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“ compensated for temperature,” were in use when Mr. action of percolating rain-water. Then the pipes Fischer was first engaged on the Coast and Geodetic nearest to the valley-bottom acted as “swallow-holes,". Survey. These gave place to 5-metre contact rods, into which the brook sank, the constant swirl of the consisting of a single bar of steel enclosed in a closely water laden with calcareous sand giving the flints fitting wooden case, and covered with padded canvas. the wonderful polish now seen. In short, the Devil's For use in the field they were mounted on tripods Brook, then flowing at a level 90 ft. higher, was a and placed end to end. In the hands of skilled ob- “winter bourne," which at Dewlish, for part of the servers it was possible with this type of bar to attain year, at any rate, was swallowed up and disappeared a degree of accuracy approaching i part in 2,000,000. into these pot-holes. Such pot-holes are common in In the elaborate apparatus devised by Dr. R. S. the Carboniferous Limestone, though rare in the Woodward a line bar was supported when in use on a Chalk. This chain of pot-holes acted as a natural steel trough and covered with crushed ice, the trough pitfall, into which the elephants fell, or into which being carried by two trucks travelling on a portable their bones were washed; thus far Osmund Fisher track. Micrometer-microscopes were mounted on sup- was right in calling it an "elephant-trap," though it ports fixed in the ground at carefully measured in- probably had a natural origin. Mr. Reid saw tervals approximately equal to the length of the bar. sign of human agency in the trench. The date of The operation of measuring was effected by bringing the deposit must still remain somewhat uncertain, the bar nder the first two microscopes and then for all the determinable bones belong to E. merian setting the cross-wires of the micrometers on the lines dionalis, and this species, though mainly Pliocene, of the bar; then without disturbing the reading of the may have lived on into early Pleistocene times. forward micrometer the bar was displaced longitudin- Mr. Reid Moir, in another report, described a numally until the line at its rear end was brought under ber of the flints as showing undoubted human work-the forward microscope, while at the same time an manship of eolithic type. Mr. Reginald Smith, howobserver at the forward end set the micrometer on the ever, after an examination of the same specimens, line at that end, this process being repeated through- thinks that one or two of them may possibly be out the length of the base line. A kilometre base worked, the others he rejects. measured in this manner was estimated to have an A report by Mr. Dewey pointed out that a sample accuracy of i part in 3,000,000.

of calcareous sand from the trench proved under the Eimbeck's duplex base bars were next employed on microscope to consist mainly of minute rhombs of the survey. These consisted of two concentric brass calcite, such as would be precipitated from a saturated tubes in the inner of which a brass and a steel solution. This he thought pointed to an arid climate. measuring bar were mounted. The inner tube could be rotated through 180° so as to equalise the temperature of the brass and steel components if one side SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY OF THE of the apparatus should be more exposed to direct

INVERTEBRATA. radiation. This method was in its turn superseded by the introduction of invar tapes. All primary bases of AMONG recent systematic papers on the inverte. the United States Survey are now measured with invar

brates, a noteworthy, account of the parasitic tapes, tested preliminarily at the Bureau of Standards,

worms collected on the British Antarctic (Terra Nova). and by this means base operations, while maintaining

Expedition, written by Dr. R. T. Leiper and Dr. the high degree of precision which the work demands,

E. L. Atkinson, has been published by the British

Museum (“Terra Nova Zoologv. vol. ii., No. 3). admit of vastly greater rapidity in the field, with a consequent reduction in the expense involved.

From the summary of results we learn that the Ross
Expedition of 1841-4 brought back two species of
Entozoa; the Scott (Discovery) Expedition of 1901-4.

four species; the Bruce (Scotia) Expedition seventeen PLIOCENE MAN.

species; the French (Pourquoi Pas?) Expedition THE HE discussion originated by the Rev. Osmund eighteen species; the Terra Nova twenty-eight species. Fisher in NATURE of September 4, 1913 (vol.

