« AnteriorContinuar »
(1) SCENE I.-Suffer us to famish, and their store houses cramired with grain; make edicts for usury, to support usurers.) The circumstances which led to the insurrection of the people in Rome at this period, and awakened their animosity in a peculiar degree against Caius Marcius, are thus related in North's translation of Plutarch, the work to which Shakespeare was indebted for all the conduct of his tragedy, and for no inconsiderable portion of its language :
"Now he being grown to great credit and authority in ROME for his valiantnesse, it fortuned there grew sedition in the citie, bicause the Senate dyd favour the rich against the people, who did complaine of the sore oppression of userers, of whom they borrowed mony. For those that had litle, were yet spoiled of that litle they had by their creditours, for lack of ability to pay the usery : who offered their goods to be sold to them that would give most. And such as had nothing left, their bodies were layed hold on, and they were made their bondmen, notwithstanding all the wounds and cuts they showed, which they had received in many battels, fighting for defence of their countrey and common wealth : of the which, the last warre they made was against the SABYNES, wherein they fought upon the promise the rich men had made them, that from thenceforth they would intreate them more gently, and also upon the word of Marcus Valerius chiefe of the Senate, who by authority of the Counsell, and in the behalfe of the rich, saved they should performe that they had promised. But after that they had faithfully served in this last battel of al, where they overcame their enemies, seeing they were never a whit the better, nor more gently intreated, and that the Senate would give no care to them, but made as though they had forgotten the former promise, and suffered them to be made slaves and bondmen to their creditours, and besides, to be turned out of all that ever they had : they fel then even to flat rebellion and mutinie, and to sturro up dangerous tumults within the city. The ROMAINES enemies hearing of this rebellion, did straight enter the teritories of ROME with a marvelous great power, spoiling and burning all as they came. Whereupon the Senate immediatly made open proclamation by sound of trumpet, that all those which were of lawfull age to cary weapon, should come and enter their names into the muster-masters book, to goe to the wars: but no man obeyed their commaundement. Wherupon their chiefe magistrates, and many of the Senate, began to be of divers opinions among themselves. For some thought it was reason, they shold somewhat yeeld to the poore peoples request, and that they should a litle qualifie the severity of the law. Other held hard against that opinion, and that was Martius for one. For he alledged, that the creditours losing their money they had lent, was not the worst thing that was thereby: but that the lenity that was favoured, was a beginning of disobedience, and that the proud attempt of the communalty, was to abolish law, and to bring all to confusion. Therefore he sayed, if the Senate were wise, they should betimes prevent and quench this ill favoured and worse meant beginning.'
(2) SCENE I.-And leave me but the bran.] The reader desirous of investigating the origin of the famous apologue of the belly and its members will do well to consult an
article on the subject by Douce, in his “Illustrations of Shakespeare.” The poet derived it apparently from Plutarch, through North's translation, and the marvellous skill with which he has varied and amplified the story will be seen from the version of it which that historian presents:
“The Senate being afeard of their departure, dyd send unto them certaine of the pleasauntest olde men, and the most acceptable to the people among them. Of those, Menenius Agrippa was he, who was sent for chief man of the message from the Senate. He, after many good persuasions and gentle requests made to the people, on the behalfe of the Senate, knit up his oration in the ende, with a notable tale, in this manner. That on a time all the members of mans bodie, dyd rebell against the bellie, complaining of it, that it only remained in the middest of the bodie, without doing any thing, neither dyd beare any labour to the maintenaunce of the rest : whereas all other partes and members dyd labour paynefully, and was very carefull to satisfie the appetites and desiers of the bodie. And so the bellie, all this notwithstanding, laughed at their follie, and sayed, It is true, I first receyve all meates that norishe mans bodie: but afterwardes I send it againe to the norishment of other partes of the same. Even so (q. he) 0 you, my masters, and cittizens of ROME: the reason is a like betweene the Senate and you. For matters being well digested, and their counsells throughly examined, touching the benefit of the common wealth : the Senatours are cause of the common commoditie that commeth unto every one of you."
