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THE WAR AND BRITISH CHEMICAL Government officials, manufacturers, and merINDUSTRY.
chants.” It was to have been wished that before WING to the urgency of the aniline dye ques
taking any steps towards organising the new OW!
scheme, every member of the Cabinet, together tion and the discussion which has been
with the other Ministers, “could have been transtaking place on the Government scheme, it has
ferred bodily to Ludwigshafen and personally. been thought expedient to issue part iv. of a iremorandum dealing with the entire question of conducted through the Badische Anilin- und Soda
Fabrik.” Dr. Forster depicts with considerable the “War and British Economic Policy." It is
humour the astonishment that Mr. Runciman published by Messrs. P. S. King and Son, of Westminster, and a brief summary of it is given isation and laboratories of this firm, and especi
and the others might have expressed at the organin the Chemical News of February 26. British
ally on finding some actual chemists on the industries use annually dyes to the value of nearly
directorate. 2,250,000l., of which about 1,750,000l. come
Several columns are devoted by the Financier from Germany, about 150,000l. from Switzerland,
of February 12, 23, and March 12 to interviews and only about 200,00ol. are of British home production. Aniline dyes constitute an indispensable
with Mr. W. P. Dreaper, who, as chemist to the
Silk Association, speaks with some authority on material in many branches of the textile, leather,
the practical side of the question. Mr. Dreaper paper, and other industries, and the annual value
also most strongly emphasises the necessity that of the goods in which they are an essential or
the board of the proposed company should conimportant part is estimated at 200,000,oool. The opinions of a large number of firms inter- importance of securing the best scientific know
tain a scientific representation, and the absolute ested in the use or manufacture of aniline dyes are
ledge which is available. He protests against the given in the memorandum in question, and em
policy of training chemists of the "second class," phasis is laid on the fact that the dependence upon
of which Mr. Runciman seems to consider that German supplies is so great that the present capacity of British dye works is totally inadequate general lack of understanding which exists
we have an insufficient supply, and against the to fill the gap. During the past few weeks the
amongst manufacturers as to what a chemist is Government scheme has formed the subject of
“owing to the demand that has sprung up in numerous articles and letters to the Press, and a
certain directions for the 70l. per annum variety.” brief review may here be given of these, so far as
The lack of appreciation in this country of the they deal with the general question of the relation
services of the chemist and the absolute ignorship between science and industry in this country,
ance on the part of the Government of what reand ignoring all problems of a political nature,
muneration should be given him is admirably such as the question of the necessity for a protec
illustrated by the letter of Sir William Tilden in tive tariff for the proposed new industry.
the Chemical News of February 26, protesting Prof. Armstrong, in a letter to the Morning against the salary offered by the Royal Arsenal, Post of February 27, after considering the report Woolwich, to assistant chemists in the inspection of the debate on the Government dye scheme in
department. At a time when the nation is spendthe House of Commons, concludes that the
ing 1,250,000l., and will soon
be spending “situation is an almost hopeless one owing to the
1,750,00oi., per diem on maintaining our army in lamentable ignorance of our public men of matters
the field, the utmost that the War Office can scientific.” He illustrates this want of knowledge by a criticism of Mr. Runciman's recent training in inorganic and organic chemistry," and
afford to give a chemist who has “had a thorough pronouncement that in organising the new scheme
is “a university graduate or member of the Instithe Government "had at their elbows two, at
tute of Chemistry,” is the sum of 21. os. 6d. per least, of the greatest chemists of Europe,' week! description which, it is contended, will "scarcely think," and is, indeed, a striking object lesson of
Such an advertisement gives one to pass muster."
the fact which Prof. Armstrong deplores---"we If the production of dyes is to be taken in hand have had no public use for science in our country, seriously, and the foundation laid of a permanent
and we are blind to our needs and as to our industry, men must be chosen to manage the enter
opportunities." prise who are as able as was my dear old friend, now deceased, Dr. H. Caro, who played so great a part
The whole question of the utilisation of science in the development of the Badische Anilin Company,
in industry is indeed closely wrapped up with that or as his eminent successor, Prof. Bernthsen is, or of the miserably insufficient remuneration given as is Prof. Duisberg, who has brought the Bayer in the majority of cases to science and scientific Company to its present proud position, and now workers, which Sir Ronald Ross has so strongly dominates the whole industry. . : . We have in our emphasised in recent numbers of Science Proranks men of their type who would be immediately
gress. So long as the prospects of the young available. But apparently the advisers of the Government want subordinate intellects, not leaders.