These figures show how greatly zoological knowledge xcii., p. 6), has led to the systematic exploration, by has been increased through our latest national Anta committee of the Dorset Field Club, of the Dewlish arctic enterprise. Three of the worms now recorded "elephant-trench," and the report on the excavations from the far south had previously been known only was read at the anniversary meeting on May 4.

from the Arctic regions. Two of these-a Filaria and This curious trench in the chalk yields bones of the an Echinorrhynchus—have whales as their hosts in Pliocene Elephas meridionalis, and Mr. Fisher sug

both localities, but the third—a monostomid trematode, gested that it was artificial and dug for trapping the gmogaster plicatum, Creplin-is parasitic in rorquals elephants. There can no longer be any doubt that in the north, and in the Crab-eating and Weddell's. the french was of natural origin. The elaborate Seals in the south; a remarkable divergence in habit. plans, elevations, and photographs exhibited by Mr. From home waters there is still much material to Charles Prideaux, who superintended the excavations, be gathered, and C. M. Selbie's important paper on show clearly that a few feet below the surface the the Decapoda Reptantia of the coasts of Ireland, part i supposed trench divides into a chain of pipes or pot- (Fisheries, Ireland, Sci. Invest., 1914, i.), adds to the holes in the chalk connected by a narrow joint. These

fauna of the Britannic marine area the family become very narrow below; but one of them was Eryonidæ, as represented by four species of Polycheles. traced to a depth of 36 ft. One or two of the smaller and four of Eryonicus. These were all taken in deep pipes still show traces of the lining of black clay water off the west coast of Ireland, though the specicommonly found in pipes caused by solution in the mens of Eryonicus “lead a free-swimming life at a chalk; the larger ones were filled with chalky sand considerable distance from the bottom." The paper full of flints, and Tertiary material; many of the is illustrated by fifteen excellently drawn plates. flints were beautifully polished. Flakes caused by A very important paper on those interesting copepod sudden changes of temperature were also abundant.

fish-parasites, the Lernæopodidæ, has been published Mr. Clement Reid discussed the geological evidence. by C. B. Wilson in the Proc. U.S. Nat. Museum (vol. He thought that it proved the existence of a fissure or xlvii., pp. 565-729). Though dealing especially with joint transverse to the valley of the Devil's Brook. species from North American waters, the author gives Along this joint a chain of pipes was formed by the a revision of the whole family, thus affording a trustworthy work of reference for students of the group all suddenly diminished by 16,000l. to 18,000l. The over the world. The systematic part of the paper is Cambridge Review records the number of underpreceded by a useful introduction to the anatomy and graduates in residence this term as 1097, as against metamorphosis of the parasites, and is illustrated in 3181 during the Easter term of 1914. thirty-two clear plates of diagnostic drawings.

LONDON.—Lord Rosebery presided at the presentaThe zoological results of the Abor Expedition (N.E. India) continue to appear in the Records of the Indian

tion of graduates on May 5. The annual report of Museum. The lately issued part 6 of vol. viii. con

the principal (Sir Henry Miers), his seventh and last tains papers on land planarians by Prof. R. H. White

report in view of his appointment as Vice-Chancellor house, terrestrial Isopoda by W. E. Collinge, and

of Manchester University, referred to the special work Onychophora by Stanley Kemp. The last-named

resulting from the war, particularly the training of deserve more than passing notice, for the discovery of

1300 ofticers and educational provision for two hundred

refugee students. In his retrospect of his period of a Peripatid “at the foot of the eastern Himalaya ” is

office, the principal referred to the report of the Royal one of the most important faunistic results of recent

Commission, the incorporation of King's College and years; no member of the class had hitherto been found

King's College for Women in the University, the at all as far north as this. The specimens were found

