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Which the impetuous blasts, with eyeless rage,
But who is with him?
Sir, I do know you ;
The first folio ends the speech at change or cease, and begins again at Kent's question, But who is with him? The whole speech is forci. ble, but too long for the occasion, and properly retrenched. Johnson. 6 Strives in his little world of man to uut-scorn
The to-and-fro-conflicting wind and rain.] Thus the old copies. But I suspect we should read-out-storm : i. e. as Nestor expresses 'it in Troilus and Cressida:
with an accent tund in self-same key, « Returns to chiding fortune:” i. e. makes a return to it, gives it as good as it brings, confronts it with self-comparisons. Again, in King Lear, Act V:
“ Myself could else out-frown false fortune's frown.” Again, in King Fohn:
“ Threaten the threatner, and out-face the brow,
“ Of bragging horror.” Again, (and more decisively) in The Lover's Complaint, attributed to our author:
Stormning her world with sorrow's wind and rain.” Steevens. 7 This night wherein the cub-drawn bear would couch,] Cub-drawn has been explained to signify drawn by nature to its young; whereas it means, whose dugs are drawn dry by its young. For no animals leave their dens by night but for prey. So that the meaning is, “ that even hunger, and the support of its young, would not force the bear to leave his den in such a night.” Warburton. Shakspeare has the same image in As you Like it :
“ A lioness, with udders all drawn dry,
“ Lay couching Again, ibidem :
“ Food to the suck'd and hungry lioness.” Steevens. 8 And bids what will take all.] So, in Antony and Cleopatra, Eno
“ I'll strike, and cry, Take all.” Steevens.
upon the warrant of my art,] Thus the quartos. The folio
Commend a dear thing to you. There is division,
- The warrant of my art" seems to mean-on the strength of my skill in physiognomy. Steevens.
upon the warrant of my art,] On the strength of that art or skill, which teaches us " to find the mind's construction in the face.” The passage in Macbeth from which I have drawn this paraphrase, in which the word art is again employed in the same sense, confirms the reading of the quartos. The folio reads-upon the warrant of my note : i.e. says Dr. Johnson, “my observation of your character."
Malone. 1 Who have (as who have not,] The eight subsequent verses were degraded by Mr. Pope, as unintelligible, and to no purpose. For my part, I see nothing in them but what is very easy to be nnderstood ; and the lines seem absolutely necessary to clear up the motives upon which France prepared his invasion : nor without them is the sense of the context complete. Theobald. The quartos omit these lines. Steevens. - what hath been seen,
en,] What follows, are the circumstances in the state of the kingdom, of which he supposes the spies“gave France the intelligence. Steevens.
3 Either in snuffs and packings -] Snuffs are dislikes, and packings underhand contrivances.
So, in Henry IV, P.I: “Took it in snuff;" and in King Edward III, 1599:
“ This packing evil, we both shall tremble for it.” Again, in Stanyhurst's Virgil, 1582:
"With two gods packing one woman silly to cozen." We still talk of packing juries, and Antony says of Cleopatra, that she has “pack”d cards with Cæsar.” Steevens.
are but furnishings ;] Furnishings are what we now call colours, external pretences. Johnson.
A furnish anciently signified a sample. So, in the Preface to Greene's Groatsworth of Wit, 1621: “ To lend the world a furnish of wit, she lays her own to pawn.” Steevens.
5 But, true it is, &c.] In the old editions are the five following lines which I have inserted in the text, which seem necessary to the plot,
Into this scatter'd kingdom; who already,
as a preparatory to the arrival of the French army with Cordelia in Act IV. How both these, and a whole scene between Kent and this gentleman in the fourth Act, came to be left out in all the later editions, I cannot tell; they depend upon each other, and very much contribute to clear that incident. Pope.