chemist and the remuneration that he receives are
of the order indicated in the above advertisement Dr. M. O. Forster, in a characteristically ironi- there is little hope of developing in this country cal letter to the same journal, points out that the industries that require the services of large numestablishment of an indigenous dye industry "is, bers of highly-trained scientific workers. has been, and ever will be as much a question of It is interesting to find a politician like Mr. education as of trade. Education of legislators, L. G. Chiozza Money, M.P., emphasising the
British artillery officers have been trained in their of Germany, in short, has succeeded in the past
same lesson in an article in the March Fort
anything like a permanent success seem altogether nightly Review on “The War and British Indus- illusory. It must be remembered that the German
Mộ. Money comments that “we have been chemical industry (with one or two exceptions) has content to leave the development of many old never received any protection whatever from industries and the establishment of many new tariff's. How futile such protection as that industries to foreign hands,” owing to afforded by patent laws can be in comparison "normal" disregard of science.
with the results obtained by the organisation of Let us not deceive ourselves into believing that
science in the service of industry is emphasised by " science" or "chemistry" affects a limited number
a report to Congress, which is reprinted in the of subsidiary industries.' There is no industry in the Chemical News of March 5. In the United States world, from building construction to coke-making, a 30 per cent. duty on some coal-tar dyes for more from artillery construction to the making of explo- than thirty years has not produced a real coal-tar sives, from dyeing to leather tanning
dye industry. Germany, on the other hand, has not been in recent years turned inside out by science and invention. We have been content in too many
succeeded because she has placed science on matters to let the world go by us.
sound business footing, of which the fair re
muneration of the scientific worker has been a Even in the matter of preparation for war striking feature. The part played by the German Mr. Money, quoting from the address de- banks, often with men of considerable scientific livered before the Mathematical Association on attainments on their boards, in developing German January 9 by Sir George Greenhill (see NATURE, industry is emphasised by Mr. W. P. Dreaper in January 21, P. 573), gives a melancholy contrast an article on Industrial Research in the Financier
of March .
, science at the Military Technical Academy of because she deserved to succeed. Not only has she Berlin and at Woolwich.
organised scientific effort on the manufacturing The neglect of science in industry and in public side, but she has organised equally effectively her affairs, which is characteristic of this country, commercial relations with foreign countries. This culminated in the prospectus of British Dyes side of the question, which has played no small (Limited), on the board of which science is entirely
part in attaining the final result, is dealt with in unrepresented. The opinions of Sir Henry Roscoe the current Bulletin of the Société d'Encourageand Sir William Ramsay on the scheme, expressed ment (vol. cxxii., p. 33), by M. Lindet, who gives in the columns of the Times, have already been as an example an account of the methods adopted given in NATURE (March 11, p. 41), whilst Prof. by Germany in Rumania. Armstrong, in the Morning Post (March 13), considers that “our fate as makers of dyes is sealed.”