(3) SCENE IIL-His brows bound with oak.] The oaken garland, accounted the most honourable crown among the Romans, was bestowed on him that had saved the life of a citizen :
“But Martius being more inclined to the warres, then any other gentleman of his time, beganne from his childhood to give himselfe to handle weapons, and daily did exercise himselfe therein : and outward he esteemed armour to no purpose, unlesse one were naturally armed within. Moreover he did so exercise his body to hardnesse and all kinde of activitie, that he was very swift in ronning, strong in wrestling, and mightie in griping, so that no man could ever cast him. Insomuch as those that would try masteries with him for strength and nimblenesse, would say when they were overcom : that all was by reason of his naturall strength, and hardnesse of ward, that never yeelded to any paine or toyle he tooke upon him. The first time he went to the wars, being but a stripling, was when Tarquine surnamed the proud (that had bene king of ROME, and was driven out for his pride. after' many attemps made by sundry battels to come in againe, wherein he was ever overcome) did come to ROME with all the aide of the LATINES, and many other people of ITALY : even as it were to set up his whole rest upon a battel by them, who with a great and mighty army had undertaken to put him into his kingdome againe, not so much to pleasure him, as to overthrow the power of the ROMAINES, whose gruatnesse they both feared and envied. In this battell, wherein are many hote and sharpe encounters of either party, Martius valiantly fought in the
sight of the Dictator: and a ROMAINE souldier being “ Martius asked him howe the order of their enomies throwen to the ground even hard by him, Martius straight battell was, and on which side they had placed their bestrid him, and slue the enemie with his owne hands best fighting men. The Consul made him aunswer, that had before overthrowen the ROMAINE. Hereupon that he thought the bandes which were in the voward of after the battell was won, the Dictator did not forget so their battell, were those of the ANTIATES, whom they noble an act, and therefore first of all he crowned Martius esteemed to be the warlikest men, and which for valiant with a garland of oken boughes, For whosoever saveth courage would give no place to any of the hoast of their the life of a ROMAINE, it is a manner among them, to enemies. Then prayed Martius, to be set directly against honour him with such a garland."
them. The Consul granted him, greatly praising his
courage. Then Martius, when both armies came almost · (4) SCENE IV.
to joyne, advanced bimselfe a good space before his com
pany, and went so fiercely to give charge on the voward 'Tis for the followers Fortune widens them,
that came right against him, that they could stand no Not for the fliers.)
longer in his hands : he made such a lane through them, So in the corresponding scene in the old translation of and opened a passage into the battell of the enemies. Plutarch:
But the two wings of either side turned one to the other, “Wherfore all the other VOLSCES fearing least that city to compasse him in betweene them which the Consul should be taken by assault, they came from all parts of the Cominius perceiving, he sent thither straight of the best countrey to save it, entending to give the ROMAINES battel souldiers he had about him. So the battell was marvelous before the city, and to give an onset on them in two
blodie about Martius, and in a very short space many several places. The Consul Cominius understanding this, were slaine in the place. But in the end the ROMAINES devided his army also into two parts, and taking the one were so strong, that they distressed the enemies, and part with himself, he marched towards them that were brake their arraye : and scattering them, made them flye. drawing to the city out of the countrey: and the other Then they prayed Martius that he would retire to the part of his army he left in the campe with Titus Lartius campe, bicause they saw he was able to do no more, he (one of the valiantest men the ROMAINES had at that time) was already so wearied with the great paine he had taken, to resist those that would make any sally out of the city
and so faint with the great woundes he had upon him. upon them. So the CORIOLANS making smal account of But Martius aunswered them, that it was not for conthem that lay in campe before the city, made a sally out querours to yeeld, nor to be faint-hearted : and thereupon upon them, in the which at the first the CORIOLANS had began afresh to chase those that fledde, untill such time as the better, and drave the ROMAINES back againe into the the armie of the enemies was utterly overthrowen, and trenches of their campe. But Marti us being there at that
