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Feb.25-800 Southern soldiers desert, and come into Union lines.

Mar. 2 Sheridan completely routs Gen. Early again, taking 1,700 troops

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prisoners.

4-President Lincoln inaugurated for his second term.

" 10-Gen. Bragg defeated, at Kingston, N. C.

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15-Gen. Hardee (Confederate) defeated by Sherman's army.

a 18-The Confederate Congress adjourned. It never met again. Battle of part of Sherman's army with Johnston, Confederate, 24,000 strong. Southern forces made six assaults which were withstood. After fighting and manouvering 3 days, Johnston retreated having lost 3,000 men. Sherman lost 1,646.

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25—Ft. Steadman, near Petersburg, Va., captured by Confederates, but was immediately retaken, with 2,000 prisoners. This attack was made by Lee, preparatory to evacuating Richmond. Grant had about 120,000 troops, Lee 70,000.

29-Sheridan commences an expedition to the rear of Richmond to cut off Lee's retreat South.

"31-Sheridan attacked and hard pushed by Lee's forces, but at night they fall back.

Apr. 1-Sheridan, in turn, follows the Confederates, and drives them toward Richmond. He takes more than 5,000 prisoners. This was the battle of Five Forks. It was fatal to Lee's retreat.

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2-Grant's forces make a grand assault. It is successful, and Lee prepares to evacuate Richmond. President Davis leaves his capiGen. Lee commences his retreat

tal in haste, for Danville, N. C.
in the night.

3-Richmond occupied by colored Federal troops. They find the

city in flames.

4-President Davis endeavors to make a stand against disaster. He

issues a proclamation from Danville.

9-Terms of surrender arranged by Gens. Grant and Lee.

" 10-Gen. Lee issues his farewell address to his army.

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12-Confederate army yielded prisoners of war at Appomattox Court
House, Virginia. 27,805 Confederate soldiers paroled.

Gen. Stoneman defeats a Confederate force, at Salisbury, N. C.
Gen. Canby, Union, occupies Mobile, Ala.

66 14 President Lincoln assassinated in Washington, by J. Wilkes Booth. Mr. Seward stabbed in bed, but not killed.

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15-Abraham Lincoln died at 7 A. M. The whole country is in mourning.

Andrew Johnson assumes the office of President of the U. S.

18-Paine, or Powell, who endeavored to assassinate Sec. Seward, arrested at Mrs. Surratt's house in Washington. Mrs. Surratt arrested.

Gen. Sherman arranges preliminaries for the surrender of all the

remaining Confederate forces, with Gen. Johnston, commanding Southern army in N. C., with consent of Confederate Sec. of War and Pres. Davis. It includes the basis of a general peace, and a policy of reconstruction. It is sent to the Federal government for their approval or rejection.

Apr.19-Funeral ceremonies of President Lincoln, at Washington. Funeral services are held all over the North. The body is carried in state to Springfield, Ill., stopping at prominent places on the route: and visited by great numbers of the people. 700,000 were said to have been in the procession at New York.

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21-Gen. Sherman's arrangement with Johnston disapproved by the government, and he is ordered to resume hostilities. Steamboat Sultana blows up on the Mississippi, and about 1,300 U. S. soldiers returning home were killed.

24 Gen. Grant visits Sherman.

25-J. W. Booth, the assassin of the President, taken prisoner near Port Royal, Va. Refusing to surrender, a soldier shot him, contrary to orders. He died in 4 hours. No assassin ever met with more universal execration than Booth. Its necessary effect was to render the Reconstruction policy much more stern and painful to the South.

"26-Johnston surrenders to Gen. Sherman all the Confederate troops in his command, on the terms granted Gen. Lee.

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29-Arms and stores of Gen. Johnston's army delivered to U. S. author. ities, at Greensboro, N. C.

May 2-Reward offered for capture of Jeff. Davis, of $100,000. He was understood to be flying toward Texas.

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3-President Lincoln's remains arrive at Springfield, Ill.

46 4-9-All the Confederate forces disbanded, or surrendered to U. S. officers, east and west of Mississippi river.

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10-Jeff. Davis captured in Geo.,

GENERAL DATA.

The number of volunteer troops to be mustered out of the Union army, May 1st, 1865, was 1,034,064. They were mostly discharged and paid in the next three months. The entire enlistments in the Federal army, during the whole war, were 2,688,523. Many were re-enlistments. It is believed that the whole number of individuals forming the armies was only 1,500,000. 75 per cent. were native Americans, 9 per cent. Germans, and 7 per cent. Irish. Various nationalities made up the remaining 9 per cent.

Of this million and a half 56,000 were killed in battle, 35,000 died in hospitals of their wounds received in battle, and 184,000 died in hospitals of disease. Many afterwards died, and others were ruined in health for life.

It has been stated by the Adjutant General of the Confederate army, since the close of the war, that the available Confederate force during the entire

war was 600,000, and that they never had more than 200,000 in the field at any one time. This would seem likely to be an underestimate, but is the nearest to official data that we have. He states the entire force opposing the 1,000,000 men in the closing campaign to have been 100,000. There is reason to believe that the Confederates killed, and the wounded and sick who died in hospital, was about 300,000.

The entire amount expended by the National government, by States, counties and towns, and contributed in other ways to the comfort or sustenance of the army, is computed at $4,000,000,000. The support of the Southern army cannot be ascertained, but it is thought that those expenses and the destruction of property inflicted about an equal loss on them.

These losses in life and property are fearful; but they are the price of Freedom and of Nationality. The general prosperity of the country has made it richer than before, while natural increase and immigration have filled the places vacant by death.

