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PRO. Sir, I invite your highness and your train
den by PROSPERO. With such discourse us. I "IL toute sail nake it
Vw ry charms are all o'erthrown, Go quick away, itte eury res
renge I have 's mine own,And the part temer telees LK
1 . Dus wint: now, 't is true, Since I came treer
: je re contin d by you, I'll berg vur elves
**? Sapies. Let me not, Whede inve*.'y set
Save: ste ny jużeciom got,
L urza i ne ieceiver, dwell
e sau r your spell;
L race of yus ny sails
uw I want
3d Position, Down with the topmast! The gale encreasing, the topYare ; lower, lower! Bring her mast is struck, to take the to try with the main-course! weight from aloft, make the
ship drive less to leeward, and bear the mainsail under which the ship is laid-to.
4th Position. Lay her a-hold, a-hold ! set The ship, having driven near her two courses ! off to sea the shore, the mainsail is hawl. again; lay her off!
ed up; the ship wore, and the two courses set on the other tack, to endeavour to clear the land that way.
(1) SCENE 1.-We split, we split / The following observations on the maritime technicalities in this sceny, are extracted from an article by Lord Mulgrave, which will be found at length in Boswell's Variorum edition of Shakespeare, 1821 :
“The first scene of The Tempest is a very striking instance of the great accuracy of Shakspeare's knowledge in a professional science, the most difficult to attain without the help of experience. He must have acquired it by conversation with some of the most skilful seamen of that time. No books bad then been published on the subject.
"The succession of events is strictly observed in the natural progress of the distress described; the expedients adopted are the most proper that could have been devised for a chance of safety: and it is neither to the want of skill of the seamen, or the bad qualities of the ship, but solely to the power of Prospero, that the shipwreck is to be attributed.
"The words of command are not only strictly proper, but are only such as point the object to be attained, and no superfluous ones of detail. Shakspeare's ship was too well manned to make it necessary to tell the seamen how they were to do it, as well as what they were to do.
“He has shown a knowledge of the new improvements, as well as the doubtful points of seamanship; one of the latter he has intrnduced, under the only circumstance in which it was indisputable.
“The events certainly follow too near one another for the strict time of representation : but perhaps, if the whole length of the play was divided by the time allowed by the critics, the portion allotted to this scene might not be too little for the whole. But he has taken care to mark intervals between the different operations by exits.
(2) SCENE II.-ARIEL.) According to the system of witchcraft or magic, which formed an article of popular creed in Shakespeare's day, the elementary spirits were divided into six classes by some demonologists, and into four,-those of the Air, of the Water, of the Fire, and of the Earth, -by others. In the list of characters appended to “The Tempest" in the first folio, Ariel is called “an ayrio spirit." "The particular functions of this order of beings, Burton tells us, are to cause “many tempests, thunder, and lightnings, tear oaks, fire steeples, houses. strike men and beasts, make it rain stones, &c., cause whirlwinds on a sudden, and tempestuous storms." But at the behest of the all-powerful magician Prospero, or by his own influence and potency, the airy spirit in a twink becomes not only a spirit of fire-one of those, according to the same authority, which "cmmonly work by blazing stars, fire drakes, or ignes fatui ; *** counterfeit suns and moons, stars oftentimes, and sit upon ship-masts"but a naiad, or spirit of the water also: in fact, assumes any shape, and is visible or unseen at will.
For full particulars, de operatione Demonum, the reader may consult, besides the ancient writers on the subject,
Ist Position. Pall to 't yarely, or we run ourselves aground.
1st Position. Land discovered under the lee; the wind blowing too fresh to hawl upon a wind with the topsail set.-Yare is an old seaterm for briskly, in use at that time. This first command is therefore a notice to be ready to execute any orders quickly.
2d Position. Yare, yare! Take in the topsail! Blow, till thou burst thy rind, if room enough!