The Germans present to the Rumanians objects The failure of the scheme to attract sufficient
specially manufactured to satisfy the local requirecapital from investors to justify the directors of
ments, sold at a price which is lower than ours be
cause they are manufactured more cheaply and bethe company in proceeding to allotment was
cause they bear lower charges for transport. The referred to last week (p. 94). A meeting of repre- German and Austrian merchants and manufacturers sentatives of the textile and dyeing trades was interested in Rumanian business have formed a syndiheld at Manchester on March 24 to consider the cate with its representative at Bucharest. They obtain position, and a resolution was adopted in favour in this way facilities for transport in common which of proceeding with the company if certain modi
we do not possess. They have at Bucharest banks fications were made in the business part of the
which allow long-date credits, and they have repre
sentatives and travellers who without intermission programme. There is no doubt as to the national
pursue their clients. They advertise widely, and have necessity for such work as the Government inaugurated at Bucharest a museum of their goods. scheme is intended to promote, but to expect that a company without a single industrial chemist
It is an organisation of this kind, highly upon its board of directors will be able to com
developed on both the manufacturing and compete with the highly organised coai-tar colour in
mercial sides that we have to prepare to face in dustry of Germany is to show complete want of
the future, after the war has ended and Germany understanding of the scientific problems which
is left free to resume her usual activities. must be faced if permanent success is to be assured. How little Germany fears competition in this
DR. A. S. LEA, F.R.S. field in the future from English manufacturers, THE ranks of those who took part in founding even though aided by the resources of the State, the can be gathered from an admirable article by Prof. thin. But a few months ago we recorded the 0. N. Witt in the Chemiker Zeitung for February death of Dr. Gaskell. We have now to record 13. In this article are given the real reasons why the death, on March 23, of Dr. Arthur Sheridan Germany has been able to outstrip all competition Lea at sixty-one years of age. and to secure practically a monopoly, and why the Lea entered Trinity College, Cambridge, in foundations of the industry are so solidly based 1872, he became Foundation Scholar of the Colthat the prospects of the British scheme having lege, and in 1875 he took a First Class in the Natural Sciences Tripos. His bias was to the
PROF. d. A. II. HUBRECHT. chemical side of physiological problems, and, in THE death of Prof. Hubrecht at his residence in
March search with Kühne at Heidelberg. Kühne com- removes another link between the zoology of the bined in a rather unusual manner the study of present day and the zoology of what may be called physiological chemistry with that of histology, the great epoch of Huxley and Balfour. His and Lea's work with him developed, as it chanced, earlier work dates back to 1874, and was of an mainly on histological lines.
Kühne and Lea anatomical character; it was only in the later were the first to observe satisfactorily with the part of his career that he devoted himself to emmicroscope the changes taking place in a living bryology, and advocated views which led to lively gland—the pancreas—with intact circulation, and controversy, and were provocative of good work, to note the special vascular supply of the Islets both on his own part and on the part of those of Langerhans. One of the figures illustrating who opposed him. their paper is given to this day in most text-books Speaking broadly, Hubrecht's name will survive of histology and physiology.
as associated with thoroughly sound work and Lea, after his return to Cambridge, specialised with the elucidation of a large number of most in physiological chemistry though he gave in- important new facts, even if the deductions which struction to pupils in the whole range of physio- he drew from them no longer find favour with logy, and to him was due the development in the zoologists. So far, indeed, as theories are conCambridge laboratory of advanced teaching in cerned, Hubrecht's mind continued to reflect the this subject. In the successive editions of mental attitude of the zoological world in which Foster's “Text-book of Physiology," Lea wrote his youth was passed; it was, indeed, a time of the the part dealing with physiological chemistry, and “faith that moves mountains." Ardent naturalists in the fifth edition (1892) this part, revised and were applying the Darwinian doctrine of evolution enlarged, appeared as a separate volume entitled
to every part of the animal kingdom; with the en“The Chemical Basis of the Animal Body.” His thusiasm of pioneers they were tackling the most research work was chiefly on the chemical obscure and difficult problems of the natural relachanges in food during digestion, and on the tionships of animals; the deep abysses which action of rennet and fibrin ferments.
separate different phyla of the animal kingdom Lea's first post was that of demonstrator of were traversed by their soaring imagination, for physiology for Dr. Foster. In 1881 he became
were not the powers of variation limitless? and director of medical studies and assistant lecturer did not the principle of “change of function " at Gonville and Caius College. In 1885 he was enunciated by Dohrn authorise one to homologise elected fellow of the college, and soon after any organ of any animal with any organ of any became bursar.
