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Physical Society, have come recently to hand. In the for the recovery of benzol. Owing to the native former Prof. Lippmann describes a method of deter- supplies of petrol, benzol as a motor fuel is not of mining differences of longitude by taking instan- that interest in the States which it is in Europe, taneous photographs of the stars at the two stations especially at the present time; but even there benzol at the same moment. Prof. Bouty continues his recovery will certainly soon become general, if only examination of the fundamental assumptions of the for the measure of independence it will secure against kinetic theory of gases, and deals with the mean free trusts and rings controlling the output of petroleum path. M. J. Duclaux shows that the specific heats products. of a large number of organic liquids can be calcu- “SANITATION IN WAR" is the title of a new book lated directly from their chemical formulæ. The July to be published about June 1 by Messrs. J. and A. number contains the lecture on photo-electricity given Churchill, of 7 Great Marlborough-street, London, before the society in April, 1914, by Messrs. Pohl and embodying lectures delivered by Major P. S. Lelean, Pringsheim. In addition to several shorter papers, assistant-professor of hygiene at the Royal Army the two numbers devote between fifty and sixty pages Medical College. An introduction to the volume has to abstracts of papers which have appeared elsewhere. been written by Surgeon-General Sir Alfred Keogh.

The March issue of the Presidency College Magacine, Calcutta, contains a warmly appreciative article OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. by Mr. F. V. Fernandes on the Indian School of COMET TEMPEL 2.-A telegram from Prof. StrömChemistry, with special reference to the work of gren, of Copenhagen, dated May 18, records the disPrafulla Chandra Rây and his pupils at the Presidency

covery of a comet by Delavan on May 16 at

20h. 52.2m. G.M.T. Its position is given as R.A. College. Prof. Rây is more particularly known to

oh. 33m. is., and declination – 2° 5' 31" Its magEuropean chemists from his “History of Hindu Chem

nitude is not stated. From a communication to the istry," and by his investigations on the inorganic and Morning Post of May 20 the comet seems to be that organic nitrites, a field of inquiry with which his of Tempel 2. It is there stated “... Tempel 2 has laboratory has been specially identified, and with which just been re-discovered by Delavan, who has been

notably successful at La Plata in the last few years. certain of his pupils have been associated. Under

The comet is probably not bright, and will very likely

, the fostering influence of Principal James, Prof. Rây

not be observed in this country, as it rises almost has gradually built up a distinct Indian School of

with the sun, and passed perihelion on April 14, only Chemistry, and after centuries of scientific stagnation,

about one day from its predicted date. It is in a India bids fair to recover something of her former direction between the constellation of Pisces and position in the chemical world through the agency of

Cetus. It was discovered by Tempel in 1873, and was the succession of pupils which have passed through

observed in 1878, 1894, 1899, and 1904, so that three

returns, including the last one, were not observed, his hands.

its period being rather less than 51 years." In a recent number of the Scientific American OBSERVATIONS OF SATURN AT FLAGSTAFF.-Writing (April 24, p. 379) a description appears of what is to the Astronomische Nachrichten, No. 4800, under claimed to be the largest by-product coking plant in

dates March 11 and 18, Prof. Percival Lowell says

(March 11):—“The crepe ring of Saturn has been the world. Owing to the enormous natural fuel

observed and measured persistently wider on the east resources of the United States, economy in the use

than on the west side of the planet during the past of fuel has received but scant attention. Future

month by a difference of five-hundredths. This fact generations will have bitter cause for complaint about will have important bearings on the mechanics of the the prodigal waste of fuel by their ancestors; in no stability of the ring. Any phase effect or defect of country more so than in that blessed with the greatest

illumination of the constituents of the ring are not supplies. What this waste amounts to is now being

sufficient to explain the phenomenon on account of realised, and in the production of metallurgical coke possible explanation of this detected eccentricity of the

the diminutive size of the meteorites composing it. A the lead of the Continent and Great Britain in the

ring may be the revolution of the perisaturnium." use of recovery plant is being foliowed. It is estimated Writing on March 18, he says :-" Photographs of that enough benzol to run 200,000 automobiles a Saturn taken on March 12 at this observatory, both year, and enough sulphate of ammonia to supply

by Mr. E. C. Slipher and the director, confirm visual the farmers of the States with fertiliser for two years

observations in revealing that Cassini's division is

visible in part above the contour of the ball by about at the present rate of consumption, was thrown away

four-tenths of its true width. This enables the oblatein the waste gases of the beehive coke-ovens of the ness of Saturn to be deduced from the photographs, a United States in 1912. Altogether the value of the preliminary reduction of which shows that oblateness by-products, had they been recovered, would have been

to be about one-ninth." If the same amount of

THE SPECTRUM OF about eighty million dollars.