- from France there comes a power Into this scatter'd kingdom; who already, Wise in our negligence, have secret feet
In some of our best ports,] This speech, as it now stands, is col. lected from two editions: the eight lines degraded by Mr. Pope, are found in the folio, not in the quarto ; the following lines inclosed in crotchets are in the quarto, not in the folio. So that if the speech be read with omission of the former, it will stand according to the first edition ; and if the former are read, and the lines that follow them omitted, it will then stand according to the second. The speech is now tedious, because it is formed by a coalition of both. The second edition is generally best, and was probably nearest to Shakspeare's last copy; but in this passage the first is preferable: for in the folio, the messenger is sent, he knows not why, he knows not whither. I suppose Shakspeare thought his plot opened rather too early, and made the alteration to veil the event from the audience; but trusting too much to himself, and full of a single purpose, he did not accommodate his new lines to the rest of the scene. Scattered means divided, unsettled, disunited. Johnson.
have secret feet In some of our best ports,] One of the quartos (for there are two that differ from each other, though printed in the same year, and for the same printer,) reads secret feet
. Perhaps the author wrote secret foot, i. e. footing. So, in a following scene :
what confederacy have you with the traitors “ Late footed in the kingdom ?" A phrase, not unlike that in the text, occurs in Chapman's version of the nineteenth Book of Homer's Odyssey:
what course for home would best prevail “ To come in pomp, or beare a secret sail.” Steevens. These lines, as has been observed, are not in the folio. Quarto A reads-secret fee; quarto B-secret feet. I have adopted the latter reading, which I suppose was used in the sense of secret footing, and is strongly confirmed by a passage in this Act: “ These injuries the king now bears will be revenged home; there is part of a power already footed : we must incline to the king.” Again, in Coriolanus :
- Why, thou Mars, I 'll tell thee,
Some that will thank you, making just report
Gent. I will talk further with you.
No, do not.
Gent. Give me your hand: Have you no more to say?
Kent. Few words, but, to effect, more than all yet; That, when we have found the king, (in which your pain That
way, I'll this ;) he that first lights on him, Holla the other.
Another Part of the Heath. Storm continues.'
Enter LEAR and Fool. Lear. Blow, wind, and crack your cheeks!! rage! blow! You cataracts, and hurricanoes, spout
? (As fear not but you shall)] Thus quarto B and the folio. Quarto A-As doubt not but you shall. Malone.
the king, (in which your pain, That way; I'll this;) he that first &c.] Thus the folio. The late reading:
“ That when we have found the king,
« On him, hollow the other.” Steevens. 9 Blow, wind, and crack your cheeks.'] Thus the quartos. The folio has_winds. The poet, as Mr. M. Mason has observed in a note on The Tempest, was here thinking of the common representation of the winds, which he might have found in many books of his own time. So again, as the same gentleman has observed, in Troilus ans Cressida :
Till you have drench'd our steeples, drown'd the cocks!
Fool. O nuncle, court holy-waters in a dry house is bet
“Blow, villain, till thy sphered bias cheek
“ Outswell the cholick of puff'd Aquilon." We find the same allusion in Kempe's Nine Daies Wonder, &c. quarto, 1600: « he swells presently, like one of the four winds."
Malone. thought.executing -] Doing execution with rapidity equal to thought. Johnson.
2 Vaunt couriers -] Avant couriers, Fr. This phrase is not unfamiliar to other writers of Shakspeare's time. It originally meant the foremost scouts of an army. So, in Jarvis Markham's English Arcadia, 1607 :
as soon as the first vancurrer encountered him face to
face.” Again, in The Tragedy of Mariam, 1613:
Might to my death, but the vaunt.currier prove." Again, in Darius, 1603 :
“ Th' avant-corours, that came for to examine.” Steevens. In The Tempest “ Jove's lightnings” are termed more familiarly
the precursors “O'the dreadful thunder-claps. " Malone. 3 Strike flat &c.] The quarto reads,-Smite flat. Steevens.
4 Crack nature's moulds, all germens spill at once,] Crack nature's mould, and spill all the seeds of matter, that are hoarded within it. Our author not only uses the same thought again, but the word that ascertains my explication, in The Winter's Tale:
“ Let nature crush the sides o’the earth together,
" And mar the seeds within." Theobald. So again, in Macbeth:
and the sum
spill at once,] To spill is to destroy. So, in Gower, De Con. fessione Amantis, Lib. IV, fol. 67 :
“ So as I shall myself spill.” Steevens. 5 court holy-water -] Ray, among his proverbial phrases, p. 184, mentions court holy-water to mean fair words. The French have the same phrase, Eaủ benite de cour; fair empty words.Ghambaud's Dictionary. The same phrase also occurs in Churchyard's Charitie, 1595:
« The great good turnes in court that thousands felt,