other animal to which it bore the slightest resity lecturer in 1884. His career in the univer- semblance? So Hubrecht, to whom we owe the sity and in science was cut short by the develop- first thoroughly satisfactory account of the ment of a spinal disease—signs of which had long anatomy of the Nemertine worms, was convinced been present-making walking at first difficult that Vertebrata were descended from a Nemertine and later impossible. None of his friends can worm, and that the Nemertine proboscis repreforget the astonishing fortitude with which Lea sented the Vertebrate notochord. met this shattering of his chief interests. He had In his later years Hubrecht devoted himself always led an active outdoor life; he had cruised principally to mammalian embryology, and made about the coasts in a yacht whenever opportunity a series of most valuable observations on the reoffered; he was Captain in the Cambridge Volun- lations
lations between placenta and young in the teers, had taken special courses of instruction at eutherian mammals. He led by these Aldershot, and was a good rifle shot. Since he observations to a theory of the origin of mamcould no longer carry on these pursuits, nor con- malia, which has not been borne out by the work tinue his research in the laboratory, he decided of other embryologists or by palæontologists. He after a time to break entirely with the old life. supposed that the higher mammalia were directly He left Cambridge and settled at Sidcup in Kent. descended from amphibia, and that the mono
Rarely then or later did Lea rail at fate. tremata, the anatomy and embryology of which beput on a cheerful countenance, and made the best trays in an unmistakable manner their reptilian of what was left him. He kept in touch with his affinities, were secondarily modified forms. Here, old friends, revised the proofs of their books as again, Hubrecht's firm faith carried him over all occasion offered, and occasionally made small difficulties. These remarks are not intended as pieces of apparatus for them with the mechanic- any disparagement of the methods of comparative ally-driven lathe which served to keep up the anatomy or embryology, but are merely designed cunning of his hands. Before leaving Cambridge to emphasise the fact that in these, as in all other he had married, and had one son. In a letter sciences, sound inductions are only possible on the written shortly before he died, Lea expressed basis of an immense accumulation of facts. pleasure that his son had volunteered for the Modern zoologists addicted to Mendelism would Army and was serving in the trenches. In this do well to remember that “of making many factors as in other matters he kept his private anxieties there is no end, and formulæ are a weariness to to himself.
J. N. L.
Hubrecht was a firm friend of England and a constant visitor at scientific meetings here; he could speak English like a native, and his death will be felt as a personal loss by a large circle of friends in this country.
E. W. M.
NOTES. The following resolution of the council of the Royal Geographical Society has been accepted by the fellows of the Society : “The council, having become
that Sir Sven Hedin, K.C.I.E., a subject of a neutral State, has identified himself with the King's enemies by his actions and published statements, orders that his name be removed from the list of honorary corresponding members of the society.” Dr. Sven Hedin has also been excluded from the Russian Imperial Geographical Society.
The council of the Royal Geographical Society has made the following awards of medals and other prizes to be presented at the anniversary meeting on May 17: Founder's Medal to Sir Douglas Mawson for his conduct of the Australian Antarctic Expedition of 1911-14; Patron's Medal to Dr. Filippo de Filippi for his expedition to the Karakoram and Eastern Turkestan in 1913–14; Victoria Research Medal to Dr. Hugh Robert Mill for geographical research extending over many years; Murchison Award to Captain J. K. Davis, who commanded the S.Y. Aurora during the time of the Australian Antarctic Expedition; Back Grant to Mr. C. W. Hobley for his contributions to the geology and ethnology of British East Africa ; Cuthbert Peek Grant to Mr. A. Grant Ogilvie for his work in geographical investigation and research; Gill Memorial to Colonel Hon. C. G. Bruce for explorations in the Himalayas.
The annual general meeting of the Chemical Society was held at Burlington House on Thursday, March 25. The Longstaff medal for 1915 was presented to Dr. M. O. Forster, and the retiring president, Prof. W. H. Perkin, then delivered his presidential address on “The position of the organic chemical industry,” an abstract of which appears elsewhere in this issue. A vote of thanks to the president was proposed by Prof. H. E. Armstrong and seconded by Sir William Tilden. The new officers and members of council elected were :-President, Dr. Alexander Scott; Vice-Presidents, Prof. F. R. Japp and Prof. R. Threlfall; Treasurer, Dr. M. O. Forster; Ordinary Members of Council, Mr. D. L. Chapman, Prof. F. G. Donnan, Mr. W. Macnab, and Dr. J. F. Thorpe.