20 Position. The topsail is taken in.Blow till thou burst thy wind, if room enough.' The danger in a good sea-boat, is only from being too near the land: this is introduced here to account for
# The striking the top masts was a new invention in Shakspeare's time, which he here very properly introduces. Sir Henry Manwaring says, “It is not yet agreed amongst all seamen whether it is better for a ship to hull with her topmast up or down." In the Postscript to the Seaman's Dictionary, he afterwards gives his own opinion: “If you have sea-room, it is never good to strike the topmast." Shakspeare has placed his ship in the situation in which it was indisputably right to strike the top
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(1) SCENE I.
endes, of which the Willow, Byrche, or long Hazell are - but nature should bring forth
best, but indeed acording as the Country will afford, so Of it own kind, all foizon, all abundance,
you must be content to take. To feed my innocent people.]
“Thus being prepared and comming into the Bushy or
rough ground where the haunts of Birds are, you shall then Among the most treasured rarities in the library of the first kindle some of your fiers as halfe, or a third pa British Museum, is Shakespeare's own copy of Florio's according as your prouision is, and then with your other Montaigne, 1603, with his autograph, “Willm. Shakspere,” bushy and rough poales you shall beat the Bushes, Trees on the fly-leaf. This work, intituled, “The Essayes, or and haunts of the Birds, to enforce them to rise, which Morall, Politike and Millitarie Discourses, of Lo: Michaell done you shall see the Birds which are raysed, to flye and de Montaigne, Knight," was evidently a favourite of the play about the lights and flames of the fier, for it is their poet, and furnished him with the materials for Gonzalo's nature through their amazednesse, and affright at the Utopian commonwealth. The passage he has adopted strangenes of the lightt and the extreame darknesse occurs in the thirtieth chapter of the First Book, and is round about it, not to depart from it, but as it were almost headed, “Of the Caniballes :"
to scorch their wings in the same : so that those which “Those nations seeme therefore so barbarous unto mee, haue the rough bushye poales may (at their pleasures) beat because they have received very little fashion from humane them down with the same, and so take tho. Thus you wit, and are yet neere their originall naturalitie. The may spend as much of the night as is darke, for longer is lawes of nature do yet commaund them, which are but | not conuenient; and doubtlesse you shall finde much paslittle bastardized by ours. And that with such puritie, as | time, and take great store of birds, and in this you shall I am sometimes grieved the knowlege of it came no sooner obserue all the obseruations formerly treated of in the to light, at what time ther were men, that better than wee Lowbell ; especially, that of silence, vntill your lights be could have judged of it. I am sorie, Licurgus and Plato kindled, but then you may vse your pleasure, for the noyse had it not: for me seemeth that what in those nations we and the light when they are heard and seene a farre of, see by experience, doth not onlie exceede all the pictures they make the birds sit the faster and surer. wherewith licentious Poesie hath prowdly imbellished the "The byrdes which are commonly taken by this labour golden age, and al hir quaint inventions to faine a happy or exercise are, for the most part, the Rookes, Ring-doues, condition of man, but also the conception and desire of Blackebirdes, Throstles, Feldufares, Linnets, Bulfinches, and Philosophie. They could not imagine a genuitie so pure and all other Byrdes whatsoeuer that pearch or sit vpon small simple, as we see it by experience; nor ever beleeve our boughes or bushes." societie might be maintained with so little arte and humane combination. It is a nation, would I answere Plato, that hath no kinde of traffike, no knowledge of Letters, no intel
(3) SCENE II.-They will lay out ten to see a dead Inligence of numbers, no name of magistrate, nor of politike
dian.) Some verses written by Henry Peacham, about the superioritie ; no use of service, of riches, or of poverty; no
year 1609, give a curious list of most of the popular exhibicontracts, no successions, no dividences, no occupation but
tions then to be seen in the metropolis, together with a idle; no respect of kinred, but common, no apparell but
few notices of some of the sights of the country :naturall, no manuring of lands, no use of wine, corne, or mettle. The very words that import lying, falshood, treason,
“ Why doe the rude vulgar so hastily post in a madnesse,
To gaze at trifles and toyes not worthy the viewing ? dissimulation, covetousnes, envie, detraction, and pardon,
And thinke them happy, when may be shew'd for a penny, were never heard of amongst them.”
