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'The boundary of the Armenian is not so well defined. The Armenians are widely scattered in Asia Minor: in some places retaining their own language ; in others, understanding Turkish best, though they sometimes speak, at home, a very poor and corrupt Armenian. They speak their own language in the district of Erzroom, of course; and if you begin at Lake Van on the east, and draw a line westward a little to the north of Diarbekr, then south of Malaria, south-west a little south of Albistan, and then to Sinope, you will have enclosed the principal Armenian-speaking district . Aintab, Oorfa, Marash, Killis, Kaisarieh, Adana, and Diarbekr, are Turkish. West of this district, the Greeks are more numerous. But in the region around Constantinople, as Broosa, Nicomedia, etc., they use Armenian most. In Broosa, the Armenians almost lost their own language, but are gradually recovering it now.''A year ago,' says 'Mr. Pratt, 'in company with Mr. Ford of Aleppo, I spent a day in determining a geographical question in reference to the waters of this region. We had often made inquiries, whether the waters of Aintab went to Aleppo, or to the Euphrates; and had received answers on both sides, some asserting the one, and some the other, positively. The maps too disagreed. We concluded to see for ourselves. We followed the Sajour, the river of Aintab, which is divided near the city and runs along (the two branches about a quarter of a mile apart) for two hours. There, between the two branches, is a very large and beautiful spring, whose waters soon join one of the branches (i. e. the northern branch), and they flow on together, nearly south-east. Soon from this stream there sepa rates a branch, carrying about half of its waters, which runs to the east and constitutes the Sajour, emptying into the Euphrates; while the other half of the water flows on, and, joined to the southern branch of the original river, goes to Aleppo; but the wonder of this is, that the channel is henceforth artificial. We found two places where it runs over small streams or aqueducts, and one where the channel was dug in the rock; while in some places it winds around the sides of the hills, in a very serpentine course, in order to keep the waters high enough. It is not very strange that the map-makers were puzzled ; for the truth happens to be, that the Aintab waters run both to Aleppo and to the Euphrates. Stieler has the course of the southern part of the Aleppo river very accurate; but its source should be carried up some miles north of Aintab, bending to the east before reaching Aintab.'"This statement concerning the course of the waters of Aintab confirms the account already given by Carl Ritter, the German geographer. See his Die Erdkunde, Theil X. Berlin: 1843. p. 1034." The same distinguished scholar communicates the following criticism on the use of Dii and Deus : — "In the Greek and Roman classic writers, such as Xenophon (Memor.l. 4), Cicero (De Nat. Deorum, I. 44.; II. 30.; III. 37, 38.), etc., there is an interchange of Atol and 3f6f, dii and deus, apparently as if synonymous, which has not yet been satisfactorily explained."The Christian Fathers, as Tertullian (De Testim. Arimae, 2), Minutius Felix (Octav. cap. 18.), Cyprian (De Idolorum Vanit. cap. 5. Opp. p. 227. Ed.Baluz.), Arnobius (L.II. cap. 2.), Lactantius (Div. Inst. L.H. cap. 1.), seem to have regarded such cases as instinctive admissions, on the part of the heathen, of the unity of God."This also seems to have been the opinion of Cudworth (Intett. Syst. IV. 27.): 'It was very familiar with the vulgar pagans, in their ordinary discourse, to speak of God singularly, signifying thereby the one Supreme Deity.'"But Le Clerc (Ars Critica, P. L S. L o. 11. § 10.) and Prof. A. Norton (Genuineness of the Gospels, Vol. HL Notes, p. lxxii.) object strenuously to this inference of the Fathers, and deny that &ds, or deus in the Classics, denotes the Supreme Being, unless under very peculiar circumstances. Le Clerc contends that the singular denotes a particular god, or some god already referred to ; and Prof. Norton contends that the singular is used collectively, and denotes the gods generally. He would compare the use of man as analogous, in such expressions as the following : —'God made the country, and man made the town.'

'Deus bonus, scd homo est malus.''Prima homini cum deo rationis socictns.'