THE INNER CORONA.-- In the coal had been coked in retort ovens, more than five

Ofversigt af Finska Vetenskaps-Societetens För

handlingar (Bd. Ivii., Afd. A, No. 25) Dr. R. Furuhmillion more tons of coke would have been obtained.

jelm communicates a note on the spectrum of the The new plant of the United States Steel Corporation inner corona. The photographs were secured by an comprises 560 ovens, and will produce 2,900,000 tons of expedition from the observatory of Helsingfors, which coke annually. One hundred and twenty million took up its position at Kumlinge, isles of Aland in cubic feet of gas will be obtained every twenty-four

Finland, for the observation of the eclipse of August

14 of last year. Details of the instrument used are hours, half of which will be employed is heating the

given, but it may be stated that the size of the image ovens, the other half for the corporation's steel furnaces. falling on the slit was 36-4 mm., and the spectroscope It is remarkable that this big plant is noć equipped was furnished with three prisms of angles of about 63° each; the spectrum, extending from 1450-1 590, measured 38.7 mm. The author directs attention to

RECENT IT'ORK IN PALEONTOLOGY. the peculiar form of the green ray in one part, indi

C.D.
D. WALCOTT, among

his studies entitled cating, as he says, a relation between prominences and

· Cambrian Geology and Palæontology," the corona.

In the determination of the wave-length treats of a “a pre-Cambrian Algonkian algal flora of the green ray he deduces a value 5303.38 0.020, (Smithsonian Miscell. Coll., vol. Ixiv., No. 2, 1914). agreeing more closely with that of Campbell, namely, The horizon is that which has yielded the famous 1 5303.26, than that of Lockyer, 5303.7. For another crustacean remains known as Beltina danai. The line, behaving after the nature of the green ray, of author urges that the abstraction of carbon dioxide which he determines the wave-length, he deduces the from water by the action of blue-green algæ and value 1 4566.81. Details of the researches he proposes bacteria, such as Bacterium calcis of the Florida Keys, to publish at a later date.

is a potent factor in the precipitation of colitic and SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF THE N'KANDALA AND other forms of limestone, and he freely quotes recent OTHER METEORIC IRONS.-Dr. J. Lunt describes in the work, such as that of E. J. Garwood, in support. He South African Journal of Science (April, vol. xi., regards the dolomitisation of the older limestones No. 7) a spectroscopic analysis which he has made of that may have been formed in this way as a secondary the N'Kandhla meteorite and of other meteoric irons. feature (p. 96). The author's remarks, in answer to The spectra were photographed in the four-prism star G. Abbott, contributed to NATURE of December 31, spectroscope of the Victoria telescope of the Royal 1914, may imply some reconsideration of the part Observatory at the Cape, the spark being obtained played by inorganic concretion in the structures here between terminals of the meteoritic metal with an described as various species of Newlandia. Collenia 18-in. coal and large plate condensers. The object of (p. 98) becomes separated from Cryptozoon, the latter the research was to try to detect the presence of being regarded as appearing for the first time in the elements which might have escaped recognition in the Cambrian period. previous chemical analysis, and to compare the com- G. R. Wieland has meanwhile published further position of the N'Kandhla meteorite with that of four studies on Ozarkian seaweeds and oolites (Bull. Amer. other meteoric irons, namely, the Great Namaqualand, Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. xxiii., 1914, p. 237), dealing Matatiele, Hex River, and Goamus. The result especially with Cryptozoon. He connects these Camshowed that cobalt, chromium, barium, and calciuin brian forms with the far smaller Girvanella, as a were unmistakably present in the N'Kandhla, as well ** homogeneous assemblage" of sea-weeds, and enters as in the other meteoric irons, though not detected into a somewhat confusing argument as to whether chemically, and that no evidence was found of the their silicification occurred early or late in geological presence of magnesium, platinum, and copper, traces history. This leads on to a discussion of the assoof which were recorded in the chemical analysis. The ciated beds of siliceous oolite, which are held to be non-metallic elements—carbon, sulphur, phosphorus, primary deposits, and especially characteristic of early and chlorine—were recorded chemically, but furnished Palæozoic times (p. 255). The Jurassic oolites preno spectroscopic evidence in the sparks, which were served in flint at Portland, and the siliceous residues rich with the metallic elements. Dr. Lunt discusses of the politic grains of ferrous carbonate in the in a series of paragraphs details with reference pseudomorphous ironstones of Cleveland, are English to the different elements found in these and other