Universities' Congress, the transfer of Bedford Colunder stones in a comparatively small area at an

lege to Regent's Park, the new buildings at the Imelevation of 1320 ft. From a consideration of the

perial College and University College, the developstructure of the species, Mr. Kemp considers it allied

ment of the professoriate, the increase of internal to the Malayan Eoperipatus, but on account of the

students from 3580 to 4950, and in the number of total absence of eyes (although the optic ganglia are

external candidates, and many benefactions for teachpresent), and other distinctive characters, establishes

ing and research. He looked forward to the time a new genus (Typhloperipatus) for its' reception. The

when the University would have a dignified home unpaired oviduct in the female and the ejaculatory bearing its own name, and would be adequately duct (also unpaired) in the male are remarkably long. endowed; and expressed his complete faith in its The eggs are richly yolked, and embryos at various

power to fulfil all its duties, both local and imperial. stages were found in the uterus. From the appear

Lord Rosebery, in an eloquent address, hoped that ance of the embryos and young it is concluded that as one result of the war, a new spirit of co-operation reproduction takes place only during the wet season.

would enable the University to work ut its own G. H. C. salvation. He had never believed that there was any

thing incompatible between the local and imperial UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL

aspects of the work of the University. INTELLIGENCE.

The London County Council is prepared to award

for the session 1915-16 a limited number of free places CAMBRIDGE.--Messrs. F. T. Brooks, Emmanuel at the Imperial College of Science and Technology, College, and R. H. Compton, Gonville and Caius South Kensington, S.W. The free places will be College, have been appointed demonstrators of botany, | awarded on consideration of the past records of the and Mr. T. S. P. Strangeways, St. John's College, candidates, the recommendations of their teachers, the has been reappointed demonstrator of physiology. course of study which they intend to follow, and The council recommends to the Senate that the Vice- generally upon their fitness for advanced study in Chancellor be authorised to countersign and seal science as applied to industry. Candidates will not certificates of attendance to Belgian students attend- be required to undergo a written examination. It is ing the courses of instruction organised by Belgian possible that the free places may be extended to two professors now lecturing in Cambridge.

or more years. Particulars may be obtained from the The Financial Board has presented a report to the education officer, L.C.C. Education Offices, Victoria Senate in which the financial position and prospects of Embankment, W.C., and application forms must be the University are reviewed. The income of the returned not later than Saturday, May 22. University chest for 1913 and 1914 was 53,4001. and SHEFFIELD. - Dr. J. Sholto C. Douglas, lecturer on 46,8ool. respectively, and is estimated at 26,600l. for pathology in the University of Manchester, has been 1915; the corresponding figures representing the re

appointed to the Joseph Hunter chair of pathology, ceipts of the common University fund are 22,510.,

in succession to Prof. Dean. 23,8ool., and 15,7801. Details are given in the report of the manner in which the board proposes to meet

Four lectures on the progress of public health in the large deficiency disclosed in the estimates by the temporary suspension of vacant teaching and research

Egypt will be delivered at Gresham College, E.C., on posts, of salaries to officials now in the national ser

May 18–21, by Prof. F. M. Sandwith, Gresham provice, and of contributions to pension and building

fessor of physic. The lectures are free to the public, sinking fund accounts. One of the most substantial

and will begin each evening at six o'clock items of expenditure under the control of the Financial

We learn from Science that grants for two new Board is that of grants to the departmental funds of buildings to meet the needs of the l'niversity of Ohio the scientific departments of the University; these

and for additional tracts of farm land west of the amounted to 55801. in 1914. The accounts of these Olentangy have been voted through the finance comdepartments, although controlled by the Board, are

mittee of the lower branch of the State legislature. not incorporated in those of the University chest or

These extensions would involve an expenditure of the common University fund, but the board estimates