The sixty-eighth annual meeting of the Palæontographical Society was held in the rooms of the Geological Society, Burlington House, on March 26, Dr. Henry Woodward, president, in the chair. The report stated that most of the authors for whom space had been reserved in the annual volume, had failed to contribute owing to the circumstances of the war, and an instalment only of Mr. F. W. Harmer's “Monograph of Pliocene Mollusca" would form the issue for 1914. Messrs. John Hopkinson, Clement Reid, S. Hazzledine Warren, and Henry Woods were elected new members of council. Dr. Henry Woodward was
re-elected president, and Mr. R. S. Herries and Dr. A. Smith Woodward were re-elected treasurer and secretary respectively.
Tile seventieth annual general meeting of the Ray Society was held on March 25, the president, Prof. McIntosh, in the chair. The report for 1914 stated that the number of members had increased and the finances were satisfactory, but a diminution of income was to be expected this year owing to the loss of German and Austrian subscribers on account of the
For 1914 the “ British Marine Annelids," vol. iii., part 1, by the president, had been issued, and for 1915 two volumes were in preparation : the “British Fresh-water Rhizopoda," vol. iii., containing the filose Conchulina, by G. H. Wailes, and the “Principles of Vegetable Teratology," vol. i., containing non-vascular plants and the root, stem, and leaves of vascular plants, by W. C. Worsdell. Prof. W. C. McIntosh was re-elected president, Dr. F. Du Cane Godman treasurer, and Mr. John Hopkinson secretary.
We notice with regret 'the announcement of the death on March 27 of Mr. J. J. Beringer, associate of the Royal School of Mines, and principal of the School of Metalliferous Mining, Camborne, Cornwall
The death is announced of Prof. F. A. Sherman, professor of mathematics at Dartmouth College, New Hampshire, from 1871 until his retirement as professor emeritus in 1911. Prof. Sherman died on February 25 in his seventy-fourth year.
We learn from Science that the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research has made a grant of 4oool. to be used under the institute's direction to further medical research work under war conditions, and is equipping Dr. Carrel's new hospital in France with apparatus for research work in pathology, bacteriology, and surgery.
The death is announced, in his seventy-seventh year, of the Rev. Dr. S. J. Coffin, professor of astronomy since 1873 at Lafayette College, Pennsylvania, in which institution he also occupied the chair of mathematics from 1876 to 1886. He was the author of a treatise on conic sections, and had revised “The Winds of the Globe," by his father, Prof. J. H. Coffin.
The Times correspondent at Ottawa states that in the Canadian House of Commons on March 27 Mr. Hazen, Minister of Marine, expressed the opinion that Mr. Stefansson, the Canadian explorer, had been lost with his two companions. The Government, he said, is doing everything of a practicable nature to find the missing men, and three steamers now in the Arctic will set out to the rescue of the expedition as soon as the ice breaks up in the spring.
The American Association of Immunologists will hold its annual meeting at Washington on May 10 next, under the presidency of Dr. G. B. Webb, of Colorado Springs. The association was founded in 1913 for the purpose of bringing together the medical men of the United States and Canada who are engaged in the scientific study of immunity and bacterial therapy; to study the problems of immunology; and to promote scientific research in this department; to spread a correct knowledge of vaccine therapy and immunology among general medical practitioners.
The Board of Agriculture anů Fisheries announces to 1902 he was one of the instructors at the School of that with a view of obtaining further information on Military Engineering at Chatham, which he left to go their growth, migrations, and general life-history, a to Egypt. His wide experience of his subject and number of salmon and sea trout have been marked originality have largely influenced the development of by means of a ring or wire, with or without a label or the reproduction of maps by the Egyptian Survey tag attached. Rewards will be paid for all such Department, and practically all their maps now are marks returned to the Board, with or without the fish, reproduced by the photo-metal process. with information as to the date, time, place, and
The following are among the arrangements for lecmethod of capture. When the entire fish is not sent
tures at the Royal Institution after Easter :-" The full particulars of its weight, length, sex, and condi
Animal Spirits,” Prof. C. S. Sherrington; “Advances tion should also be given, and a portion of the skin or
in the Study of Radio-active Bodies," Prof. F. Soddy; flesh of the fish to which the mark is fixed should be
“The Evolution of Steel: Influence on Civilisation," cut out. Postage and carriage need not be prepaid,
Prof. J. O. Arnold; “The System of the Stars : (1) and parcels and letters should be addressed to the
Star Colour and its Significance; (2) The Stellar Board at 43 Parliament Street, London, S.W.