evidences against this contention. Both Wieland meteorites, and accompanies his paper with repro- (p. 248) and Walcott threaten us with a re-opening ductions from strips of the spectrograms.

of the Eozoön question on algal lines, despite the MEASURES OF SOUTHERN DOUBLE Stars.—The fourth work of Gregory and Johnston-Lavis on the limeseries of of double stars is pub

stone blocks of Monte Somma and several publicalished by Mr. Innes in Circular No. 24

of tions on layer-structures from the osmotic point of the Union Observatory, the previous series having

view. appeared in the Transvaal 'Observatory Circular, G. R. Wieland is associated with Marion G. Elkins No. 13, and the Union Observatory Circulars, Nos. 4 in a paper on “Cordaitean wood from the Indiana and 14. The present series includes all pairs, more Black Shale" (Amer. Journ. Sci., vol. xxxviii., 1914, than 310 in number, for which satisfactory measures, p. 65). The horizon is Upper Devonian, and the equally divided between before and after meridian wood of the new species, Callixylon oweni, is exceppassage, have been made on at least two nightsbythe end tionally well preserved. From the great variety of of 1914. The telescope employed was the 9-in. Grubb structure in Devonian woods and the diversity of the refractor. A great many of the pairs were measured ancient seed-types, the authors conclude that if there for the first time. The measures were for the most is any past period which can be fairly singled out as part made by Mr. Innes and Mr. Van der Spuy, but the true age of gymnosperms it must be Devonian the latter left the observatory early in the year to join time." the Aviation Corps of the Defence Force, and after- H. Hamshaw Thomas has begun a systematic wards was with ihe British Army in France.

examination of the Middle Jurassic flora of Cleveland MEASURING HEAT FROM Stars. In this column for

in Yorkshire, in which cycads

prominent February 25 attention was directed to a paper by Dr. (Quart. Journal Geol. Soc., London, vol. Ixix., W. W. Coblentz on a comparison of stellar radiometers

p. 223).

Wieland's review of "the Williamand radiometric measurements on 110 stars. In the sonian tribe," in which British specimens from the May number of the Popular Science Monthly, under Yates collection are utilised, will no doubt be referred the title, “Measuring Heat from Stars," he describes to as the work goes on (Amer. Journ. Sci., vol. xxxii., in a very interesting manner early attempts at measur- p. 433). Both authors point out how we

are in. ing stellar radiation, and the method employed by him

debted to Nathorst for additions to our knowledge of at the present time. The article gives a good insight the cycad fruits of Yorkshire. F. H. Knowlton cominto the extreme delicacv of the investigation, the pares the Jurassic flora of Cape Lisburne, Alaska great progress that has been made in recent years, (U.S. Geol. Survey, Prof. Paper, 83-D, 1914), with and the important outstanding problems which will no that described by Heer and Seward from Amurland doubt be solved when the instrumental equipment has in eastern Siberia, and takes the opportunity for a advanced a stage or two further.

brief review of the Arctic and Antarctic occurrences

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on the same horizon. The Alaskan beds (p. 43) are

probably not older than the Bathonian and certainly not younger than the Oxfordian."