"There is an interesting passage, in a newly discovered work of Cicero (De Republica, I. 40.), which has been thought to speak of the unity of God and to refute the opinion of Le Clerc given above:'Est vero, inquit Scipio, in pace et otio: licet enim lascivire dum nihil mctuas, ut in navi ac saepe in morbo leni.—Sed ut ille qui navigat, cum subito more coepit horrescere, et ille aeger ingravescente morbo, unius opem implorat; sic noster populus in pace et domi imperat et ipsis magistratibus minatur, recusat, appellat, provocat; in bello sic paret ut regi: valet enim salus plus quam libido.'"The problem, however, is still an open one, Have the classic writers, by their use of th<» singular number, developed the idea of One Supreme G< d?"

ARTICLE X.
THEOLOGICAL AND LITERARY INTELLIGENCE.
Germany.

PnOF. Tholuck's Commentary on Romans, fifth edition, revised and enlarged. The author has availed himself of exegetical fragments, hitherto inaccessible or unnoticed. Special attention has been paid to the works of the Reformers and Earlier Writers, among others Aquinas and Abiilard. Also a Commentary on the Romans from Prof. Umbreit. The design of the author is to present an Exposition of the Epistle on the ground of the Old Testament. Meyer's Commentary on the New Testament, third edition, revised and enlarged. Fifth Part, containing the First Epistle to the Corinthians. Gieseler's History of Doctrines, being Vol. VI. of the Church History. Edited from the author's MSS. by Dr. II. R. Redepenning.

Hagenbach's Lectures on the Church History of the 18th and 19th Centuries. Third edition, revised. First Lieferung. The Central Protestant Doctrines, in their Development within the Reformed Church. By Dr. Alexander Schweizer. The Heroic Age of Christianity; embracing the first Three Centuries of the Christian Church. Vol. I. The Contest with Heathenism. By H. Krizler. A Translation of Haar's History of the Reformation. Vol. I. This work, by a Professor of Theology in Utrecht, was published as a Prize Treatise by the " Society in Hague for the Defence of the Christian Religion," and has reached its fifth edition in Holland. History of the most Recent Theology. By Prof. Karl Schwarz of Halle. The author aims to present the inner history of Theology for the last twenty years. Handbook of Universal Church History. Vol. H. Part I. By J. H. Kentz. History of the Political Parties of Modern Times. Vol. H. Part I. Extending to the Middle of the 17th Century. By Dr. Wachsmuth. This Part gives the history of Religious Parties in their Connection with Politics. Francis of Assisi; the Portrait of a Saint. By Prof. Karl Hase. St. Thomas, Archbishop of Canterbury and Primate of England; and his Struggle for the Liberty of the Church. By J. F. Buss. Life of Lavater. By F. W. Bodeman.

Thesaurus Hymnologicus, sive Hymnorum, Canticorum, Sequentiorum Collectio Amplissima. Tom. V. Supplementa et Indices continens. H. A. Daniel. On the Historical Gain from the Deciphering of the Assyrian Inscriptions. With a Glance at the General Characteristics of the AssyrianBabylonish Cuneiform Writing. By Dr. J. Brandis. The Israelites and Hyksos in Egypt . By M. Uhleman. The Chronology of the Life of Christ . With Explanatory Notes. By Dr. Lichtenstein.