68,000l. A domestic science building to cost 30,000l. that in 1915 the receipts from fees of the scientific and a shop building for manual training to cost departments of the University will fall some 16,000l. 24,000l. are provided. Ninety acres of land would be to 18,000l. below those of 1914. It is evidently not purchased west of the Olentangy River at a probable desired that the University contribution towards the

cost of 14,000l. upkeep of the science laboratories in the University A SUMMER School of Mining and Engineering for should be diminished; it is obvious, however, that the South Wales coalfield is to be held in August next even in normal times the chest and the common fund at the Technical College, Swansea. The courses of could do little to support natural science in Cambridge instruction will be seven in number, comprising a if the annual revenue of the science laboratories were surveyor's course (to meet the requirements of the

are

are

Coal Mines Act, 1911), one in engineering, one in functions of complex variables. In the paper the metallurgy, one for architects and builders, one for solution is put in a form which must give real positive teachers (dealing with geology, physics, and chem- density anywhere. Three cases only are considered which istry), one on the electrification of collieries, and one illustrate respectively a ring nebula, a pear-shaped nebula, on gas detection and analysis and by-product recovery. and a nebula with two equal nuclei. Some conseFurther particulars can be obtained from the chief

quences of motion of the material are considered. education official, County Hall, Cardiff.

Hon. R. J. Strutt: Observations on the resonance The number of foreign students in German univer- radiation of sodium vapour. (1) The centres emitting sities, according to the Nieuwe Courant, was 1438 resonance radiation of sodium vapour excited by the D during the last winter semester, as against 4715 in lines are not persistent enough to be carried along when the previous summer. The decline is primarily due the vapour is distilled away from the place of excitato the removal of about 2600 students belonging to

tion. This result is extraordinary, because it conhostile countries. The students from Austria-Hungary trasts absolutely with the behaviour of sodium vapour numbered 547, as against 814 last summer; the corre- excited electrically. It also contrasts absolutely with sponding decline was :-For Switzerland from 312 to the behaviour of mercury vapour, whether excited 146; for Rumania 146 to i; for Bulgaria 131 to optically (2536 resonance radiation) or electrically. 105; for Holland there was an increase from 37 to 44. (2) The resonance radiation of sodium cannot be seen During the war foreign students have shown a strong through even a very dilute layer of sodium vapour preference for Berlin; the chief decline in their num- placed in front of it-a layer quite transparent to bers being at Königsberg, Göttingen, Marburg,

white light. This explains why the spot of superficial Munich, Strassburg, Freiburg, and Heidelberg. resonance produced on the wall of a glass bulb can SEVERAL gifts in aid of higher education

only be seen from in front, when the light passes announced in the issue of Science for April 23. Har

to the eye without traversing sodium vapour. From vard University receives 20,000l, by the will of the late

the back it cannot be seen, as Dunoyer has observed. Mr. James J. Myers, of Cambridge, Mass., and further (3) The resonance radiation of sodium vapour is bequests amounting to 14,600l., to be devoted to cancer

changed in intensity when the vapour is placed in a research at the Harvard Medical School,

magnetic field. If the exciting flame is weakly salted,

the radiation announced. By the will of Mrs. L. L. Ogden Whal

diminishes with increasing field ing, of Cincinnati, Miami. University receives 54,000l.

strength. If the exciting flame is strongly salted, The residue of the estate is to be divided between

the radiation increases to a maximum and then Miami University and the Cincinnati Museum Asso

diminishes again. (4) A change in intensity of resonciation, and it is said that each institution may receive

ance radiation can also be observed when the exciting 40,000l. The Addison Brown collection of plants

flame is placed in the magnetic field. In this case a offered to Amherst College by Mrs. Brown in memory

weak flame gives diminished radiation in the field, of her husband has now come into possession of the

while a strong flame gives increased radiation in the college. Containing many thousands of specimens

field. (5) All the facts summarised under (3) and (4) collected in the United States, Mexico, Porto Rico,

can be explained qualitatively and quantitatively, so the Hawaiian Islands, and elsewhere, it is the largest

far as the available data will go, by taking into accession ever received by the department.

account the known Zeeman resolution of the D lines,

and the observed width and structure of these lines THE Imperial Department of Agriculture for the

as emitted by the flames used. The latter data were West Indies has issued revised courses of reading and

obtained by observation with a concave grating of examinations in practical agriculture. Reading courses high resolution.-Hertha Ayrton: Local differences have for some years been established under the direction of the department for the purpose of enabling

of pressure near an obstacle in oscillating water.