numbers of them slaine and taken prisoners. time, ronning out of the campe with a few men with him, The next morning betimes, Martius went to the Con. ho sluo the first enemies he met withall, and made the rest sul, and the other ROMAINES with him. There the of them stay upon a sodain, crying out to the ROMAINES Consul Cominius going up to his chayer of state, in that had turned their backes, and calling them again to
the presence of the whole armie, gave thanks to the fight with a lowde voice. For he was even such another, as gods for so great, glorious, and prosperous a victorie : Cato would have a souldier and a captaine to be, not only then he spake to Martius, whose valiantnesse be comterrible and fierce to lay about him, but to make the mended beyond the Moone, both for that he him selfe saw enemy afeard with the sound of his voice, and grimnesse him do with his eyes, as also for that Martius had reof his countenaunce. Then there flocked about him imme
him imme. I ported unto him. So in the ende he willed Martius,
ported unto him. So in diatly, a great number of ROMAINES: whereat the enemies he should choose out of all the horses they had taken of were so afeard, that they gave back presently.
their enemies, and of all the goodes they had wonne “But Martius not staying so, did chase and follow them (whereof there was great store) tenne of every sorte which to their own gates, that fled for life. And there perceiving he liked best, before any distribution should be made to that the ROMAINES retired back, for the great number of
other. Besides this great honorable offer he had made darts and arrowes which flew about their cares from the him, he gave him in testimonie that he had wonne that wals of the city, and that there was not one man amongst
day the prise of prowesse above all other, a goodly horse them that durst venter himself to follow the flying ene
with a capparison, and all furniture to him: which the mies into their city, for that it was full of men of warre, whole army beholding, did marvellously praise and comvery wel armed and appointed, he did incourage his fel mend. But Martius stepping forth, told the Consul, he lowes with words and deeds, crying out to them, that most thankfully accepted the gift of his horse, and was fortune had opened the gates of the city, more for the a glad man besides, that his service had deserved his followers then the fliers. But all this notwithstanding, general's commendation : and as for his other offer, which few had the hearts to follow him. Howbeit Martius being was rather a mercenarie reward, then an honourable rein the throng among the enemies, thrust himself into the compence, he would have none of it, but was contented gates of the city, and entred the same among them that
to have his equall part with other souldiers. Onely, this fled, without that any one of them durst at the first turne
grace (sayed he) I crave and beseech you to grant me : their face upon him, or offer to stay him. But he looking Among the VOLSCES there is an old friend and hoast of about him, and seeing he was entred the city with very mine, an honest wealthy man, and now a prisoner, who few men to helpe him, and perceiving he was environed by living before in great wealth in his owne countrie, liveth his enemies that gathered round about to set upon him, I now a poore prisoner, in the hands of his enemies : and did things then as it is written, wonderfull and incredible, as yet notwithstanding all this his misery and misfortune, it well for the force of his hand, as also for the agility of his would do me great pleasure if I could save him from this body, and with a wonderfull courage and valiantnesse he one danger, to keepe him from being sold as a slave. The made a lane through the middest of them, and overthrew souldiers hearing Martius words, made a marvelous great also those he layed at : that some he made ronne to the shout among them, and there were more that wondred at furthest part of the city, and other for feare he made his great contentation and abstinence, when they saw so yeeld themselves, and to let fall their weapons before
litle covetousnesse in him, then they were that highly him,"
praised and extolled his valiantnesse. ***** After
this shout and noise of the assembly was somewhat (5) SCENE VI.
appeased, the Consul Cominius began to speake in this As I guess, Marcius,
sort: We cannot compell Martius to take these gifts we Their bands 2' the vaward are the Antiates
offer him if he will not receive them, but we will give him Of their best trust; o'er them Aufidius,
such a reward for the noble service he hath done, as he Their very heart of hope.]
