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I have this present evening from my sister
Nor I, assure thee, Regan.-
Edm. 'Twas my duty, sir.
Glo. He did bewray his practice ;2 and receiv'd
Corn. Is he pursued ?
Ay, my good lord, he is.3
I shall serve you, sir,
For him I thank your grace.5
2 He did bewray his practice ;] i. e. Discover, betray. So, in The Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington, 1601:
“ We were betray'd, beset, and forc'd to yield.” Again, in The Devil's Charter, 1607:
“ Thy solitary passions should bewray
" Some discontent." Practice is always used by Shakspeare for insidious mischief. So, in Sidney's Arcadia, Book II: -- his heart fainted and gat a conceit, that with bewraying this practice, he might obtaine pardon.'
The quartos read-betray. Steevens.
See Minsheu's Dict. 1617, in v. “To bewraie, or disclose, a Goth. bewrye.” Malone.
he is.] These words were supplied by Sir Thomas Hanmer to complete the measure. Steevens. 4 Whose virtue and obedience doth --] i.e. whose virtuous obedience.
Malone. 5 For him I thank your grace.] Sir Thomas Hanmer, judiciously, in my opinion, omits-For him, as needless to the sense, and inju. rious to the metre. Steevens.
threading dark ey'd night.] The quarto reads:
threatning dark-ey'd night. Fohnson.
Occasions, noble Gloster, of some poise,
I serve you,
madam: Your graces are right welcome.
Before Gloster's Castle. Enter Kent and Steward, severally. Stew. Good dawning to thee, friend:1 Art of the house ?2
Shakspeare uses the former of these expressions in Coriolanus, Act III:
“ They would not thread the gates." Steevens.
of some poize,] i. e. of some weight or moment. So, in Othello:
full of poize and difficulty, “ And fearful to be granted.” Thus the quarto B. The other quarto of 1608, and the folio, have prize. Malone.
Here again both my quartos read with Mr. Malone's quarto A.-prize; though poize is undoubtedly the preferable reading. Steevens. - from our home;] Not at home, but at some other place.
Fohnson. Thus the folio. The quarto B reads-which I lest thought it fit to answer from our home. The other quarto:—which I best thought it fit to answer from our hand. Malone. Both my quartos-best,--and-from our hand. Steevens. to our business,] Thus the quartos. Folio:-to our businesses.
Malone. 1 Good dawning to thee, friend :] Thus the folio. The quartosGood even
Steevens. We should read with the folio-- Good dawning to thee, friend." The latter end of this scene shows that it passed in the inorning; for when Kent is placed in the stocks, Cornwall says, “ There he shall sit 'till noon ;" and Regan replies, “ 'Till noon, 'till night:” and it passed very early in the morning; for Regan tells Gloster, in the preceding page, that she had been threading dark-ey'd night to come to him. M. Mason.
Dawning is again used in Cymbeline as a substantive, for morning :
Kent. If I had thee in“Lipsbury'pinfold, I would make thee care for me.
that dawning “ May bare the raven's eye.” It is clear from various passages in this scene, that the morning is now just beginning to dawn, though the moon is still up, and though Kent early in the scene calls it still night. Towards the close of it, he wishes Gloster good morrow, as the latter goes out, and immediately after calls on the sun to shine, that he may read a letter. Malone. of the house?] So the quartos. Folio--of this house.
Malone: Lipsbury pinfold,] The allusion which seems to be contained in this line I do not understand. In the violent eruption of reproaches which bursts from Kent in this dialogue, there are some epithets which the commentators have left unexpounded, and which I am not very able to make clear. Of a three-suited knave I know not the meaning, unless it be that he has different dresses for different occupations. Lily-liver'd is cowardly; white-blooded and white-liver'd are still in vulgar use. An one-trunk-inheriting slave, I take to be a wearer of old cast-off clothes, an inheritor of torn breeches. Johnson.
I do not find the name of Lipsbury: it may be a cant phrase, with some corruption, taken from a place where the fines were arbitrary.
Three suited should, I believe, be third-suited, wearing clothes at the third hand. Edgar, in his pride, had three suits only. Farmer.
Lipsbury pinföld may be a cant expression importing the same as Lob's pound. So, in Massinger's Duke of Milan:
“ To marry her, and sowy he was the party
66 Found in Lob's Pound." A Pinfolil is a pound. Thus, in Gascoigne's Dan Bartholemew of Bathe, 1587:
“ In such a pin.folde were his pleasures pent.” Three-suited knave might mean, in an age of ostentatious finery like that of Shakspeare, one who had no greater change of raiment than three suits would furnish him with ; so, in Ben Jonson's Silent Womnan: “.- wert a pitiful fellow, and hadst nothing but three suits of apparel." or it may signify a fellow thrice-sued at law, who has three suits for debt standing out against him. A one-trunk-inheriting slave may be a term used to describe a fellow, the whole of whose possessions are confined to one cojfer, and that too inherited from his father, who was no better provided, or had nothing more to bequeath to his successor in poverty; a poor rogue hereditary, as Timon calls Apemantus. A worsted-stocking krave is another reproach of the same kind. The stockings in England, in the reign of queen Elizabeth, (as I learıı
Stew. Why dost thou use me thus? I know thee not.