When the water is approaching the mean level there overseers on estates, and others engaged in agricul- is a diminution of pressure, or partial vacuum, ture, to acquire by reading knowledge they can apply created in the lee of the obstacle. When the water in their everyday work. Examinations are held periodic

is departing from the mean level the diminution of ally at various centres in the West Indies for persons

pressure continues high up on the lee side, but over who have previous been registered as students in the lower part there is a pressure in the opposite reading courses. Registration in reading courses direction to that of the main stream. The jet in the entitles students to certain publications of the depart

first part of a swing is due to the local current created ment which are recommended for reading. The certi

by the local difference of pressure; the vortex in the ficates awarded by the department at the examinations are intended to be a guarantee of a sound general

second part of the swing is due to the conjunction of

the main stream with the opposing local current set knowledge of the fundamental principles underlying

up by the local pressure difference. the practice of agriculture, and also a practical knowledge of at least two crops and their products, such

Geological Society, April 14.-Dr. A. Smith Woodas sugar, cacao, cotton, limes, rice, coco-nuts, and

ward, president, in the chair.-S. H. Warren : Further bananas.

observations upon the Late Glacial, or Ponder's End, stage of the Lea Valley, With notes on the Mollusca

by A. S. Kennard and B. B. Woodward. The paper is SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.

supplementary to one previously published, and de

scribes additional sections which increase the range of LONDON.

the deposits. They have now been traced for a disRoyal Society, May 6.-Sir Alfred Kempe, vice- tance of 6.7 miles along the valley and 2 miles across president and treasurer, in the chair.-G. W. Walker : it. The section at Hedge Lane, Lower Edmonton, Some problems illustrating the forms of nebulæ. The shows several thick, and for the most part undispaper is concerned with the form of the surfaces of turbed, Arctic plant-beds, which occur in a deep Driftequal density when a quantity of gaseous material filled channel. The relative levels and stratigraphy at uniform temperature, and following Boyle's law point to the conclusion that the Hedge Lane deposits as regards pressure and density, is at rest under its belong to a slightly earlier stage of the Low-Terrace own gravitation. The differential equation for these River-drift than the deposits of Ponder's End. Broadly surfaces is not linear. In the two-dimensional case speaking, they undoubtedly belong to the same group. Pockels obtained the solution in terms of two arbitrary It is suggested that it would be a convenience if the

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East Anglian word "platymore were adopted for the improve on this method and to raise forecasting from underlying eroded floor of country-rock beneath a later an art to a science, the author believes it is essential accumulation of drift. The importance of this “platy- to replace estimates by quantitative measurements of more" surface in the correlation of Drift deposits has expected changes and to make quantitative forecasts. been increasingly recognised during recent years. The He gave an interesting example of such a method view that the lower river-terraces are later than the as applied to one of the Argentine weather maps. higher river-terraces is supported. Further evidence --E. H. Chapman : Correlation between changes in is also brought forward in support of the view that barometric height at stations in the British Isles. the Arctic deposits form an integral part of the Low

This was

an attempt to discover the relationships Terrace Drist. One section appears to suggest that existing between the changes in the barometric height the climate became nearly as temperate as that of the at one place and another during the same and also present day before the mammoth and woolly rhinoceros different intervals of time. The conclusion arrived at became extinct.

is that the best information for foretelling barometric April 28.-Dr. A. Smith Woodward, president, changes at any station is from a station south-west in the chair.-Prof. G.

