Confederate) at Milton, Tenn.

"6 25-Two Union vessels lost before Vicksburg.

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28-Confederate steamer Iris captured near Charleston, S. C.

Apr. 1-Admiral Farragut passes the batteries of Grand Gulf.

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Great scarcity of many things in the Confederacy from the strictness of the blockade, and extreme depreciation of Confederate money. No cotton could be sold.

7—An attack on Fort Sumter by nine Union iron clads. They are
worsted.

The Alabama Confederate cruiser captures the U. S. ship Morning
Star.

10-Two Union gunboats destroyed on Cumberland river.

Van Dorn repulsed by Union General Granger, at Franklin, Tenn. 16-Com. Porter runs the batteries at Vicksburg successfully. 17-Gen. Banks vanquished Southern troops at La Teche and Grand Lake, La.

22-The Queen of the West captured on Grand Lake. Grigsby, Confederate, surprised at McMinnville, Tenn. Banks occupied Opelousas and Washington, Miss.

23-Gen. Hunter informs Confederate authorities that colored soldiers
must be treated as other prisoners of war, on pain of retaliation.
24-Union defeat at Beverly, Va., and victories at Weber Falls, Ark.,
and on Iron Mountain Railroad, Mo.

May 1-Gen. Grant defeated the Southern troops at Port Gibson.
Gen. Pegram, Confederate, defeated at Monticello, Ky.
A third defeat of Southern troops, at South Quay, Va.

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Unionists defeated at La Grange, Ark. Battle of Chancellorsville,
Va., begins.

2- Col. Grierson, of U. S. army, finished a daring and successful
raid through the interior of Miss. Traveled 800 miles in 16 days.
Battle of Chancellorsville continued. It was a Federal repulse.
Loss each side 15,000.

3-Capture of Grand Gulf, Miss., by Admiral Porter.
2-Vallandigham arrested in Ohio for treason.

He was sent South.

May 10-Stonewall Jackson, an able and brilliant Southern general, died of wounds received in battle.

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11-Gen. Logan, Union, defeats Gen. Grigg at Farnden's Creek, Miss. Each had about 5,000 men.

12-Gen. McPherson captured Raymond, Miss., from Confederates. 13-Yazoo City, and $2,000,000 property, captured by Union gunboats. Gen. Grant defeats Confederate army and captures Jackson, Miss. 16-Gen. Grant defeats Pemberton at Baker's Creek, Miss., with heavy loss. Each had about 25,000 men. Pemberton lost 4,000 men and next day 2,000 more.

18 Grant commences seige of Vicksburg, Miss.

26-Gen. Breckenridge, Confederate, suffered defeat in Tennessee.

66 29-An immense train arrives in Gen. Banks' lines near Port Hudson: 600 wagons, 3,000 horses and mules, 1,500 cattle, 6,000 negroes. Gen. Banks fails in several attacks on Port Hudson.

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June 3-A brilliant raid by a colored regiment in South Carolina. 11-Forrest, of Confederate cavalry, defeated at Triune, Tenn. 15-President Lincoln calls for 120,000 militia, to repel Lee's invasion of Penn.

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18-About 100,000 Southern forces enter Penn., near Chambersburg.
20-West Virginia admitted as a State into the Union. Missouri Leg.
islature abolishes slavery.

In this month the great events of the campaign, the taking of
Vicksburg and opening the Mississippi river, and the failure of
Gen. Lee's invasion by his loss of the battle of Gettysburg, are
rapidly approaching the grand crisis.

July The first days of this month formed the crisis of the war.

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3-Gen. Lee, with 100,000 men, was defeated by Gen. Meade at Gettys-
burg, Pa., with about equal numbers. Lee retreated into Virginia
The Union losses at Gettysburg were 23,000. Lee had lost in his
17 days in the Free States 60,000 men altogether.
4-Vicksburg surrendered to Gen. Grant, after a seige of 41 days. In
the battles immediately preceding, under Grant, and in this seige
and capitulation, the South lost near 50,000 men. Grant's losses
were about 9,000.