Kent. A knave; a rascal, an eater of broken meats; a base, proud, shallow, beggarly, three-suited, hundredpound,4 filthy worsted-stocking knave; a lily-liver’d, action-taking knave ;5 a whorson, glass-gazing, superserviceable, finical rogue ;6 one-trunk-inheriting slave; one that would'st be a bawd, in way of good service, and art nothing but the composition of a knave, beggar, coward, pandar, and the son and heir of a mongrel bitch: one whom I will beat into clamorous whining, if thou deny'st the least syllable of thy addition.7
from Stubbs's Anatomie of Abuses, printed in 1595) were remarkably expensive, and scarce any other kind than silk were worn, even (as this author says) by those who had not above forty shilling wages. -So, in an old comedy, called The Hog hath lost its Pearl, 1614, by R. Tailor: "- - good parts are no more set by in these times, than a good leg in a woollen stocking:”. Again, in The Captain, by Beaumont and Fletcher:
« Green sicknesses and serving.men light on you,
“ With greasy breeches, and in woollen stocking s. Again, in The Miseries of inforc'd Marriage, 1607, two sober young men come to claim their portion from their elder brother who is a spendthrift, and tell him: “Our birth-right, good brother: this town craves maintenance; silk stockings must be had," &c.
Silk stockings were not made in England till 1560, the second year of queen Elizabeth's reign. Of this extravagance Drayton takes no. tice in the 16th song of his Polyolbion:
" Which our plain fathers erst would have accounted sin,
“ Before the costly coach and silken stock came in.” Steevens. This term of reproach also occurs in The Phænix, by Middleton, 1607: “ Mettreza Auriola keeps her love with half the cost that I am at; her friend can go afoot, like a good husband; walk in worstei stockings, and inquire for the sixpenny ordinary.” Malone.
hundred-pound,] A hundred-pound gentleman is a term of reproach used in Middleton's Phænix, 1607., Steevens.
action-taking knave ;] i. e. a fellow, who, if you beat him, would bring an action for the assault, instead of resenting it like a man of courage. M. Mason.
- a whorson, glass-gazing — rogue ;] This epithet none of the commentators have explained ; nor am I sure that I understand it. In Timon of Athens, “ the glass-fac’d flatterer" is mentioned, that is, says Dr. Johnson, “ he that shows in his own look, as by reflection, the looks of his patron.”-Glass-gazing may be licentiously used for one enanjoured of himself; who gazes often at his own person in a glass. Malone.
Stew. Why, what a monstrous fellow art thou, thus to rail on one, that is neither known of thee, nor knows thee?
Kent. What a brazen-faced varlet art thou, to deny thou know'st me? Is it two days ago, since I tripp'd up thy heels, and beat thee, before the king? Draw, you rogue: for, though it be night, the moon shines; I'll make a sop o' the moonshine of you :8 Draw, you whorson cullionly barber-monger, draw. [Drawing his Sword.
addition.] i. e. titles. The Statute 1 Hen. V, ch. 5, which directs that in certain writs a description should be added to the name of the defendant, expressive of his estate, mystery, degree, &c. is called the statute of Additions. Malone.
Kent is not only boisterous in his manners, but abusive in his language. His excessive ribaldry proceeds from an over solicitude to prevent being discovered: like St. Peter's swearing from a similar motive. Henley.
- I'll make a sop o' the moonshine of you :] This is equivalent to our modern phrase of making the sun shine through any one. But, alluding to the natural philosophy of that time, it is obscure. The Peripatetics thought, though falsely, that the rays of the moon were cold and moist. The speaker therefore says, he would make a sop of his antagonist, which should absorb the humidity of the moon's rays, by letting them into his guts. For this reason Shakspeare, in Romeo and Juliet, says:
the moonshine's watry beams." And, in The Midsummer Night's Dream : o Quench'd in the chaste beams of the watry moon."
Warburton. I much question if our author had so deep a meaning as is here imputed to him by his more erudite commentator. Steevens.
I'll make a sop o' the moonshine of you.] Perhaps here an equi. voque was intended. In The Old Shepherd's Kalendar, among the dishes recommended for Prymetyne, “One is egges in moneshine."
- Could I those whitely stars go nigh,
" To make my Delia a curious mess.” Steevens.
" And make a sop of all this solid globe.” Malone.