The Fleet-streete mandrakes, that heavenly motion of Eltham,
Westminster monuments, and Guild-hall huge Corinæus, (2) SCENE I.- We would so, and then go a bat-fowling.]
That horne of Windsor (of an unicorne very likely),
The cave of Merlin, the skirts of old Tom a Lincolne. The instructions for Bat-fowling in Marlham’s “Hunger's
King Johns sword at Linne, with the cup the Fraternity drinke Prevention," &c. 1600, afford an accurate description of the
in; way in which this sport was pursued in former times :
The Tombe of Beauchampe, and sword of Sir Guy a Warwicke; * For the manner of Bat-fowling it may be vsed either The great long Dutchman, and roaring Marget a Barwicke, with Nettes, or without Nettes: If you vse it without
The Mummied Princes, and Cæsars wine yet i' Dover,
Saint James his Ginney Hens, the Cassawarway moreover; Nettes (which indeede is the most common of the two) you
The Beaver i' the Parke (strange beast as er'e any man saw) shall then proceede in this manner. First, there shall be
Downe-shearing willowes with teeth as sharpe as a hand-saw. one to cary the cresset of fire (as was showed for the Low The Lance of John a Gaunt and Brandons still i'the Tower: bell) then a certain number as two, three, or foure (accord The fall of Ninive, with Norwich built in an hower! ing to the greatnesse of your company), and these shall King Henries slip-shoes, the sword of valiant Edward ; hane poales bound with dry round wispes of hay, straw, or
The Coventry boares-shield, and fire-workes seen but to bedward.
Drakes ship at Detford, King Richards bedsted i' Leyster, such like stuffe, or else bound with pieces of Linkes, or
The White Hall whale-bones, the silver Bason i' Chester: Hurdes dipt in Pitch, Rosen, Grease, or any such like
The live-caught dog-fish, the Wolfe, and Harry the Lyon, matter that will blaze. Then another company shall be Hunkes of the Beare-garden, to be feared, if he be nigh on." armed with long poales, very rough and bushy at the vpper
HALLIWELL, I. 327.
(1) SCENE II.-The picture of Nobody.] “No-body" was ginning of a popular old ballad, called “The Well-spokon a ludicrous figure often found on street signs, and of which Nobody," the unique copy of which, in the Miller colleca representation is prefixed to the comedy of “No-body tion at Britwell-house, supplied Mr. Halliwell with a curious and Some-body," 1600. The following verses form the be. | engraving, showing a floor all bestrewed with domestic
Pro. Sir, I invite your highness and your train
Spoken by PROSPERO.
Now my charms are all o'erthrown, Go quick away,—the story of my life,
And what strength I have's mine own,And the particular accidents gone by,
Which is most faint: now, 't is true, Since I came to this isle: and in the morn
I must be here confin’d by you, I'll bring you to your ship, and so to Naples,
Or sent to Naples. Let me not, Where I have hope to see the nuptial
Since I have my dukedom got, Of these our dear-belov'd solemnizèd ;
And pardon'd the deceiver, dwell And thence retire me to my Milan, where
In this bare island by your spell ; Every third thought shall be my grave.
But release me from my bands, ALON.
With the help of your good hands. To hear the story of your life, which must
Gentle breath of yours my sails
Must fill, or else my project fails,
Which was to please : now I want
Spirits to enforce, art to enchant; And sail so expeditious, that shall catch
And my ending is despair,
Unless I be reliev'd by prayer,
Which pierces so, that it assaults
Mercy itself, and frees all faults. Be free, and fare thou well !—Please you, draw
As you from crimes would pardon'd be, ncar.
Let your indulgence set me free. (Exit.