cannot refuse. Therefore we do order and decree, that
henceforth he be called Coriolanus, unlesse his valiant acts The incidents in this battle are all closely copied from have wonne him that name before our nomination. And Plutarch :
so ever since, he still bare the third name of Coriola) us'
(11) SCENE III.TAnd Censorinus, darling of the people.] whereof Ancus Martius was one, King Numaes daughters This line in brackets was supplied by Popo; the original, sonne, who was King of Rome after Tullus Hostilius. Of which mentioned Censorinus, having been accidentally the same house were Publius, and Quintus, who brought left out, as will at once be seen from the parallel to Rome their best water they had by conducts. Cen. passage in Shakespeare's authority :-“The house of the sorinus also came of that familie, that was so surnamed Martians at Rome was of the number of the Patricians, bicause the people had chosen him Censor twise."-NORTH'S out of the which hath sprong many noble personages : | Plutarch, p. 237.
(1) SCENE I.
GRÆCE, where the people had more absolute power, dyd
but only nourishe their disobedience, which would breake - which will in time break ope
out in the ende to the utter ruine and overthrowe of the The locks of the senate, and bring in the crows
whole state. For they will not thineke it is done in To peck the eagles.]
recompence of their service past, sithence they know well Compare Plutarch :-“But Martius standing up on his enough they have so oft refused to goe to the warres, feete, dyd somewhat sharpely take up those, who went when they were commaunded : neither for their mutinies about to gratifie the people therin: and called them when they went with us, whereby they have rebelled and people pleasers, and traitours to the nobilitie. Moreover forsaken their countrie : neither for their accusations he sayed they nourished against themselves the naughtie which their flatterers have preferred unto them, and they seede and cockle of insolencie and sedition, which had have received, and made good against the Senate: but bene sowed and scattered abroade emongest the people, they will rather judge, we give and grant them this, as whom they should have cut off, if they had been wise, abasing our selves, and standing in feare of them, and and have prevented their greatnes: and not (to their glad to flatter them every way. By this means their disowne destruction) to have suffered the people to stablish a obedience will still grow worse and worse : and they will magistrate for themselves, of so great power and authority never leave to practise new sedition and uprores. Theras that man had, to whom they had graunted it. Who fore it were a great folly for us, me thinks to do it: yea, was also to be feared. bicause he obtained what he would. shall I say more? we should if we were wise. take from and did nothing but what he listed, neither passed for any them the Tribuneship, which most manifestly is the obedience to the Consuls, but lived in all liberty, acknow. embasing of the Consulship, and the cause of the division ledging no superiour to command him, saving the only of their city. The state whereof as it standeth, is not beads and authours of their faction, whom he called his now as it was wont to be, but becometh dismembred in
Therefore saved he. they that gave counsell. | two factions, which maintaines alwaies civill dissention and and perswaded that the corne should be geven out to the discord between us, and will never suffer us againe to be cornnon people gratis, as they used to doe in the cities of ļ united into one body."
(1) SCENE V.