E. Wilbur Berry (ibid., 84, 1914) issues a report on the Upper Cretaceous and Eocene floras of South Carolina and Georgia. Ficus is represented in the Cretaceous beds of South Carolina by five species, and the willow, the oak, the myrtle, and the laurel are among the numerous angiosperms present. The author (p. 71) regards this Hora, the post-Raritan floras of the eastern States, and the major part, at least, of the Dakota flora, as Turonian and not Cenomanian in age. The Cretaceous flora of Georgia (p. 127) is placed on the same horizon. A small Middle Eocene (Claiborne) fora of seventeen species allows of an interesting discussion of Cainozoic climate in the eastern States. The main features of the modern flora of tropical America extended as far north as latitude 33° in Middle Eocene times, and retreated later towards the West Indies. In the same paragraph on p. 161, this retreat seems to be dated as " toward the close of the Tertiary,” and also, on Dall's evidence from marine life, as at the close of the Oligocene." The bibliography is useful to all workers in early Cainozoic floras, including that of Bovey Tracey in Devonshire.

David White (ibid., 85-E, 1914) emphasises the occurrence of thread-like resinous casts in “mother of coal ” and other Palæozoic “coals of high rank," associated in places with megascopic lumps of resin. By the decay of the plant tissues (p. 82), these resinous infillings of secretory canals have become concentrated in undue proportion in the coals.

A paper by F. W. Clarke and W. C. Wheeler (ibid., 90-D, 1914) has a bearing on the occurrence of magnesium carbonate in rocks. It discusses “The Composition of Crinoid Skeletons,” and twenty-one species, representing as many genera, are shown to utilise in their hard parts from 7.28 to 12.69 per cent. of magnesium carbonate, when organic matter is eliminated from the analyses. A specimen of Hathrometra dentata includes, moreover, 573 per cent. of silica, a substance usually present in quantities of about o.1 per cent. When arranged by localities, it is seen " that the proportion of magnesium carbonate in crinoids is in some way dependent on temperature" (p. 36).

Shallow water in the tropics gives the highest percentage. The calcium carbonate is always in the calcite state. The investigation of fossil crinoids, from the Lower Ordovician to the Eocene, shows nothing higher than 2:56 per cent. of magnesium carbonate, except in a Triassic form, Encrinus liliiformis, which yields 20:23 per cent. We may conclude that the matrix was in this case dolomitic. It is suggested that infiltration of calcium carbonate has reduced the proportion of magnesium carbonate present in fossil specimens. The organic matter in recent forms, often amounting to 15 per cent., would certainly allow of the substitution of some other material during fossilisation.

Ivor Thomas's first section of his revision of “The British Carboniferous Producti” (Mem. Geol. Survey of Great Britain, Palæontology, vol. i., part 4, 1914) covers the genera Pustula and Overtonia, which are here established (p. 259) on Productus pustulosus and fimbriatus respectively. But the special importance of the memoir lies in the review of the Producti generally, based on the work of several years. Doubt is thrown (p. 229) on the clasping nature of the spines of Productus, and it is suggested that a spine during growth may occasionally be diverted by an adjacent object, so as to appear to fold around it. Both external and internal features of the shells are discussed in relation to the animal as it lived, and no apology

is needed for the consideration of the general principles of mutation and the meaning of species, questions that have naturally forced themselves before the philosophic author.

It is interesting to note, in L. W. Stephenson's study of the “Species of Exogyra from the Eastern Gulf Region and the Carolines" (U.S. Geol. Survey, Prof. Paper 81, 1914) that the genus was first described by T. Say in 1820, the type being Exogyra costata from the Cretaceous of New Jersey. The “Sby." after the name in Woodward's “Manual of the Mollusca," 1851, is probably a mere misprint. E. costata is shown regularly to succeed E. ponderosa, the species having thus a zonal value. The strata are described in the same memoir.

In vol. xlii. of the Records of the Geological Survey of India (1912, p. 1), R. Bullen Newton and E. A. Smith have directed attention to the survival of a well-known Miocene oyster, Ostrea gryphoides (=crassissima), in recent marine deposits under Calcutta and in the Bay of Bengal.

