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dependent on temperature, and requires three weeks or upwards in our climate. Months of warm weather are therefore required to produce any multitude of flies from the few surviving in the winter. Why the epidemic should exhibit this dependence is not explained, unless on the assumption that the fly population determines the number of cases of diarrhoea.
Without losing sight of the various other ways in which the specific infective agents of cholera, typhoid, epidemic diarrhoea, and dysenteries may be and are transported from the excreta of one individual to the mouths of others, the prima facie case against the house-fly is complete.
Further, in the case of infantile diarrhoea, the fly-carriage hypothesis offers a satisfactory interpretation of the extraordinary dependence of the epidemic upon the accumulated effect of temperature, and affords a ready explanation of the spread of the infection of cholera, typhoid, and diarrhoea to neighbouring persons who have no contact with the patient, in those cases in which contamination of a water or food supply may be excluded.
The direct proof of the extent of the danger due to flies is lacking, but the hypothesis has pragmatic value. It not only interprets facts otherwise awkwardly explained, but but measures based upon it have been attended with beneficial results; in other words, it works.
THE RESURRECTION OF BABYLON.1 HOUGH scarcely a book to attract the general reader, Dr. Koldewey's account of the German excavations on the mounds which have for ages entombed the remains of Babylon the Great, is a work of considerable importance for all who are interested in the archæology of the Old Testament. This, as perhaps is not generally known in England, is still a growing science; and the worst thing that can be said of the German Expedition to Babylonia is that, after so many years of patient and persistent spadework on one of the most promising sites in the world, it has not yet succeeded in unearthing anything of higher his
The pathos of the position of the German explorers was that the site had been looted so often previously to their systematic investigations that scarcely anything of first-rate importance was left for the latest adventurers. The temples and palaces of Nebuchadrezzar's capital were probably swept bare of most of their portable treasures at a comparatively early period; and the ravages of people in search of building material, and the petty pilferings of Arabs and other stray visitors, had doubtless robbed the ruins of much that would have been priceless in the eyes of modern explorers. Even the beautiful enamelled bricks,
torical or religious value than is recorded in the FIG. 1.-Eramelled wall length of the Ishtar Gate. From "The Excavations volume before us. Nothing extraordinary has hitherto been found; no great literary monument, no document of supreme religious moment, nothing that lends decisive help towards the settlement of any one of the unsolved problems of history or chronology. How much more fortunate in this respect were the pioneering labours of Layard and George Smith and Botta at Nineveh, of Rassam at Sippara, of De Sarzec at Tellô, of De Morgan and Scheil at Susa!
It is well for us that the Assyrian kings were so deeply interested in the literary monuments of Babylon. Had we depended for our knowledge. of these on the remains of the Great City itself, we should (until the recent American discoveries at Nippur) have been left without any indication
1 "The Excavations at Babylon." By R. Koldewey. Translated by Agnes S. Johns. Pp. xix+335. (London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd., 1914.) Price 21s. net.
with their strange mythological figures, are not altogether a novelty. Older specimens of the same kind of mural decoration were long ago reproduced by Perrot and Chipiez from Sargon's palace at Khorsabad ("History of Art in Chaldea and Assyria," II., plate xv. ; see also plates xiiixiv. Eng. Trans., London, 1884). But it is highly satisfactory to find such splendid examples as those of the Ishtar Gate still existing, in situ, and in such an excellent state of preservation (Fig. 1).
Whether anything of supreme value awaits disinterment at lower levels remains to be seen. Slabs of diorite or other hard stone, like the famous stela of Hammurabi, or the similarly written inscription of Nebuchadrezzar, which is (or was) one of the treasures of the library of the
East India House, might well have survived an age-long immersion in Euphratean mud. In any case, disappointing as, in such respects, results have hitherto proved to be, we entirely agree with Dr. Koldewey that it is most desirable that the work of excavating this historic site, begun so many years ago, should be carried to completion. Meanwhile, the special student will not fail to find many good things in this storehouse of facts and comments. It is now certain that ancient accounts greatly exaggerated the extent of ground actually covered by the city, the influence of which dominated the civilised world from the age of Hammurabi, the founder of its imperial greatness, to that of Nebuchadrezzar, who, if he did not find it of brick and leave it of marble, undoubtedly
restored and enlarged its walls and temples and palaces on so grand a scale that the glories of Babylon the Great became a standing wonder of antiquity. The walls, however, have been found to range from upwards of fifty to more than sixty feet in thickness, and the mounds which concealed them rose to about four times the height of the ordinary Tels of buried Oriental cities: circumstances which sufficiently indicate the arduous nature of the task of excavation.