Gen. Prentice defeated a greatly superior force at Helena, Ark. 46 8-Port Hudson surrenders to Gen. Banks, with 7,000 men.

Morgan, of Confederate cavalry, invades Indiana and Ohio with 5,000 men. He is captured before he can return.

66 13-Great riot in New York city.

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17-Gen. Sherman defeats Johnson, and occupies Jackson, Miss. 20-Two successful Union cavalry expeditions, in N. C. and Va. 46 23-Battle of Manassas Gap. Unionists defeat a superior force. A Confederate victory at Richmond, Ky. 31-Confederates beaten in Kentucky.

Aug. 1-Two cavalry battles in Va.

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4-Disastrous loss of U. S. steamer Ruth, on the Mississippi, by fire. 12-Gen. Gilmore bombarded Ft. Sumter and Charleston most of the

month.

17-Successful cavalry raid into Mississippi to destroy stores. 20-Lawrence, Kansas, attacked and destroyed by guerillas.

A guerilla war was carried on very largely this month, both east and west of the Mississippi.

Sept. 1-Knoxville, Tenn., captured by Gen. Burnside.

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Gen. Blunt defeated the Confederates, and captured Ft. Smith, Ark. 6-Fts. Wagner and Gregg captured by Gen. Gilmore, Charleston, S. C. 8-Cumberland Gap taken by Gen. Burnside. 2,000 prisoners. 10-Little Rock occupied by Union forces.

"19-20-A terrible battle is fought at Chickamauga (in Indian the "River of Death,") in which Gen. Rosecrans with some 50,000 to 60,000 troops is severely defeated by Bragg, with about 45,000. Federal losses about 15,000. Yet Bragg did not capture Chattanooga. 22-Severe battle at Madison Court House, Va. Union victory. 28-Gen. Burnside repulses Confederates at Knoxville, Tenn. Oct. 3-Union troops throw Greek fire into Charleston, S. C. 5 Chatanooga bombarded by Bragg.

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9-Defeat of Wheeler's Confederate cavalry, in Tenn.

14-Battle at Bristoe Station, Va. Favorable to U. S. troops. 16-Gen. Grant takes command of the Western armies.

17-The President calls for 300,000 more troops.

21-A battle in Alabama, in Mississippi, and in Tennessee.

27-Battle of Brown's Ferry, near Chattanooga. Confederates beaten.

66 28-Gen. Hooker takes Lookout Mountain.

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31-Gen. Hooker gains the battle of Shell Mound.

Nov. -The main interest of the month gathers about the great and decisive battle of Chattanooga, between Gens. Grant and Bragg. All the forces to be spared on either side were concentrated here. Chattanooga has been called, “The back door of the Confederacy."

Nov. 5-Chattanooga bombarded by the Southern forces.

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Gen. Avery gains a Union victory at Lewisburg, Va.

6-The North is thrilled with indignation at barbarities ascertained to have been perpetrated in Southern prisons.

7-Gen. Meade drives Southern army across the Rappahannock. 11—The British government makes known an intended invasion of the North from Canada, by Confederates.

15-Gen. Banks takes Corpus Christi, Texas.

17-Charleston continues to be shelled.

Gen. Longstreet detached from Confederate army at Chattanooga, with 15,000 men, to attack Burnside.

18-National Cemetery consecrated, at Gettysburg.

"23-26-Battles of Chattanooga and Lookout Mountain. Southern forces about 60,000, Grant's about 80,000. Confederate losses 10,000, Union, 5,616. It was a blow never recovered by the Confederacy. 28-Gen. Longstreet attacks Knoxville and is repulsed with loss.

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CHAPTER XXVII.

CAMPAIGN OF 1864.