- I'd not believe them more Than thee, all-noble Marcius.] Here, as in many other scenes in the play, the poet has followed the historian almost literally :
“It was even twylight when he entred the cittie of AnTIUM, and many people met him in the streetes, but no man knewe him. So he went directly to Tullus Aufidius house, and when he came thither, he got him up straight to the chimney barthe, and sat him downe, and spake not a worde to any man, his face all muffled over. They of the house spying him, wondered what he should be, and yet they durst not byd him rise. For ill favouredly muffled and disguised as he was, yet there appeared a certaine majestie in his countenance, and in his silence : whereupon they went to Tullus who was at supper, to tell him of the straunge disguising of this man. Tullus rose presently from the borde, and comming towards him, asked him what he was, and wherfore he came. Then Martius unmuffled himselfe, and after he had paused a while, making no aunswer, he sayed unto him: If thou knowest me not yet, Tullus, and seeing me, dost not perhappes beleeve me
to be the man I am indede, I must of necessitie bewraye my selfe to be that I am. I am Caius Martius, who hath done to thy self particularly, and to all the VOLSCES generally, great hurte and mischief, which I cannot denie for my surname of Coriolanus that I beare. For I never had other benefit nor recompence, of all the true and paynefull service I have done, and the extreme daungers I have bene in, but this only surname : a good memorie and witnes of the malice and displeasure thou showldest beare me. In deede the name only remainetb with me : for the rest, the envie and crueltie of the people of ROME have taken from me, by the sufferance of the darstardly nobilitie and magistrates, who have forsaken me, and let me be banished by the people. This extremitie hath now driven me to come as a poore suter, to take thy chimney harthe, not of any hope I have to save my life thereby. For if I had feared death, I would not have come hither to have put my life in hazard; but prickt forward with spite and desire I have to be revenged of them that thus have banished me, whom now I beginne to be avenged on, putting my persone into the hands of their enemies. Wherfore, if thou hast any heart to be wrecked of the injuries thy enemies have done thee, speed thee now, and let my misery serve thy turne, and so use it, as my service may be a benefit to the VOLSCES : promising thee, that I will figbt with better good will for all you, then ever I dyd when I was against you, knowing that they fight more valiant who know the force of their enemy then such as have never proved it. And if it be so that thou dare not, and that thou art wearie to prove fortune any more, then am I also wearie to live any longer. And it were no wisedome in thee, to save the life of him, who hath bene heretofore thy mortall enemy, and whose service now can nothing help nor pleasure thee. Tullus hearing what he sayed was à
marvelous glad man, and taking him by the hand, he sayed unto him ; Stand up, 6 Martius, and be of good cheare, for in profering thyselfe anto us, thou doest us great honour : and by this means thou maist hope also of greater things at all the VOLSCEs hands. So he feasted him for that time, and entertained him in the honourablest manner he could, talking with him in no other matters at that present : but within few dayes after, they fell to consultation together, in what sort they should beginne their wars.
(1) SCENE III.
trymen, or that he himselfe do triumphe of them, and of
his naturall countrie. For if it were so. that my request -0, my mother, mother! 01 You have won a happy victory to Rome;
tended to save thy countrie, in destroying the VOLSCES, But, for your son, believe it, O, believe it,
I must confesse, thou wouldest hardly and doubtfully reMost dangerously you have with him prevaild,
solve on that. For as to destroie thy natural countrie, it
is altogether unmeete and unlawfull, so were it not iust, If not most mortal to him.]
and lesse honourable, to betraye those that put their trust This affecting interview is thus described in Plutarch: in thee. But my onely demaund consisteth, to make a “Nowe was Martius set then in his chayer of state, with gayle-deliverie of all evils, which delivereth equall benefite all the honours of a generall, and when he had spied the and safety, both to the one and the other, but most women coming afarre of, he marveled what the matter honourable for the VOLSCES. For it shall appeare, that ment: but afterwardes knowing his wife which came fore having victorie in their hands, they have of speciall favou