Dr. Koldewey's translations are, for the most part, good and accurate; but in EIH. VI. (not "7") 22-55, the passage in which Nebuchadrezzar or his court historian describes the building of the new eastern wall and the making of the moat,
familiar to us from other Babylonian monuments. It was, in fact, not so much a serpent (though the Sumerian MUSH includes that meaning) as a composite form with serpent head, scales, and tail, and four claw-footed legs--a sort of "laidly worm" or "fearsome dragon," and remarkably like a dinosaurus. The name may denote fierce (or glittering) dragon (Fig. 2).
Dr. Koldewey first visited Babylon in June, 1887, about the time when the present reviewer was working upon the text of the East India House inscription of Nebuchadrezzar (see Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archæology, December, 1887). What a godsend would the present volume have been in those days, clearing
up as it does by its thorough investigation of local conditions and the actual remains of the ancient buildings so many of the earlier translators' almost hopeless perplexities! One after another, the Procession Street of Merodach, the Sacred Way along which marched the annual solemnity of Babylon's tutelary god; E-MAGH, the temple of NIN-MAGH, "The Exalted Lady," several inscribed cylinders from which may be seen in the British Museum collection; the Gate of NanâIshtar, with its superb enamelled figures; the palace of Nabopolassar (Nabû-apla-uçur), which Nebuchadrezzar restored with great splendour; the location of E-SAG-ILA, the temple of Merodach, and chief sanctuary of Babylon; the world-famed walls, and various connected structures, were determined and in part exposed to view.
All this, though perhaps not exactly the kind of matter to stimulate the enthusiasm of one who reads merely to while away an idle hour, constitutes a highly important contribution towards an exact topography of Babylon, and to the right understanding of the inscriptions of the Neo-Babylonian period; while it enables classical students to bring to the test of ascertained facts the descriptions of Babylon which we find in Herodotus and subsequent Greek and Latin authors, extracts from whose pages are given in Koldewey's convenient appendix. is to be hoped that current events in the East may prove no bar to the further prosecution of Dr. Koldewey's meritorious and, indeed, necessary enterpriseeven if it happen by the fortune of war that the whole or part of the treasures recovered by his continued labours should find their way to London instead of Berlin.
Thus, sections are devoted to "thermit," the electrolytic cleaning of tarnished silver by contact with aluminium in a solution of soda and salt, the preparation of colloidal solutions of platinum and gold, etc. The following description of a method of soldering aluminium may prove useful (p. 47):-
Aluminium, I part; zinc, 4 parts. After the aluminium has been melted add the zinc, then a small quantity of fat. The mixture should be well stirred, after which it may be poured into stick moulds.
To apply, scrape the article bright at place to be soldered. Use a little Venetian turpentine as a soldering fluid. A thin shaving of the solder may then be placed around the joint and melted with a blow torch.
It is impossible to mention the very large number of technical and scientific principles which are described and illustrated; it must suffice to say that these range from the production of Pharaoh's serpents, through electric motors and
It should be added that the author has been fortunate in his translator, the English of the book being generally accurate and readable-which is not always the case with translations from German originals. C. J. BALL.
SCIENCE AND INVENTION.1
(1) MR. EDELMAN'S book commences with
descriptions of a number of scientific experiments, illustrated by small but clear diagrams. Some of these experiments will be familiar to all those who have taken an experimental course in chemistry and physics, but freshness is given by including simple instances of technical applications of scientific principles.
1 (1) "Experiments. A Volume for All who are Interested in Progress." By P. E. Edeln an. Pp. 256. (Minneapolis, U.S.A.: Philip E. Edelman, 1914.) Price 1.50 dollars.
(2) Discoveries and Inventions of the Twentieth Century." By E. Cressy. Pp. xvi+398. (London: G. Routledge and Sons, Ltd., 1914.) Price 75. 6d. net.
dynamos, to wireless telegraphy and X-rays. The last nine chapters are devoted to an analysis of the principles used in research and invention. The book is well got up, and forms interesting and instructive reading.