System in Motion," Prof. A. S. Eddington; Advances PROF. H. ROBINSON, who occupied the chair of civil in General Physics," Dr. A. W. Porter; The Moveengineering at King's College, London, from 1880 to ments and Activities of Plants," Prof. V. H. Black1902, died on March 24, at seventy-eight years of age. man; “Method of Presenting Character in Biography From a short obituary notice in the Times we learn and Fiction," Wilfrid Ward; “Modern Artillery," that Prof. Robinson had charge of many important Lieut.-Col. A. G. Hadcock; “Photo-electricity” (the works, including railways, water supply, sewerage, Tyndall Lectures), Prof. J. A. Fleming; "Colouring and electric lighting, an example of the latter being Matters of the Organic World : (1) Colouring Matters the successful installation at St. Pancras. He of Nature; (2) Dyes, the Creation of the Chemist," engineered the first public hydraulic power scheme in Dr. M. O. Forster. The Friday evening discourses this country at Hull, and took an active part in pro- will begin on April 16. Mr. Stephen Graham will moting the distribution of energy in other towns by deal with “The Russian Idea" and Major P. S. hydraulic power, compressed air, and electricity. Prof. Lelean with * Military Hygiene at the War"; they Robinson was a fellow of King's College, of the Sur
will be followed by Canon Pearce, Sir John Jackson, veyors’ Institution, and of the Sanitary Institute, and Sir Ernest Rutherford, Dr. H. Walford Davies, Profs. a past-president of the Society of Engineers.
F. G. Donnan and O. W. Richardson, and Mr.
Edward Heron-Allen. We notice with much regret the announcement of the death, on March 23, at fifty-three years of age, of
It is an axiom in business that to be successful the Dr. S. G. Rawson, principal of the Battersea Poly- merchant must provide what the public wants. He Technic, London, Dr. Rawson
educated may try to educate the public by advertisement and Charterhouse School, the Royal College of Science,
other means, but it is the public demand alone that University College, London, and University College, regulates the quality of the supply. The population Liverpool. He afterwards became lecturer in chem- of this country demands a white loaf of light texture istry at University College, Liverpool, and in 1895 made from the finest portion of the wheat berry, and he was appointed principal of the Technical College,
bakers and millers have made it their business to Huddersfield. In 1903 he was appointed director of supply this want. Even at the height of the standard education to the Worcestershire County Council, and
bread boom it is stated that the demand for this article in September, 1907, he became principal of the di
did not reach 5 per cent. of the total. Whether the Battersea Polytechnic. Dr. Rawson was a doctor of public taste is the most satisfactory on scientific science of the University of London, an associate of grounds is possibly open to question; the subject was the Royal College of Science, fellow of the Institute discussed in an article in these columns on January 7. of Chemistry and of the Chemical Society, and, since In the opinion of nearly everyone qualified to judge, January, 1914, was chairman of the council of the our bread is good enough in quality, and the fact Association of Technical Institutions.
remains that the public will take no other. The We regret to announce the death of Mr. James
Bread and Food Reform League holds the contrary Kearney, who for the last thirteen years has been in
view, and recently presented a memorial to the Presi
dent of the Local Government Board. The Times of spector in charge of the photo-engraving section of the Egyptian Survey Department. He was originally
March 26 reports the presentation of this memorial in the Royal Engineers, and accompanied Sir G.
under the heading, “A Notable Protest." The list of Graham's expeditionary force to the Sudan in 1885
signatories contains a number of notable names, but as photographic expert. He was then for several
those of experts who can speak with authority upon years attached to the Solar Physics Committee at
the subject are not prominent, which is typical of the South Kensington, and will be remembered by many
national attitude towards scientific knowledge. Mr. old students of the Royal College of Science, London.
Samuel expressed the opinion that it is impracticable In 1893 he went to West Africa with the British
to undertake at the present time legislation on the Eclipse Expedition as expert photographer, and again
lines suggested by the memorial. in 1906 he was with the party who observed the solar We regret to record the death of Lady Huggins, at eclipse at Aswan. During this period he several times Chelsea, on March 24, after a long illness. From the received the thanks of the Royal Society. From 1893 time of their marriage in 1875, Lady Huggins was