Passing to arthropods, C. D. Walcott gives us a new genus of trilobites, Saukia, with species, separated from Dikellocephalus by the possession of a longer glabella and pygidium (“Dikelocephalus and other Genera of the Dikelocephalinæ," Smithsonian Miscell. Coll., vol. lvii., 1914, p. 345). On p. 363 the author explains the common retention of D. Ď. Owen's spelling of Dikellocephalus with a single “1," under a rule that was surely established by persons with limited glabellas. Osceolia and Calvinella are here founded on D. Osceola and D. spiniger (p. 388) respectively, though on p. 365, probably by a slip, the latter species is referred to Saukia. It seems from p. 364, that Walcott is unwilling to recognise Dikellocephalus from any locality outside the United States, and this should lead to a new examination of British and other European forms. The Devonian faunas of South Africa and South America receive a new link in the discovery by S. J. Shand of a species of the Brazilian trilobite Pennaia in the Bokkeveld Beds of the Hex River in the Cape Province (Trans. Geol. Soc., S. Africa, vol. xvii., 1914, p. 26).

Alexander Petrunkevitch has produced “A Monograph of the Terrestrial Palæozoic Arachnida of North America" (Trans. Connecticut Acad. Arts and Sciences, Yale University Press, 1913). This is a systematic review, not quite so extensive as its title would imply, of the American Palæozoic types of scorpions and spiders, involving the establishment of new genera and species. The author directs attention (p. 20) to the recent work of Clarke and Ruedemann, which indicates a relationship of the eurypterids with the succeeding limuloids, rather than with the scorpions, although the three groups may have had separate ancestors. The Carboniferous arachnid faunas of Europe and North America are stated to be distinct (p. 26); but both have a more tropical character than is found locally in their modern representatives. The excellent photographic plates are from specimens developed with much care by the delicate chiselling away of flakes of rock in order to reveal appendages.

R. Broom records (Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. xxxii., 1913, p. 563) his studies of a number of Permian labyrinthodont skulls in the American Museum, in which he has succeeded in tracing sutures. hitherto obscure, and thus in providing new descriptions of the cranial elements.

R. S. Lull describes (Amer. Journ. Sci., vol. xxxvii., 1914, p. 209) a “Fossil Dolphin from California,' which is presumed to be of Miocene age. The specimen is placed under the living genus Delphinus,

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which is thus added to the few mammalian genera man who cleared away the obstacles that had hindered
that have come down to us unmodified from older the progress of knowledge during many weary years.
Cainozoic times.

Lavoisier's chief claim to immortality is of a similar
A wide interest is attached to the investigation of character. It rests upon the fact that he was able to
the “ Paleocene Deposits of the San Juan Basin, New break through the entrenched lines of the “phlogiston"
Mexico," by W. J. Sinclair and W. Granger (Bull. theory, and to make a broad gap through which others
Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. xxiji., 1914, p. 297), since could enter the open plain beyond. His tragic death
these beds contain the oldest known Cainozoic mam- prevented him from reaping the full fruits of his
mals. The famous Puerco clays rest unconformably victory over error, and it was left to others to under-
on a conglomerate with silicified tree-stems, below take the conquest of the fertile country into which he
which are shales containing deinosaurs. No deino- had opened the way.
saurs have been found in the Puerco Beds, and the The periods suggested by the author are described
faunal change is even here remarkably abrupt. Fossil in a paper communicated to the Italian Chemical
plants, of no stratigraphical import, have been found Society (Rendiconti Soc. Chim. Ital., 1914, vol. viii.)
for the first time (p. 306) in the Puerco Beds.

as follows:
Among faunistic papers, we may note that the (1) The Philosophic Period, 600 to 300 B.C., includ-
indefatigable C. D. 'Walcott reviews, with a biblio- ing the writings of Empedocles, Aristotle, and others.
graphy, the “Cambrian Faunas of Eastern Asia " (2) The Ancient Alchemistic Period, extending to
(Smithson. Miscell. Coll., vol. Ixiv., 1914, p. 1), about 1000 A.D., and dominated by the writings of

G. A. J. C. Geber. (3) The Alchemistic Period of the Middle

Ages, extending to about 1400 A.D., and including
THE PLACE OF LAVOISIER IN THE

such names as Avicenna, Roger Bacon, Raymond
HISTORY OF CHEMISTRY.

