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read, in entire abstinence from work." But this view is irreconcilable with the general teaching of the Old Testament Scriptures, which must surely be regarded as supplying the the best commentary upon the meaning of the statute. We cannot do better, than here refer the reader to the remarks of Hengstenberg, in which he argues for a more exalted conception of the Jewish law, showing that the peculiar, the double sacrifice, offered on the Sabbath (Num. 28: 10), the strong and special exhortations as to the study of the law of the Lord (Deut. 6: 6, 7. Lev. 10:11), the ancient practice of the synagogue worship (2 Kings 4: 23), and the injunction requiring " a holy convocation" on this day (Lev. 23:3) — all, more or less directly, serve to demonstrate the loftier character and claims conceded to the Sabbath under the Mosaic economy. Vitringa, indeed, endeavors to set aside the idea of assemblies for worship taking place on that day, by proposing to render the words in Leviticus," a proclamation of holiness." But, as Hengstenberg has shown, Isa. 4:5 disproves this, where the same Hebrew word is employed; and he might have added Isa. 1:13 and Num. 28:18—25, as also demonstrative of the falsity of this rendering. Such holy convocations or assemblies were doubtless signalized by the presentation of sacrifice, where this was lawful. But as this was lawful only in one place, when the people had settled in the promised land, these conventions must have been designed elsewhere, throughout the tribes, only for such moral and religious purposes as could be realized apart from sacrificial services ; while, in all instances and all situations, the elements of instruction and spiritual worship must, more or less, have found a place in these assemblies. This, then, was not only a special period for the cultivation of domestic piety, for it was "the Sabbath of the Lord in all their dwellings ;" but, throughout all their borders, the seventh day was to be one of " holy convocation" likewise j so that provision was thus made for the development of religion, in all its social aspects, in immediate connection with that day which had been, from the first, "blessed" and " sanctified " of God. We read, in Ex. 16: 29, that the Israelites were commanded not to move out of their places on the Sabbath day; but it is evident this prohibition had reference only to their going forth to gather manna in the wilderness; for the law of "convocation" required them to leave their habitations for the public service of God on the seventh day. And the prescription of that service, as we have seen, amply refutes the position of those who would limit the meaning of the fourth commandment to a mere cessation from accustomed labor. Such a limitation, we may further remark, finds no sanction or authority in the writings of the prophets, the divinely inspired interpreters of the laws of God among the Jewish people. The language of Isa. 58: 13, 14, already adduced, would, if understood in this negative and inferior sense, be stripped of the greater part of its force and beauty; and so also would the words of the same prophet, in chapter lvi.: "Thus saith the Lord, Keep ye judgment and do justice, for my salvation is near to come and my righteousness to be revealed. Blessed is the man that doeth this, and the son of man that layeth hold on it; that keepeth the Sabbath from polluting it, and keepeth his hand from doing any evil." Indeed, it is impossible to examine either the historical or prophetic portions of the Old Testament, without being convinced of the vast importance which the God of Israel attached to this right and religious observance of the day. In the twentieth chapter of Ezekiel we discover the signal influence which the neglect and pollution of the Sabbatic seasons, including of course the weekly Sabbath, had upon the destinies of the entire people. This had been one of the principal causes of the punishment and privation endured in the wilderness (even to their exclusion from the promised land), by the generation which had been rescued from Egyptian bondage. "I would not bring them into the land which I had given them, flowing with milk and honey, which is the glory of all lands, because they despised my judgments, and walked not in my statutes, but polluted my Sabbaths, for their heart went after their idols." And now, this was among the chief national sins which had led the Most High to abandon the people for seventy years, during which they wore the chain of captivity in Babylon, and "the iron entered into their soul;" while Ezekiel," among the captives by the river of Chebar," was inspired of the Lord to recall to their memory the transgressions they had committed, and to urge the duties of penitence, humiliation, and prayer. We have spoken of " the right and religious observance" of the Sabbath, under the Jewish dispensation, and the tenor of preceding remarks has been, that such observance involved not merely the negative element of rest, but the positive element also of spiritual culture and worship. The portion of Ezekiel just cited, serves to corroborate this view, since it is clear that while the Israelites did not, so far at least as their history shows, violate generally the law of rest, they nevertheless were guilty of polluting the