There was a lull, for a time, in the tempest of war. The Confederate forces had lost ground that they could hardly hope to regain. The Mississippi river and Eastern Tennessee, both of supreme importance to the Confederacy, were in possession of the Union armies, which grew ever stronger. They were now about 1,000,000 men, and the navy had increased to over 600 vessels. This force was soon put in vigorous hands, that gripped fast what they once held. The misfortune of many commanders and continual changes, from political rather than military considerations, began to be well understood. Grant had gained so uniformly when others had failed, he was recognized as so tenacious and unwearied, that he received and held the confidence of the people and the government. This was a point of great importance for shortening the war; for the Southern people were still resolute, had still a vast country, were on the defensive in a smaller region than before, and could resist more effectively with a smaller army. It still made a most gallant and determined resistance which the vast resources of the national government did not enable them to overcome for a year and a half. The country was still covered with detached bodies of troops. A desultory war was maintained where strong armies failed to hold the ground, or were concentrated at a few points. The great movements were in Virginia and Georgia. The secondary in Tennessee, in Mississippi, and Texas.

It took a year to break the will of the Southern people after they were really conquered. This period covers the year 1864; 1865 furnishes only the dying struggles of the Confederacy, already mortally wounded.

1864.

The bombardment of Charleston continued during the preceding month. Some cavalry movements were made, the President of the U. S. offered amnesty to all who would take an oath of allegiance, and Gen. Butler announced that the Confederate government refused to receive any more supplies for Union prisoners from the North.

Jan. 7-Three blockade runners captured.

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11-Two more were destroyed, making 22 in a few months.

25-Mr. Vanderbilt, having presented a steamer worth $800.000 to the U. S. government, received the thanks of Congress.

Feb. 1-The President of the U. S. ordered a draft of 500,000 men.

Feb. 5-Two English steamers, with supplies for the South, captured. 9-Cotton worth $700,000 burned at Wilmington, N. C.

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20-Negro troops cover the retreat of a defeated white Union force at Olustee, Fla.

28 The large armies being broken up or concentrated, and the lines of communication very much interrupted, many Union cavalry raids, aiming to break the lines of communication by railroad completely, to lay waste the country, and to free the negroes, who were raising supplies for the Southern armies, in the far interior, were undertaken. That of Sherman to Meridian, in Miss., and of Grierson and Smith, and many smaller ones, were executed during this month. The damage to railroads and the supplies destroyed were incalculable. 18 blockade runners and other vessels bringing supplies to the South were destroyed during the month.

Mar. 2—Gen. Grant made Lt. General; the only one who had reached that dignity since Gen. Washington-Gen. Scott being Lt. Gen. only by brevet.

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12-Gen. Grant made Commander-in-chief of the U. S. armies.

15-The President of the U. S. calls for 200,000 more men.

25-Confederate Gen. Forrest makes three assaults on Paducah, Ky.,

with loss of 1,500 men, in vain.

66 28-A severe defeat inflicted on Southern forces at Cane River, La. Apr. 4—Gen. Marmaduke defeated by Gen. Steele, Unionist, at Little Mis

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8-Gen. Banks suffers reverses on the Red River, and retreats with loss.

66 12--Gen. Forrest takes Ft. Pillow. The garrison consisted largely of

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negroes.

21-Salt works in North Carolina destroyed-value $100,000. As salt was indispensable to army operations, the utmost effort was made to ruin as many as possible.

23-Governors of Western States offer the U.S. government 85,000 men for 100 days. President accepts them.

May 2-400 Union prisoners are brought to Annapolis

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4-Gen. Grant crosses the Rapidan in Va. and commences operations in the Wilderness. He, with 140,000 men, confronts Lee, who has 60,000.

5-Fighting in the Wilderness for two days without decided result. Costs Grant 30,000 (5,000 were prisoners) and Lee 10,000. Lee was intrenched and familiar with the ground, which was highly unfa vorable to the Union army.

6-Gen. Sherman confronts Gen. Joe Johnson near Chattanooga. Sherman has near 100,000; Johnson 60,000.

7-Lee retreats toward Spottsylvania Court-House. Union army follows, fighting.

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