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into existence.

In this manner the number of the States has become nearly three times as numerous as at the beginning.

CHAPTER LXIX.

THE INDIVIDUAL TERRITORIES.

The territories are here arranged in the order of seniority, the one which first received a territorial government taking the lead. The District of Columbia is older than any of them as acknowledged National property, the Louisiana Purchase having been made since it was ceded to the general Government; but it was the last to receive a territorial organization, Congress governing it directly without giving it representation until 1871. It is placed last for that reason.

NEW MEXICO

Was visited at an early period by Spaniards, who, excited by the success of the followers of Cortez and Pizarro in discovering rich mines of gold and silver, sought the wealth in the dangers and hardships of travel which is more often, if more slowly, found as the reward of patient toil. An expedition from Florida made the formidable overland journey to New Mexico, in 1537; and another from Mexico, after visiting the Gila River, passed eastward beyond the Rio Grande in 1540. In 1581 its mineral wealth became known and a mission was attempted; but no settlement was made until 1600, when formal possession was taken by an adequate army. The missions now became very successful and the mines were worked. Many of the natives were considerably advanced in some of the arts of civilization. In 1680 the natives revolted, from the severe servitude to which they were subjected, and drove the Spaniards out of the country. They only recovered it in. 1698. It was never very numerously peopled by whites. In 1846 it was conquered by General Kearney, and in 1848 ceded to the United States by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The

difficulties of transportation and the wild and lawless character of the inhabitants has prevented any extensive emigration to it by Americans. It is an elevated table-land, nearly 7,000 feet above the surface of the sea, crossed by several ranges of mountains sometimes rising 10,000 feet above the general surface of the country. The atmosphere is dry; little rain falls; and agriculture is usually successful only with irri gation. In the valleys, where this is employed, the fertility of the soil is marvelous. Often two crops are raised, on the same land, in the year. Wheat and other grains are raised in great perfection. Cotton is successful in some parts, fruit can be raised in abundance, and the soil is said to be specially favorable to the grape, the wine rivaling that of France.

Gold and silver abound, but the mines have never been effectively worked for want of transportation and the requisite capital. Stock raising is a profitable occupation in this Territory. Much of the land unfit for cultivation produces grass which cures in drying during the hot months, and preserves all its nutricious qualities. Sheep and mules are extensively raised. When the Pacific railroad shall open the country to immigration, and order, industry, and capital make the most of its resources, it will be ranked among the favored parts of the Union.

It has many natural curiosities, and much wild and beauti. ful scenery. The length of the Rio Grande, in its windings in the Territory, is about 1200 miles; and its valley from one to twelve miles wide. Its Territorial government was organized in 1850. The population, in 1870, was 91,874. Many tribes of Indians roam over the territory and through Texas, Arizona, and northern Mexico. Most of the people are Roman Catholics. It includes an area of about 100,000 square miles. Every free white male inhabitant living in the territory at the time of its organization had the right of suffrage, that right being regulated in other respects by its legislative Assembly ·

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UTAH

Was formerly a part of the Mexican territory of Upper California, and was acquired by the United States in 1848, by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. It was too distant, desolate, and dangerous a region for much settlement by Mexicans, and has little known history anterior to the explorations of Fremont between 1843 and 1846.

The first American settlement was made by the Mormons, in July, 1847, and was supposed by them to be out of the territory of the United States, and beyond the reach of possible interference. Here, in the depths of the desert, they determined to build up a peculiar religious society embracing customs opposed to the views and institutions of the United States. Their success was a surprise to the world, and probably to themselves; the capacity of the depths of the Great American Desert, as it was called, for cultivation, exceeding all previous expectation. But the war with Mexico, then in progress, threw this, before inaccessible, desert into the limits of the American Union; and the discovery of gold in the neighboring territory of California, throwing them almost midway between the old western settlements and the new Eldorado, subjected them to contact with, and interference by, the tide of modern civilization, as it flowed toward the setting sun; and in ten years from their first appearance in the Great Central Basin of the continent, they came again into hostile conflict with the established authorities they thought to have finally escaped. Their conflict with the United States government, whose customs and prejudices were at variance with their own, was deferred by the troubles which precipitated the civil war; and their institutions remain substantially unaltered to the present time. The Pacific Railroad is now built through their territory. What changes will be brought about in consequence of the immigration which is taking place by means of the facilities thus afforded, time alone can tell.

Utah was organized as a territory by act of Congress Sept. 9th, 1850. Brigham Young, the head of the Mormon church, became the first governor. In 1854 it was vainly attempted to remove him; and in 1857 an army was sent to enforce Federal authority. A final conflict was avoided by compromise. In 1862 the Mormons attempted to get admission into the Union as a State, with their "peculiar institutions," but failed. A Territorial Government exists, and will probably remain such while the Mormons are large in numbers. According to the habits of our people, conflict is avoided so far as possible, to await the more peaceable and natural solution of the difficulty. Utah is unique in one respect; though lying nearly a mile above the surface of the sea, and having a complete system of lakes and rivers, there is no visible connection of these with the ocean. It is a continent embosomed within the depths of a continent. The Great Salt Lake is 100 miles long by 50 broad, and its waters are very salt-three parts of the water producing one of pure salt. No fish can live in it. It receives the contents of many considerable streams. Whether they are kept in subjection by evaporation alone, or have a concealed outlet to the ocean is unknown. The soil, though in its natural state an apparent desert, is extremely fertile when irrigated, and produces wheat and other cereals in great profusion. Its mountains are believed to be rich in silver and gold; but the mines are as yet undeveloped, very little having been done in that direction.

Cotton is highly successful in the southern settlements, and experiments with flax and silk culture have been very favorable. The climate is mild and healthy.

Utah is a highly promising section of our national domain. Its population in 1870 was 86,786; its area about 87,500 square miles.

WASHINGTON TERRITORY

Was organized in 1853, and then contained a much larger It was at first a part of Oregon, and its meagre early

area.

history was the same. The Straits of San Juan de Fuca were visited and named by a Spanish navigator in 1775. The English government claimed the territory north of the Columbia and for some years there was a joint occupation by both nations by special agreement. The difficulties concerning this boundary came near involving the two nations in war, but it was settled in 1846, giving the United States the territory to the 49th parallel of latitude. Vancouver Island was assigned to Great Britain.

Washington is estimated to contain, west of the Columbia river, where it flows down from British America, 22,000 square miles of arable land. There is much that is adapted only to grazing, and vast quantities covered with forests in the wild mountain regions of the eastern part of the territory.

It has an almost inexhaustible supply of coal, and more or less of the precious metals. The great distinction of Washington territory is its forests. The warm ocean currents from the Indian ocean, after traversing the eastern coasts of Asia, are thrown across the North Pacific against the western shores of North America, and effect an important modification in the severity and humidity of the temperature of our Pacific slope. The climate is much milder and more equable than in the same latitude east of the mountains, and the moisture is highly favorable to forest growth. It is the best ship building timber in the world. The trees are immense, often reaching a height of 300 feet with a diameter of 8 to 12 feet.

The portion of Washington territory lying west of the Cascade mountains is rich farming land, heavily timbered; while east of the Cascades the country is open prairie, well watered, with small and thinly wooded valleys. The land immediately about Puget Sound is sandy; not valuable for farming though producing timber, but a little way back is unrivaled in richness.

Corn does not thrive well, but wheat, oats, potatoes, &c., are very prolific. Large quantities of butter, cheese, and wool are produced. There is little snow in the winter and that soon melts away, except far up in the mountains. Washington

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