The South was hopeless and exhausted at the close of the war. It had been feared that a guerrilla war, the most desolating and bloody of all wars, would follow the defeat of the great armies. It could result only in destruction of what remained to the Southern people, and they submitted quietly to their fate. Various excesses and deeds of blood were indeed committed, but they were not sympathized with by the mass of the people. It was only the desperate and lawless class that came to the surface naturally in war.

Many of the influential Southern leaders counseled submission to inev. itable necessity, and themselves set the example. The policy of reconstruction adopted by the National government, excluded, at first, all who had taken a part in the rebellion from political influence. The loyal element, small as it was, was alone to restore the Southern States to their place in the Union. It was, however, proposed to admit others, both individuals and classes, to participation in political action as they proved themselves trustworthy and loyal to the new order of things. After some years, and when it was felt to be quite safe, these disabilities were nearly all removed. The most distasteful act of the General Government, to the people of the Bouth, was clothing the blacks with the rights of citizens. They received the elective franchise, and assisted to rule over their former masters. It was considered necessary, since they had now no masters to be interested in them, to give them the power to protect themselves, and to elevate them to something of influence and respectability by force of the ballot. That advantage given them, they must take their chances with others, and win their own way. They had been loyal to the Union, which strongly recommended this policy to the government. The Northern people who now settled in the South and the blacks mainly reorganized the State governments. This was the chief punishment inflicted on the Southern people in retaliation for the war they had waged with such fearful energy. It was a clemency quite unexampled in history. No blood was shed after they

laid down their arms. The assassination of the beloved President Lincoln made the North thoroughly angry, but no vengeance was taken except on those believed to be immediately connected with the atrocious deed. The most lively indignation had long been felt at the dreadful treatment experienced by prisoners of war in some of the prisons of the South; but the government and the people contented themselves with the punishment of the governor of Andersonville prison, on due civil trial and conviction.

On the whole, the conduct of the Northern people was extremely magnanimous. The dissolution of the Union would have been an irreparable loss to them; they resolved not to suffer it; and, with extraordinary energy, they put in the field more than a million and a half of men, and near 700 vessels, to subdue it, and suffered no reverses to discourage them until this was done. When resistance ceased and the Union was secure, they exacted only the pledges necessary to keep it safe. Appreciating the unfortunate condition to which nearly all the before prosperous classes of the South were reduced, they aided them in their distress, ceased at once all hostile action, and left them to recover from their disasters under as favorable circumstances as their own conduct warranted. The South naturally felt an affection for her Lost Cause, proportionate to the sacrifices she had made and the suffering she had endured for it. Time, and busy care to develop the vast resources that slavery had, in great part, neglected, would gradually restore them to right feeling, and the state of mind fitting them for citizenship. This, in part, has already taken place, and, by and by, the Bonds of the Whole Union will be more firmly cemented than ever before. May it be soon.

CHAPTER XXIX.

HISTORY OF THE U. S. FROM 1865 TO 1877.

May 13-During the week ending with this day there was subscribed to the U. S. seven-thirty loan $98,000,000. It was an expression of the enthusiastic confidence of the people in the government and its

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resources.

22-23-Grand review of Gen. Sherman's army at Washington. There were 200,000 men.

26-Kirby Smith, the last leader of a Southern military organization, surrendered his command.

30-The great Sanitary Fair opened at Chicago.

31-Gen. Hood and his staff surrendered prisoners of war.

June 1-A day of fasting and national humiliation for the death of Presi

dent Lincoln.

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July 5-The four confederates of Booth, the assassin of President Lincoln, were found guilty. They were hanged on the 6th and 7th. These were Harold, Atzerott, Powell and Mrs. Surratt. 11-Gen. R. E. Lee appointed president of the Washington College, Va. It was done by Southern people as a mark of respect, and to furnish him a support; he having lost his property in the war. Sept. 20-The marking of the graves of 12,000 of the unfortunate Andersonville prisoners completed.

66 29-Cession of 1,000,000 acres of land to the government by the Osage Indians, for $300,000.

Oct. 20—Champ Ferguson, noted for his crimes in guerilla warfare, hung at Nashville, Tenn.

Nov. 10-Henry Wirz, the former keeper of Andersonville prison, hung, after trial and condemation.

Dec. 18-Secretary Seward officially announces that the 13th Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery in the United States, has been adopted by three-fourths of the States, and it is now the law of the land.

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Jan. 1-Third anniversary of Emancipation celebrated by the colored people.

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2-Funeral of Hon. Henry Winter Davis, M. C., at Baltimore.

12-The Kentucky University purchases the homestead of Henry Clay. 23-The 13th Constitutional Amendment reconsidered by the Legisla ture of New Jersey and passed. It had been rejected in the previous year.

"25-Kentucky refused to pass the 13th Amendment.

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31-Commissary and quartermaster warehouses burned, at Ft. Riley, Kansas. $1,000,000 lost.

Feb. 2-The Civil Rights bill passed the Senate.

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11-The U. S. Sanitary Commission closed with an anniversary meeting at Washington.

12-Memorial services in honor of President Lincoln held in the capitol, at Washington; address delivered by the Hon. Geo. Bancroft, statesman and historian.

19-President Johnson vetoed the Freedmen's Bureau bill.

22-The 134th anniversary of Washington's birthday celebrated. 26-Meeting held at Richmond to ratify President Johnson's policy.

Mar. 10-North Carolina passes a Negro Rights bill.

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12-North Carolina passes a Negro Testimony bill.

Texas Convention declares their Secession ordinance null and v 13-The Civil Rights bill passed the House of Representatives. 19 The Reciprocity Treaty with Canada expires.

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