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the Libyan hills, and formed the vast reservoir of Lake Moeris; for the Greeks called him Ameris, believing that the Lake Moeris, which they regarded as a marvel of engineering skill, was called after him. The word meri, however, is Egyptian for “lake.” On its margin was situated the famous labyrinth, which I afterwards visited ; and here blocks of stone have been found bearing the name of Amenemhat. This lake extended to the city, the ruins of which I have just described, and which in those days was called Shat, or Pi-Sebek, “the abode of Sebek ; ” and it was the headquarters of the worship of the sacred crocodile, kept in Lake Moeris, hence the name by which this city was afterwards known, of Crocodilopolis. Sebek is the name of the Egyptian god, who is always represented with the head of a crocodile; and that reptile was held especially sacred to him in the Arsinoite and several other nomes. He was by no means generally worshipped, however; indeed a certain Typhonic or infernal character was attributed to him. And this was specially the case in the adjoining Heracleopolitan nome, where the inhabitants worshipped the ichneumon, the greatest enemy of the crocodile; and it was their hatred which finally caused the destruction of the Labyrinth. One of the most interesting antiquities, however, discovered in the Fayoum, is the head of one of the Hyksos, or shepherd-kings. From the discoveries recently made at San, the Greek Tanis, and the Biblical Zoan, which they made their capital, and which was also the chief city of the land of Goshen, there can be little doubt that these conquerors of Egypt were a Semitic race from the East, and it is not impossible that among their kinsfolk were Abraham and Sarah, whose sojourn in the country forms the earliest notice of it to be found in the Bible; more especially as it will be remembered that Hagar, the patriarch's second wife, and his daughter-in-law, Ishmael's wife, were both Egyptians. They ruled over the land for nearly four centuries and a half, while the exiled royal race took refuge in Upper Egypt. They adopted the style, language, religion, arts, and writing of the conquered country, and according to Dr Brugsch, it was under the reign of the Hyksos Pharaoh Nub, B.C. 1730, that Joseph was sold into Egypt; and during the reign of his successor, Apopi, that he rose to honour, and that the famine took place which brought Jacob and his family to Egypt, and which is mentioned on a tomb at El Kab. The tomb belonged to the father of Aahmes, a naval officer who took part in the expulsion of the Hyksos—an event which, as Joseph lived to the age of a hundred and ten years, must have occurred before his death. It runs thus: “When a famine prevailed for many years, then I gave the city corn during each famine.” As we learn from the Biblical record that “Pharaoh made Joseph ruler over all the land of Egypt” during these years, it is evident that the father of Aahmes must have been one of his subordinate officers. The accounts given of the methods to which Joseph resorted during these seven years of famine for supplying the necessities of the whole population of Egypt, whom he ultimately caused to sell all their lands to Pharaoh, excepting only those belonging to the priests, clearly warrant the inference that the Fayoum, which was the most fertile portion of it, must have come under his special notice as a granary; and the tradition that he was buried there may have a foundation in fact. The sacred historian is careful to tell us that when Joseph died, being an hundred and ten years old, “they embalmed him, and he was put in a coffin in Egypt.” There is, indeed, every reason to suppose that so great a benefactor to the country, and a man who had filled such high office, was honoured with a tomb worthy of his greatness. And although we are informed that at the exodus Moses took his body to Palestine, the substantial character of these monuments makes it not impossible that his place of sepulture, and possibly a statue representing him, may yet be discovered in Egypt, and that the most likely place to find it would be the Fayoum, Like the Hyksos conquerors themselves, it is probable that Joseph identified himself with the religion and customs of the Egyptians. We learn that Pharaoh “gave him to wife Asenath, the daughter of Poti-pherah, priest of On." Potiphe-ra means “dedicated to Ra,” or “the sun.” In other words, his father-in-law was a priest of the temple at Heliopolis. The Hyksos themselves, although they seem to have compromised with their consciences by applying the name of the Egyptian god Set to their own gods (Baalim), were apparently Baal-worshippers before coming to Egypt. This indication of a Semitic origin has given rise to the notion that the Hyksos may have been Phoenicians, while others think they were tribes from the Arabian desert. There are many circumstances strongly conducing to such ideas, though the three heads in the Boulak museum, the features of which show remarkable power, are not, it must be admitted, of a marked Semitic type ; and the advice Joseph gave to his father and brethren before they asked permission of the shepherd-king to allow them to settle in Egypt, has a most significant allusion to their dynastic appellation. “When Pharaoh,” he says, “shall call you, and shall say, What is your occupation ? then ye shall say, Thy servants' trade hath been about cattle from our youth even until now, both we and also our fathers: that ye may dwell in the land of Goshen; for every shepherd is an abomination unto the Egyptians.” Now Tanis, which the Hyksos kings had made their capital, was in the land of Goshen. Joseph, no doubt, resided in it,

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