Seciall favour mest, he determined at the first to persist in his obstinate graunted us singular graces : peace, and amitio, albeit themand inflexible rancker. But overcomen in the ende with selves have no lesse part of both, then we. Of which natural affection, and being altogether altered to see them, good, if it so come to passe, thy selfe is thonely author, his harte would not serve him to tarie their comming to his and so hast thou thonely honour. But if it faile, and fall chayer, but comming downe in hast, he went to meete out contrarie, thy selfe alone deservedly shalt carie the them, and first he kissed his mother, and imbraced her a shameful reproche and burden of either partie. So, though pretie while, then his wife and litle children. And nature the end of warre be uncertaine, yet this notwithstanding so wrought with him, that the teares fell from his eyes, is most certaine : that if it be thy chance to conquer, this and he coulde not keepe himselfe from making much of benefite shalt thou reape of thy goodly conquest, to be thein, but yeelded to the affection of his bloude, as if he chronicled the plague and destroyer of thy countrie. And had bene violently caried with the furie of a most swift | if fortune also overthrowe thee, then the world will say running streame. After he bad thus lovingly received that through desire to revenge thy private iniuries, thou them, and perceiving that his mother Volumnia would hast for ever undone thy good friendes, who dyd most beginne to speak to him, he called the chiefest of the lovingly and curteously receive thee. Martius gave good counsell of the VOLSCES to heare what she would say. eare unto his mothers wordes, without interrupting her Then she spake in this sort : If we held our peace (my speche at all, and after she had sayed what she would, he sonne) and determined not to speake, the state of our held his peace a prety while, and aunswered not a word. poore bodies, and present sight of our rayment, would Hereupon she begane againe to speake unto him, and easely bewray to thee what life we have led at home, since sayed: My sonne, why doest thou not aunswer me? doest thy exile and abode abroad; but thinke now with thy selfe, thou thinke it good altogether to geve place unto thy howe much more unfortunatly then all the women livinge, choller and desire of revenge, and thinkest thou it not we are come hether, considering that the sight which honestie for thee to graunt thy mother's request, in so should be most pleasaunt to all other to beholde, spitefull weighty a cause? doest thou take it honorable for a noble fortune hath made most fearefull to us : making my selfe man, to remember the wronges and iniuries done him, and to see my sonne, and my daughter here her husband, doest not in like case think it an honest noble mans parte besieging the walls of his native countrie : so as that to be thankefull for the goodnes that parents doe shewe which is thonely comforte to all other in their adversitie to their children, acknowledging the dutie and reverence and miserie, to pray unto the goddes, and to call to them they ought to beare unto them? No man living is more for aide, is the oneiy thinge which plongeth us into most bounde to shewe himselfe thankefull in all partes and deepe perplexitie. For we cannot (alas) together pray, respects then thy selfo: who so unnaturally shewest all both for victorie for our countrie, and for safety of thy life ingratitude. Moreover (my sonne) thou hast sorely taken also: but a worlde of grievous curses, yea more then any of thy countrie, exacting grievous payments upon them, mortall enemie can heape uppon us, are forcibly wrapt up in revenge of the iniuries offered thee : besides, thou hast in our prayers. For the bitter soppe of most harde choyse is not hitherto shewed thy poore mother any curtesie. And offered thy wife and children, to forgoe the one of the two: therfore, it is not onely honest, but due unto me, that either to lose the persone of thy selfe or the nurse of their without compulsion I should obtaine my so iust and native countrie. For my selfe (my sonne) I am determined reasonable request of thee. But since by reason I cannot not to tarie, till fortune in my life time doe make an end persuade thee to it, to what purpose doe I deferre my last of this warre. For if I cannot perswade thee, rather to hope? And with these wordes, herselfe, his wife, and doe good unto both parties, then to overthrowe and des children, fell down upon their knees before him : Martius troye the one, preferring love and nature before the malice seeing that, could refraine no longer, but went straight and calamitie of warres, thou shalt see, my sonne, and and lifte her up crying out: Oh mother, what have you trust unto it, thou shalt no sooner march forward to done to me? And holding her hard by the right hande, assault thy countrie, but thy foot shall treade upon thy oh mother, said he, you have won a happy victorie for mothers wombe, that brought thee first into this world. your countrie, but mortall and unhappy for your sonne : And I maye not deferre to see the day, either that my for I see my selfo vanquished by you alone." Eonne be led prisoner in triumphe by his naturall coun
(2) SCENE III.