A. J.
Cole :
А

of it, the statistical measure of the accuracy with posite gneiss near Barna in the County of Gal- which such a change can be foretold being expressed way. The great mass of granite west of Galway town

in a correlation coefficient. is seen on its northern margin to be intrusive in a

MANCHESTER metamorphosed series of Dalradian quartzites, limestones, and mica-schists, and has received a foliation

Literary and Philosophical Society, April 13.-Mr. F. which is parallel with the bedding of this series; this Nicholson, president, in the chair.-H. Day: Some foliation is ascribed by the author to the partial points bearing on the relationship of the fishes and the absorption of sheets of the bedded series into its mass. amphibia. The author deals with three specimens of Traces of similar intermingling occur in Townparks

the so-called parasphenoid bone in Rhadinichthys (Galway town) and west of Barna. At Furbogh

monensis from the Manchester Museum collection. Bridge, the granite contains pink crystals of ortho

The three specimens together give an excellent idea clase, at times 10 cm. long in the direction of the of both dorsal and ventral surfaces of the bone, so vertical axis, and these have become stranded, as it

that an accurate description can be given, thus prowere, among the foliation-planes of dark green biotite- viding material for a determination of the relations schist, into which they were carried by an intimate and homology of this bone in the Crossopterygian intermingling of the granite with the schist into which

fishes and in the primitive Reptilia and Amphibia. it flowed. Quartz and smaller felspar-crystals from It was shown that in all these groups the bone is really the granite abound in the resulting composite gneiss, compound, consisting of parasphenoid and basiand the general effect is comparable with that of sphenoid combined, and also that the bone is remarkigneous intermixtures described from County Down ably constant in its form and relations. The remarkand Skye. In the Galway instance, however, there able constancy in form was contrasted with the is no sign of general fusion of the invaded rock, entirely different form of parasphenoid which prevails which retains its original foliation and controls the in fossil and living Dipnoi, and was brought forward structure of the composite mass.-Prof. S. H. Reynolds : a strong argument in favour of a development Further work on the igneous rocks associated with of the Tetrapoda from a Crossopterygian Ganoid stock the Carboniferous Limestone of the Bristol district. rather than from the Dipnoi. Further, it was pointed The paper gives an account of the additional informa- out that in all cases this bone takes part in the sustion, concerning the Carboniferous volcanic rocks of pension of the upper jaw, a process of the metapterynorth Somerset, which has become available, largely goid region of the palato-quadrate uniting with the through digging trial-holes, since the publication in basipterygoid process of the basisphenoid region of the Q.J.G.S. for 1904 (vol. lx.) of a paper by Prof.

this compound para-basi-sphenoid bone. This Lloyd Morgan and the author on the subject. The "pedicular" connection thus constitutes a form of rocks occur at five localities :-(1) Goblin Combe; (2) autostyly common to the Crossopterygii and the primiUphill; (3) Limeridge Wood, Tickenham; (4) Spring tive Amphibia and Reptilia, but totally different from Cove and Milton Hill, Weston-super-Mare; and (5) the autostyly found in Dipnoi, which latter type is Woodspring or Middle Hope. At 'Goblin Combe, as never found in the Tetrapoda. Hence the common the result of digging nearly forty trial-holes, it was pedicular autostyly forms another argument in favour ascertained that the igneous rocks form two discon- of a Crossopterygian derivation of the Tetrapoda as tinuous, somewhat crescentic masses, each consisting opposed to the Dipnoian derivation. of olivine-basalt overlain by a considerable thickness

Paris. of calcareous tuff. At Uphill

, the evidence obtained was insufficient to determine whether the basalt is a

Academy of Sciences, May 3.-M. Ed. Perrier in the

chair.-Gaston Darboux : The representation on a plane sill or a lava-flow. At Limeridge Wood, Tickenham, where only débris of basalt had previously been re

of the surface of the fourth order with double conic.--. corded, the presence of an oval mass measuring about

G. Bigourdan : The comparison of the scintillation and 60 by 25 yards was proved by digging trial-holes, and

the instrumental undulations of celestial images under the fact that it is completely surrounded by limestone

various influences. Supplementing an earlier comindicates its intrusive character. Several additional

munication the effects of magnetic disturbances, exposures are described on Milton Hill, where the

aurora borealis, barometric depressions, neighbourhood lava forms a band about 150 ft. thick. The lava at

of clouds, azimuth, and twilight are discussed, the Middle Hope or Woodspring is shown to form an

observations of various observers on these points being irregular and discontinuous mass.

quoted.-M. de Sparre : The trajectory of projectiles

thrown from aeroplanes or balloons.- Pierre Delbet : Royal Meteorological Society, April 21.--Capt. H. G.