(2) Although the twentieth century is still young, Mr. Cressy has found nearly four hundred pages to be none too many in which to describe the progress of inventions made therein. The remarkable improvements which have been made in the details of most industries are clearly brought before the reader. The modern applications of water power, as exhibited in the water turbine and the Pelton wheel; the developments of the steam turbine; the Humphrey pump; improvements in gas, petrol, and oil engines, including the Diesel marine engine, and the "Gnome engine for aeroplanes; these form a few of the developments described in the first few chapters. Electric lighting is next discussed, and some in
stances in which electric heating is advisable are mentioned. Later, a brief but lucid account is given of the nature of steel, including the modern alloys of iron and manganese, chromium, nickel, and tungsten. A separate chapter is devoted to the electric furnace. An interesting and instructive chapter is devoted to the artificial production of cold, including liquefaction of gases and the methods used in cold storage. At the present time, when the advisability of increasing the productiveness of agricultural land is receiving attention, the chapters on "soil and crops" will be read with interest.
Railways, tramways, and motor-cars next receive consideration, and the wonderful developments of ship-building are ably dealt with. Great skill has been shown by the author in pointing out the scientific principles which have been utilised in each new technical advance. Thus, in connection with the speed of ships, Prof. Hele
FIG. 2.-Telescope at lower erd of periscope tube.
admire the painstaking erudition displayed by the author. Books of this character are apt to take the form of undigested summaries of inventions, only partially understood. This is not the case with the book now under review. The author could not hope, and has not attempted, to give exhaustive descriptions of the multifarious technical inventions with which he deals; but these are always described in a stimulating manner, and great accuracy is displayed throughout. The letterpress is illustrated with 281 figures and a coloured frontispiece. EDWIN EDser.
THE GOVERNMENT AND CHEMICAL
THE President and Council of the Royal Society and of the Chemical Society have recently had under consideration the state of chemical industry in this country as revealed by the effects of the war, and have prepared memorials to his Majesty's Government directing attention to the necessity for immediate action. On Thursday last deputation was received by the President of the Board of Trade and the President of the Board of Education at the Board of Trade offices for the discussion of the questions raised in the two memorials. Mr. Runciman and Mr. Pease were accompanied by Dr. Addison, M.P., Sir H. Llewellyn Smith, Sir L. A. Selby-Bigge, Mr. Ogilvie, Dr. Heath, and Mr. Percy Ashley.
Shaw's experiments in fluid motion, and Froude's method of determining the power required to drive a full size ship from experiments on a smallscale model, are described and illustrated. Naturally enough, aerial and submarine navigation receive their due share of attention; the most important types of monoplanes, biplanes, dirigible balloons, and submarine ships are described, and an interesting section is devoted to the gyrostatic compass. Details of the construction and method of firing of the torpedo are also given. The illustrations showing the interior of a submarine (Figs. 1 and 2) will excite considerable interest.
In reviewing this book, which contains an immense amount of material of the highest interest, it has been found impossible to do more than indicate the aim and scope of the work. Points of scientific interest are mentioned on almost every page, and the reader cannot but
The deputation was introduced by Sir William Crookes, who explained the functions of the several societies represented, and it consisted of Prof. A. W. Crossley, Dr. H. J. H. Fenton, Dr. M. O. Forster, Prof. W. H. Perkin, Prof. W. J. Pope, Prof. A. Schuster, Prof. A. Smithells, Prof. J. F. Thorpe, and Mr. R. W. Harrison, representing the Royal Society; Dr. A. Scott, Prof. F. G. Donnan, Prof. P. F. Frankland, Prof. J. C. Philip, Sir W. A. Tilden, and Dr. S. Smiles, representing the Chemical Society; Mr. A. C. Chapman, President of the Society of Public Analysts, Dr. G. G. Henderson, President of the Society of Chemical Industry, and Prof. H. Jackson and Mr. E. W. Voelcker, representing the Institute of Chemistry. Sir H. E. Roscoe and Prof. R. Meldola were prevented from attending by ill-health.