Sabbath, and that to such an extent as to subject themselves to national excision; which could therefore only have been through the neglect of those higher principles, for the sake of which chiefly respite from labor was valuable and important. In estimating the import and usage, the genius and bearing of the Jewish Sabbath, we are in danger of falling into one of two opposite extremes: either, underrating its spirituality of character and design, on the one hand, and so submerging it into the rank of a mere outward civil statute; or, on the other hand, transferring the associations of the present economy back to times when God had not revealed himself in such glorious and gracious forms as those which it is our privilege to witness, and thus investing the ordinance with a measure of lustre, such as could not have been realized by worshippers in Jewish synagogue or shrine. Examples illustrating both these extremes might readily be adduced from writers on this subject, who have evidently been guided by their spiritual or unspiritual tendencies, and have not been sufficiently alive to the necessity of exploring fully and impartially the nature and relations of the Sabbatic institute, as given, or rather reconstructed, by Moses, and enforced by the inspired teachers who followed him in long succession. The "keeping" of the day would doubtless take its tone and character from the sphere of religious ideas to which it pertained. The creation of the world, the movements of divine Providence, the preservation of the church, the signal interpositions of God on their behalf as a people, the giving of the law from Sinai, the distinguishing privileges which they enjoyed; these, and such as these, were the highest manifestations of the Divine which had been, as yet, given. And the study of them would form an appropriate business of the day of public, national rest; while the influence which such study exerted, and the measure of the devotion inspired, would depend largely upon the degree of religious susceptibility possessed. The ninety-second Psalm, intended (as the title indicates) for the Sabbath, may be regarded as embodying the highest style of sentiment, and exhibiting the purest and loftiest type of devotion, belonging to the times before the Gospel. But "that which was made glorious,had no glory in this respect, by reason of the glory that excelleth." Far nobler themes, far more wonderful evolutions of the Divine character—those pertaining to redemption — are now to be celebrated by the church of God, under the New Testament dispensation. The shadows have disappeared. The types have vanished. The true light now shineth. A more golden age is running its appointed course. It might then, indeed, be given to a few choice spirits, specially illumined and spiritually elevated above their fellows, to penetrate the veil and to gaze upon the glories of the coming times, and thus to anticipate, in part, the more exalted visions of the future. But, at best, they could do little more than catch the distant radiance that gilded the mountain tops; whereas the meridian brightness of the Sun of Righteousness is now the cheap and common possession of all who enjoy the Gospel. We have risen to a more elevated position. The church at large has passed from the state of nonage to maturity, from twilight into day. And all her institutions, of whatever kind, must partake of the richer lustre and the higher perfection which pertain to this more advanced, this final stage in the history of the Divine dealings with the children of men. "The law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ." It will be the object of a future Article to examine the relation which the Lord's day bears to the primeval and Jewish Sabbaths, and the authority, if such there be, upon which a day of holy rest, under the Christian economy, can be securely and satisfactorily built and maintained. ARTICLE III. THE BIBLE IN SCHOOLS.1 By Rev. J. H. Scclyc, Pastor of the First Reformed Church, Schenectady, N. Y. There is no tendency among us to revolutionize our present theory of government. The American public are content with this theory as it is; and whether our civil institutions would satisfy us better if formed upon a radically different plan, is a question which no special interest is felt in discussing. There are, however, many cases arising where the precise application of this theory is a much disputed point. How should it regulate domestic servitude? In what relation does it stand to a protective tariff? Does it authorize or conflict with the doctrine that a certain portion of our public domain may be given away to furnish homes for the homeless? What does it permit or prohibit respecting laws for preventing intemperance? These, and other questions, relating solely to the application of our theory of government, have awakened a profound interest and an animated discussion. The subject of the Bible in schools belongs to this class, and is exciting much feeling at the present time. We propose to examine this in the present Article, hoping to

1 Elements of Moral Science. By L. P. Hickok, D. D., Union College. 1854. Right of the Bible in our Public Schools. By George B. Checvcr, D. D. 1854. Decision of Mr. Superintendent Randall in the Quiglcy Case. 1854.

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