A prothetic apparatus with co-ordinated movements Lyons, president, in the chair.-H. Helm Clayton : A

for use after amputation of the thigh. The apparatus study of the moving waves of weather in South described facilitates walking and conceals the deAmerica. It is the custom in most meteorological formity.-J. Kampé de Fériet : A generalisation of the services for the forecaster to make a mental estimate series of Lagrange and of Laplace.-Pierre Humbert: of the changes to be anticipated during the succeed

A figure of equilibrium of 'fluids in rotation.-E. ing twenty-four or forty-eight hours. In order to , Vaillant : The laws of flow in drops through capillary

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orifices.-Léon Bloch : Optical resonance in the mag- ing young leaves for supply of materials. The author netic field.—A. Leduc : The determination of the ratio also directs attention to the fact that prolonged wet r by means of the velocity of sound. A discussion weather may cause trees to shed their leaves. He of the values of the ratio of the two specific heats of deals in greater detail with a group of trees-called gases and vapours obtained from experimental deter- by him the Odina group—which remain in a leafless minations of the velocity of sound. The author con- condition for a considerable length of time, and which cludes that the values of y thus obtained are generally flower while in the leafless condition. Defoliation inexact.-N. Arabu : Studies on the tertiary formations due to salt-laden sea-breezes is referred to, and a of the basin of the Sea of Marmora.—Henry Hubert : number of special cases are considered in greater The distribution of rain in western Africa.-Henri detail.-P. F. Fyson : Note on the flora of the South Coupio : The morphogenic action of increased salinity Indian Highlands. The region considered comprises on the marine bacteria. Increasing the salt percentage those parts of the Nilgiri and Palney Hills which rise in the culture media of marine bacilli increases the above the 6500-ft. level. Forty-five per cent. of the length of the organisms and in some instances trans- 430 indigenous phanerogamic species are endemic in forms them into true Spirillæ.-Robert Sorel : Wounds South India and Ceylon, 17 per cent. are shared received in battle and the sun cure. A list of cases with the Khasia Hills, 12 per cent. occur also in the cured in the Alexandra Hospital at Monte-Carlo by temperate Himalayas, and 9 per cent. are Chinese and sun treatment.-Maxime Ménard : The radioscopic Japanese.-W. F. Smeeth : The geological history localisation of foreign bodies by the method of Hirtz. of southern India. A general account of the geology CALCUTTA.

of Mysore.-H. C. Das-Gupta : Palæontological notes Asiatic Society of Bengal, April 7.-P. Brown : A pre

from Hazara. In this paper the author has described liminary note the prehistoric cave paintings at

a few fossils obtained from the Triassic, Jurassic, Raigarh. These were originally discovered on the Gieumal, and Tertiary beds of Hazara, and these rock-surface of a shallow cave in the State of Rai

fossils include one new species of Corbula (C. middlegarh, Central Provinces, by Mr. C. W. Anderson, of

missii), and another new species of Nautilus (N. the B.N. Railway, in 1910. This note is the result

hazaraenois).-H. V. Nanjundayya : Some aspects of of a visit to the caves in March, 1915, by the author ethnographic work. and Mr. C. W. Anderson. Certain geological evidences were obtained on the occasion, such as agate

BOOKS RECEIVED. implements, etc., which have been submitted to the Geological Survey for investigation. The cave con- The Earth : its Life and Death. By Prof. A. taining the paintings is apparently only the ruin of Berget. Translated by E. W. Barlow. Pp. xi +371. a much larger excavation. At some remote age the (New York and London : G. P. Putnam's Sons.) entire front must have fallen in, thus hermetically