Lully, Albertus Magnus, and the pseudo-Geber. (4)

The Period of the Renaissance, including the work of
A SOMEWHAT novelview of • The Place of Lavoisier
in the History of Chemistry” is put forward

Agricola (1494-1555), Bernard Palissy, and Paracelsus
in a paper contributed by A. Mieli to the April number

(1493–1541)." (5) The latro-Chemical Period, originatof Scientia. This question has formed the subject of

ing with Paracelsus, and culminating in the work of prolonged controversy, and has called forth the most

van Helmont (1577-1644). (6) The Pneumatic Period, diverse and contrary opinions. Some, with Wurtz,

beginning with Boyle, including Stahl, Black, Cavenhave boldly acclaimed the fact that “Chemistry is a

dish, Priestley, and Scheele, and brought to its con-
French science.

clusion by Lavoisier. (7) The Period of the Modern
Its founder is Lavoisier, of immortal
memory. Others have written him down as a mere

Atomic Theory, beginning with Dalton, carried for

ward by Gay Lussac, Avogadro, Ampère, Davy, and
plagiarist, who purloined from Priestley the discovery Berzelius, and brought to completion by the exposi-
of oxygen, and from Cavendish the discovery of the
composition of water, and thus built up a great repu-

tion of Cannizzaro. (8) The Period of Organic Chem-
tation on the unacknowledged work of his English

istry and of the Periodic Law, including, Liebig,
colleagues.

Wöhler, and Dumas, on the one side, Mendeléeff and
The Italian writer asserts that these Lothar Meyer on
claims and counterclaims are based upon a miscon-

the other. (9) The Period of

Physical Chemistry, originating with van't Hoff and
ception. Lavoisier's true place is not at the beginning Arrhenius. (10) The period of Radio-activity.
of the period to which the atomic and molecular

T. M. L.
theories belong, but at the close of an earlier period in
which the chief problems were the nature of com-
bustion, and the composition of air and water. This

FISHERY RESEARCH IN INDIA.1 period opens with Jean Rey and Boyle; John Mayow MR. SOUTHWELL deserves the thanks of those had practically reached a true solution of the main

interested in the better organisation of Imperial problems in 1674; but Becher and Stahl intervened, resources for summarising the history of fisheries and it was only by the work of Black, Priestley,

research in India. I hat dates back only to 1906, Cavendish, and Lavoisier that all difficulties and for the work of Dr. Francis Day and Colonel Alcock doubts were finally cleared away. Lavoisier's position was purely systematic. In 1906 economic research in the historical sequence enabled him to use all the

was initiated. Sir K. Gupta, then about to retire information and experience that had been gathered from the higher ranks of the Indian Civil Service, during the preceding 150 years, and it was right that was ordered to inquire into the fisheries of Bengal. he should do so, though his acknowledgments to

This officer tells us himself that he knew nothing Priestley and to Cavendish might well have been more of fish,” and that he “had not even done anything generous.

with the rod and line." Nevertheless, he made a But whilst Lavoisier contributed a brilliant finale lengthy tour in Europe and America to see those who to the earlier period, his work cannot be regarded as did know, and on his return to India a Bengal forming in any sense an overture to the period which Fisheries Department was established, with Mr. A. followed. The chief topics to be studied in the later Ahmed as Commissioner. period were those which were concerned with atoms, The Department then obtained the services, for a molecules, and equivalents. This period began with year or so, of Dr. J. T. Jenkins, and an English Dalton's atomic theory and the controversy between steam trawler, the Golden Crown, was sent out to Proust and Berthoilet on the subject of fixed or vari- make a survey of the fishing grounds in the Bay of able proportions; Avogadro (like Mayow) almost solved Bengal. While this was going on Mr. Ahmed estabthe problem ; but once again a long interval of doubt lished a Board which met five times, after which he and confusion ensued, until at last the work of Dumas, “ceased to be Commissioner." The result of a very Laurent, and Gerhardt, and, above all, St. Claire imperfect survey was the formation of a Fishery Deville's discovery of dissociation, enabled Canniz- Department consisting of two directors of agriculture zaro to put forward the masterly exposition which (“whose knowledge of the fisheries is necessarily of finally dispelled the uncertainty and perplexity which an entirely administrative nature"), of Mr. Southwell had afflicted chemistry for nearly forty years. himself (á trained zoologist), as deputy-director, and Cannizzaro, like Lavoisier, owed much to others.