Tischcndorfs Second Edition of the Septuagint . Revised and enlarged. 2 vols. The Proof of Scripture. Second Half. By Dr. J. Ch. Von Hoffman. Porphyrii de Philosophia ex Oraculis haurienda Reliquiae. Ed. Gustavus Wolff. This fragment is accompanied with much Prefatory Matter, copious Notes, and Addenda, relating to particular Sacrifices and Magical Practices among the Greeks and Romans, and the Theories of their Philosophers concerning Evil Spirits. 41-45 Numbers of Herzog's Real-Encyclopcedia of Protestant Theology. Bunsen's "Signs of the Times," and Stahl's " Reply," have reached the third Edition. The Controversy has been continued in several smaller publications, among which is one by Dr. J. I. Ritter: "The Two Dioskuri of the Protestant Church." The author belongs to the Catholic Faculty of Theology in Breslau. A Continuation of the " Signs of the Times" is announced in a Series of Letters, to be entitled "Signs of Decline," and "Signs of Renovation." Schelling's Works. Edited by his Sons. Vol. I. Lectures on the Philosophy of Mythology. This edition is to contain much that has never yet been published. It is to be completed in twelve volumes. It appears in Stuttgart, and is beautifully printed. The Philosophical and Religious Principles of Moses Mendelsohn; with a Glance at Lessing. By Dr. M. Kayserling. The Philosophy of the Greeks in its Historic Development. Parti. General Introduction. Philosophy before Socrates. Second Edition, thoroughly revised. By Dr. Ed. Zeller. The Life of the Soul; in Essays on its Phenomena and Laws. By Dr. M. Lazarus. Body and Soul. By Julius Schaller. The aim of this work is especially to refute prevalent materialistic views founded on Human Physiology, and to solve the Contradictions between Materialism and Spiritualism by a medium theory. Letters against Materialism. By Dr. M. Fabri. Words of Criticism, relating to the Contests about Body and Soul. By Dr. J. B. Meyer. Kant's Treatise on the Power of the Mind to Control its Morbid Feelings by mere Will. Edited, with Notes, by^Dr. C. W. Hufcland. Eighth edition revised. Outlines of Psychology from the Standpoint of Philosophic Realism, and according to the Genetic Method. A Guide for Academic Lectures and for Private Study. By Dr. F. W. Volkman. Vol. XIII. No. 61. 57

Contributions in Mythology to the most recent Investigations concerning the Religions of Antiquity. Part I: The Polytheistic System of the Greek Religion. With an Introductory History of the Literature belonging to the Subject. By Dr. K. T. Pyl. Roman History. By Prof. Theodore Mommsen. Vols. L—IV. Two vols, are to follow. Greek Mythology. 2 vols. By L. Preller. Greek Antiquities. Vol. I By Prof. Schoinan. The 2d vol. will appear soon. The three works last mentioned belong to a Series superintended by Profs. Haupt and Sauppe, the design of which is to awaken, in a wide circle of readers, a more lively appreciation of Classical Antiquity. The fourth edition of Dindorfs Homer, in 2 vols. It is accompanied with two Dissertations from Dr. Sengebusch of Berlin; which form nearly a third of the whole work. The Remains of the Oskian and Sabellian Language. By Prof. Hutscke. Prof. J. Miiller has been commissioned, by the king of Bavaria, to proceed to Spain to examine the Arabic MSS. of the Escurial Library. This collection is reputed to be one of the richest in the world. The library has hitherto been difficult of access to foreign scholars. Several Pamphlets have appeared relating to the Uranios forgery, which was noticed in the last Number. Simonides has been acquitted and allowed to return to Greece, on the ground that he had committed no offence against the laws of Prussia; the MSS. having been forwarded and recommended by Prof. Dindorf, and the money paid to him on his own account. The University of Gottingen has suffered severe loss by the death of several of its best Professors, during the past winter. Among others, Professors Herman and Schneidewin of the Philological Faculty. The 5th and concluding vol. of Schlosscr's History of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries has appeared. Also, The Life and Character of William von Humboldt, by R. Hayne. England. The Doctrine of Inspiration: being an Inquiry concerning the Infallibility, Inspiration, and Authority of Holy Writ. By Rev. John Macnaught, M. A. We conjecture that this is the work of a young man. Internal evidence suggests the idea. There is ability in it . It is characterized by earnest, independent thought, and deserves the attention of every student of Scripture. With very much of what the author says, we agree, but some things evince rashness and haste. He pronounces upon matters which he has not thoroughly studied. There is a want of caution in his statements at times. Hence the book is.open to animadversion. The writer has done good service by disproving the infallibility of writings, but he has not well discriminated the word of God and the human. Indeed he has largely confounded the two. Herein is a grave error. He is misty, and we think mistaken, about error in religious and moral truth. On a subject like that

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