75. 6d. net. sealing up the cave and preserving the drawings. At The Principles of Fruit-Growing. By L. H. Bailey. a much more recent date the débris which had thus Twentieth edition. Pp. xiv + 432. (New York : The closed up the opening broke away and slipped another Macmillan Co.; London : Macmillan and Co., Ltd.) stage down the cliff, exposing the remains of the 7s, 6d. net. paintings to view. The paintings are mainly hunting Fly-Fishing : Some New Arts and Mysteries. By scenes, and in some instances bear a remarkable J. C. Mottram. Pp. xii +272. (London : The Field resemblance to the cave paintings at Cojul in Spain, and Queen (Horace Cox). Ltd.) 55. net. which are said to be 50,000 years old. In the tech- Improved Four-Figure Logarithm Table. By G. C. nique there is also a striking similarity to some of McLaren. Pp. 27. (Cambridge: At the University the “cross lined" pottery of prehistoric Egypt. The Press.) IS. Ed. net. paintings are evidently of very great antiquity, prob- The Golden Bough. By Sir. J. G. Frazer. Third ably older by thousands of years than any other paint- edition. Vol. xii. Bibliography and General Index. ings yet discovered in India.-J. Evershed : Sun-spots Pp. vii + 536. (London : Macmillan and Co., Ltd.) and prominences.-W. Burns and S. H. Prayag : 20s. net. Grafting the mango-inflorescence. Starting from the The Complete Science of Fly Fishing and Spinning. observation that the inflorescence of Man gifera indica, By F. G. Shaw. Pp. xiii +432. (London : The L., often becomes partly or wholly vegetative, a pheno- Author, Neville Court, Abbey Road, N.W.) 215. menon already studied by Burkill and Bose, the Tropical Diseases Research Fund. Report of the authors give an account of experiments on the arti- Advisory Committee for the Year 1914. Pp. iv +248. ficial production of mixed inflorescences by grafting (London : H.M.S.O.; Wyman and Sons, Ltd.) 25. 3d. an inflorescence either on a vegetative branch or on New Zealand. Department of Mines. N.Z. Geoanother inflorescence, the grafted inflorescence either logical Survey. Palæontological Bulletin, No. dying after the ripening of the fruit which it bears or Revision of the Tertiary Mollusca of New Zealand. sometimes persisting and producing vegetative axillary By H. Suter. Part i. Pp. v+64 +plates. (Wellingbranches.-M. 0. Parthasarathy Iyengar : Observa- ton, N.Z. : J. Mackay.) tions on the defoliation of some Madras trees. The Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of author takes as his starting point the observation Tasmania for the Year 1914.

Pp. 112. (Hobart : that, in Madras, trees do not remain in a leafless Royal Society.) condition during the period of drought, but produce Land and Freshwater Mollusca of India. Supplefresh leaves during the latter period, and he concludes mentary to Messrs. Theobald and Hanley's Conchothat, in the case of Madras trees, the leaf-fall is not logia Indica. By Lieut.-Col. H. A. Godwin-Austen. due to the failure of water-supply, but possibly due Vol. ii. Plates cxxxiii-clviii. Vol. ii. Part xii. to the necessity of a replacement of the old by fresh, December. Pp. 311-442. (London : Taylor and Fran. physiologically more efficient leaves, the greater cis.) 255. efficiency of the latter being due to their cuticle being Practical Physical Chemistry. By J. B. Firth. Pp. less permeable to water, to their stomatal mechanism xii + 178. (London : Methuen and Co., Ltd.) 25. 6d. being more perfect, to their being less charged with Index to Periodicals. Compiled by various authoriexcretionary matter and less clogged by dust, and to ties and arranged by A. C. Piper. Vol. i. April-Sepgreater vitality. The fall of the older leaves may

tember, 1914.
Pp. xxxii + 192.

(London : Stanley also be caused by successful competition of the grow- Paul and Co.) 215. net.

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