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and he wished his kindred to be settled near him. He therefore appeals to the weak side of the shepherd-king, who is himself Semitic and not Egyptian by race, and gives as a reason why they should live near the capital, where, doubtless, the conquering Semitic population preponderated, that they are shepherds, and that they would probably be ill-treated by the Egyptians, who abominate shepherds, if they went beyond the immediate protection of the ruling centre. Pharaoh is apparently completely won over by the sympathy thus established of identity of occupation, and probably of race. He gives them the choice of the whole country to settle in; and tells Joseph to choose from his brethren “men of activity to rule over his cattle.” It is evident, then, that the Israelites were in high favour at this time; but a change must have taken place in their circumstances almost immediately afterwards, when Aahmes or Amosis, the first king of the eighteenth dynasty, defeated the army of the Hyksos, consisting, according to Manetho, of 24,000 men, took their capital, and drove a large proportion of them out of Egypt, most of them retreating to Palestine, where they finally settled, and, according to some authorities, founded Jerusalem. Those who remained, however, were subjected to great persecution, in which the Israelites, who as Semites had been identified with them, shared. The sojourn of the latter is said by St Paul to have lasted four hundred years; and the explanation of their having multiplied during that period into a nation of 600,000 souls, may perhaps be found in the fact that they had mingled and become identified with those of the Hyksos Semites that remained. Indeed it is recorded that when they left Egypt “a mixed multitude went up also with them.” In opposition to the theory that I have here enunciated, and which is advocated by many eminent Egyptologists, in regard to the date of the arrival of Joseph in Egypt, and the period of the sojourn of the Israelites, it is only right to say that it is a point which is still open to discussion, and that such men as Bunsen and Lepsius maintain widely opposite opinions. Bunsen holds that the family of Jacob came to Egypt in the reign of Sesertesen (Sesostris), about 2650 years before C
Christ; and since he agrees with Lepsius in placing the exodus in the reign of Meneptah, he allows an interval of 1440 years to elapse between Joseph and the exodus, or more than fourteen centuries. Lepsius, however, enters upon an elaborate and most carefully digested argument to prove that only about 90 years intervened from the entrance of Jacob to the exodus of Moses, and about as much from the entrance of Abraham into Canaan to Jacob's exodus; so that from Abraham to Moses only about 18O, or, if we wish to make the most of it, 2 15 years passed, which alone, according to this calculation, are reckoned from Abraham to Jacob. Josephus maintains that the Hyksos were the Jews; and it is a curious fact that the Hyksos reigned in Egypt exactly 430 years, the period mentioned in Exodus as that of the sojourn of the children of Israel in Egypt; but Josephus dates his 430 years from the arrival of Abraham in Egypt, and leaves 215 years as the period intervening between Joseph and Moses. Now we know by the genealogies that Moses was the grandson of Levi by his mother Jochebed," and therefore the grand-nephew of Joseph. Levi, who was Jacob's third son, must have been a middle-aged man when he came to Egypt, as we are told that Joseph was thirty when his brethren arrived. He died when he was a hundred and thirty-seven years old. Moses was eighty years old when he led the children of Israel out of Egypt. In order to make up the 215 years of Josephus, we should have to suppose that Levi had been seventy years in the country, and was therefore probably about a hundred and twenty years old when Jochebed was born, and that she was sixty-five years old when she conceived Moses—both somewhat extreme assumptions. Under no circumstances, without a miracle, such as took place in the case of Sarah, can we stretch the period to the 430 years of Exodus, or the 400 of St Paul. It is worthy of note that, according to the Septuagint, the period of 430 years is not calculated from the entry of Jacob and his family, but from the entrance of Abraham into Canaan. It reads thus: “Now the dwelling of the children of Israel, which they dwelt in the land of Egypt and in the land of Canaan, was 430 years;” but it is difficult to extend the generations from Abraham to Moses, even to that extent. The whole subject is encompassed with difficulty. As a contemporary record, the account which Manetho gives of the exodus is full of interest, as containing the Egyptian version of the expulsion of the Lepers, as he calls the Jews; and indeed he insinuates that they had become a public nuisance, not only from the disease which was prevalent among them, but from the hold they had got upon the country, and their ever-increasing influence and possessions in it. Egyptologists generally seem agreed that it was under the reign of Rameses the Great that Moses was born ; and it is an interesting fact that the second court of the Temple of Abydos furnishes us with the name of the daughter of Pharaoh who found him in the bulrushes. All the names of the daughters of Rameses are inscribed there, and that of the eldest bears so close a similarity to the name furnished by Josephus, allowing for the Greek termination which he uses, as to leave no moral doubt as to their identity. The name given by Josephus is Mautaretis; that inscribed in the chamber of Abydos is Maut-Art, or the great mother—
* Exodus vi. 20.