Prof. W. H. Perkin, Sir W. A. Tilden, Prof. P. F. Frankland, Prof. W. J. Pope, and Dr. M. O. Forster spoke on behalf of the deputation. It was urged that the main causes of the comparatively backward state of many branches of chemical industry in this country are the general failure to realise that modern technical industry,
to be successful, must be based on scientific research, and the want of intimate association between the manufacturers and the workers in science. The advisory committee which has been already appointed by the Board of Trade for the consideration of many emergency questions which have arisen, should be replaced by a permanent Standing Committee of the nature of an intelligence department serving the large and growing chemical industries of the country in the same way that the Commercial Intelligence Department serves merchants and traders. It was urged that the chemists of the country generally consider it imperative on national grounds that the development of the new organisation should be pushed forward with as little delay as possible; the expansion of the chemical industries of the country requires intimate co-operation between men of science and manufacturers, and, in view of the leeway which has to be made up, a considerable increase in the number of research workers is necessary in order to hasten progress and to insure the permanent retention of new manufactures after the war. The speakers insisted upon the need for a more intelligent appreciation of the significance
of original scientific work by the Government, the urgency for increased facilities of communication between manufacturers and scientific chemical experts, and the fact that an intelligence department of the kind contemplated would, under Government auspices, form a clearing house for all the vast variety of scientific and technological chemical material which is at our disposal; such a department would form a link between the university or college, in which the chemical technologist must be trained, and the industries which would be of immense advantage to both teacher and student. The use which might have been made of the expert knowledge of such a body during the recent preliminaries to the foundation of British Dyes, Ltd., was also indicated.
Mr. Runciman, in reply to the deputation, pointed out that the Board of Trade fully appreciated the extent to which national progress is dependent upon the utilisation of the services of men of science, and the importance of provision for the thorough training of very much larger number of industrial chemists than are at present available. He agreed with the views expressed as to the need of closer co-operation between manufacturers and scientific workers and teachers. The war had shown the weakness of our position in certain important respects, and he was in full sympathy with the general views expressed by the deputation. The actual proposals would receive careful and sympathetic consideration.
Mr. Pease informed the deputation that the particular problems to which it had directed attention had been present to the Board of Education for some time past, and that a scheme had been approved in principle by which substantial additional assistance would be given by the Government to scientific education and industrial research. hoped that, though the funds immediately available might not be large, they would be sufficient
to enable an organisation to be brought into being at an early date which would be capable of expansion afterwards. Mr. Pease further expressed his appreciation of the offer of assistance and advice by members of the societies represented at the deputation.
Sir William Crookes expressed the thanks of the members of the deputation for the sympathetic reception which they had met.
SIR WILLIAM R. GOWERS, F.R.S.
'HE death of Sir William Gowers on May 4, at the age of seventy, deprives English medicine of one of its most illustrious ornaments. The state of his health-which suffered an almost complete eclipse by the death of his wife two years ago had led to his retirement from active practice, so that the news of his death cannot have been quite unexpected. Yet it will be widely regretted, and the value of his work on the scientific side of medicine will perhaps be more completely realised than if his death had been delayed for some years.
William Richard Gowers was born on March 20, 1845. He was educated at Christchurch School, Oxford, and was for a time apprenticed to Dr. Simpson, a medical practitioner in Essex. He began his medical education at University College Hospital, London, and he had a brilliant career there, and at the University of London. qualified M.R.C.S. 1867, took his M.B. degree in 1869, and his M.D. in 1870, winning the Gold Medal in Medicine. He became a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians in 1879. He was also elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. He received the honour of knighthood in 1897.
Gowers's great work in medicine was in systematising the important class of nervous diseases, and in bringing into relation clinical facts with His early works were pathological changes. especially remarkable in this respect, and his clinical teaching-which was peculiarly stimulating to qualified medical men and senior studentsalways had this as its keynote. He would discuss fully the symptoms of what a patient complained, the clinical signs associated with these, and finally lay down definitely and clearly the changes in the nervous system which his experience had taught him were associated with these signs and symptoms.
It is not necessary here to enumerate the various medical works which he published, or to emphasise their importance. Several of them were translated into more than one European language. His chief work was the "Manual of Disease of the Nervous System," published in two volumes, the first in 1886 and the second in 1888.
Like many busy men he had, or made time for, hobbies. He was an artistic and skilful etcher, and had a great interest in, and an intimate knowledge of mosses, and also of ordinary wild flowers. He was also interested in archæology and architecture, and he himself investigated the remains. of some of the old Suffolk churches, and described