Ladies, you deserve
To have a temple built you.] Which, according to Plutarch, they had : dedicated to Fortuna muliebri :
" Whereupon the Senate ordeined, that the Magistrates to gratifie and honor these ladyes, should graunt them all that they would require. And they only requested that they would build a temple of Fortune of the women, unto the building whereof they offered them selves to defraye the whole charge of the sacrifices, and other ceremonies belonging to the service of the gods. Neverthelesse, the Senate commending their good-will and forwardnes, ordeined, that the temple and image should be made at the common charge of the cittie. Notwithstanding that, the ladyes gathered money emong them, and made with the same a second image of Fortune, which the ROMAINES say dyd speake as they offred her up in the temple, and dyd set her in her place."
(3) SCENE VI.-Hail, lords! I am return'd your soldier.) “Nowe, when Álartius was returned againe into the citie of Antium from his voyage, Tullus, that hated and could no longer abide him for the fear he had of his authoritie, sought divers means to make him out of the way, thinking that if he let slippe that present time, he should never recover the like and fit occasion againe. Wherefore Tullus, having procured manie other of his confederacy, required Martius might be deposed from his estate, to render up accomptt to the VOLSCES of his charge and government. Martins Tearing to become a private man againe under Tullus being Generall (whose authoritie was greater otherwise, then any other emong all the VOLSCES) answered : He was willing to geve up his charge, and would resigne it into the hands of che lordes of the VOLSCES, if they dyd al command him, as by al their commandment he received it. And moreover, that he would not refuse even at that present to geve up an accomptt unto the people, if they would tarie the hearing of it. The people hereupon called a common counsell, in which assembly there were certaine oratours appointed, that stirred up the common people against him: and when they had tolde their tales, Martius rose up to make them answer. Now, notwithstanding the mutinous people made a marvelous great noise, yet when they saw him, for the reverence they bare unto his valiantnesse, they quieted themselves, and gave him audience to alledge with leysure what he could for his purgation. Moreover, the honestest men of the ANTIATES, and who most re
joyced in peace, shewed by their countenaunce that they would heare him willingly, and iudge also according to their conscience. Whereupon Tullus fearing that if he dyd let him spenke, he would prove his innocencie to the people, because enjongest other things he had an eloquent tongue; besides that the first good service he had done to the people of the VOLSCES, dyd winne him more favour, then these last accusations could purchase him displeasure : and furthermore, the offence they layed to his charge, was a testimonie of the goodwill they ought him ; for they would never have thought he had done them wrong for that they tooke not the cittie of ROME, if they had not bin very neare taking of it, by meanes of his approche and conduction. For these causes Tullus thought he might no longer delaye his presence and enterprise, neither to tarie for the mutining and rising of the common people against him : wherefore, those that were of the conspiracie, began to cry out that he was not to be heard, and that they would not suffer a traitor to usurpetyranicall power over the tribe of the VOLSCES, who would not yeld up his state and authority. And in saying .these words, they all fell upon him, and killed him in the market place, none of the people once offering to rescue him. Howbeit it is a clere case, that this murder was not generally consented unto of the most parte of the VOLSCES : for men came out of ail partes to honor his body, and dyd honourably bury him; setting up his tombe with great store of armour and spoiles, as the tombe of a worthy person and great captaine. The ROMAINES understanding of his death, shewed no other honour or malice, saving that they graunted the ladyes the request they made : that they might mourne tenne moneths for him, and that was the full time they used to weare blackes for the death of their fathers, brethren, or husbands, according to Numa Pompilius order, who stablished the same, as we have enlarged more amplie in the description of his life. Now Martius being dead, the whole state of the VOLSCEs harteily wished him alive againe. For, first of all they fell out with the ÆQUES who were their friends and confederates, touching preheminence and place : and this quarrell grew on so farre betweene them, that fraies and murders fell out upon it one with another. After that the ROMAINES overcame them in battell, in which Tullus was slaine in the field and the flower of all their force was put to the sword : so that they were compelled to accept most shamefull conditions of peace, in yelding themselves subject unto the con. querers, and promising to be obedient at their commandement."-NORTH's Plutarch.