Report on Fishery Investigations in Bengal, etc., with Recommendations His experimental work was on a much smaller scale

By T. Southwell, Deputy Director of Fisheries for than Lavoisier's; but he is universally honoured as the

Bengal, etc. Bulletin No. 5. Department of Fisheries, Bengal. (Calcutta :

The Bengal Secretariat Book Depot, 1915.) Price 6d,

!

for Future Work.

now

of two superintendents of fisheries. One of these latter officials graduated at Calcutta University as

VENTILATION AND HEALTH. M.A. in light and acoustics, and afterwards carried

A on physical research, and the other was a student has been established by the New York Associaat the same University, but “failed to take his tion for Improving the Condition of the Poor, with B.A. degree." The Department is allowed the use of the help of a grant from Mrs. E. M. Anderson. The a laboratory at the Indian Museum, and has also a Commission consists of the university professors relaboratory on board a steam launch. Thus staffed spectively of physiology, chemistry, psychology, and and equipped it is proceeding with the investigation clinical medicine, together with a ventilating engineer of Bengal fisheries!

and an officer of the New York State Department of The latter are fresh-water, estuarine, and marine. Health, all of whom give their time voluntarily. A The edible fresh-water fishes are mainly various species Commission so constituted ought to produce results of carp, and a Clupeoid fish called the hilsa. The carps of great value. An experimental chamber has been breed in the rivers during the rains, and since exten- put up and equipped with all necessary apparatus, sive areas of Bengal are then flooded enormous num- and researches have been made into the conditions bers of fry are lost in the paddy-fields. How to make of schools, hospitals, business houses, etc. The Comgood this loss by artificial culture, and also how to mission has

issued its first report. The deal similarly with the hilsa are obvious problems, report confirms the view that the physical, rather neither of which was solved by Dr. Jenkins or Mr. than the chemical, conditions of the air are of the Southwell. The estuarine fisheries are located in the greater importance. That temperature, humidity, Sunderbans—that is, the rivers, swamps, and islands and movement of the air and its freedom from dust, formed by the deltas of the Ganges and Brahmaputra. bacteria, and odour are the first essentials of ventilaHere there are abundant edible fishes and crustacea,

tion. but no edible mollusca. The fishing grounds are far Stagnant air at the same temperature as fresh air, away from the traffic routes, and the fishing boats and even when it contains twenty or more parts of carbon gear are crude and inefficient. The fauna of the dioxide, and all the organic and other substances in Sunderbans is not even adequately investigated. Dr.

the breathed air of occupied rooms, has, so far, shown Jenkins spent thirty days there with an imperfectly no effect on any of the physiological processes, except equipped steam launch. Mr. Southwell tells us that that the appetite for food may be slightly reduced. Dr. Jenkins showed that “the fish fauna varied greatly Here we have confirmation of the view recently according to degree of salinity, depth of water, etc., expressed in these columns by Prof. Leonard Hill, and observed that nets suitable for fishing in one part that stagnant air by reducing the metabolism of the of the estuaries might be unsuitable in other parts ”- body impoverishes the health and vigour of the body. results that might have been predicted! He also con- Over-heated rooms produce a slight but distinct elevacluded that a "properly organised scheme of develop- tion of body temperature, increase the rate of the ment of these fisheries would yield a profitable return heart in the reclining, posture, and its acceleration on on capital invested ”-an equally indisputable con- rising from the reclining to the standing posture, and clusion !

slightly lower the systolic blood pressure. The Much more is known about the prospects of a increased heart rate and diminished blood presmarine fishery. Colonel Alcock regarded the fishery

found in the standing position show of the Bay of Bengal as of very great potential value. how the heated atmosphere relaxes the tone of the There are numerous species of edible fishes, mostly body, and tends to make the blood sink down into Siluroids, Scienoids, Serranoids, Pleuronectids, and the dependent parts, and so produces sensations of Ciupeoids. Dr. Jenkins and Dr. Annandale, of the fatigue, and reduces the inclination to work. The Indian Museum, have made good reports on the collec- physiologist of the Commission, Prof. Fred S. Lee, tions made by the former. The Golden Crown was determined after exposing cats to over-heated rooms an inefficient and poorly equipped steam trawler, and that their excised muscles were more easily fatigued was, moreover, hampered in its work by the Com- than those of the controls-14-26 per cent. less work missioner of Fisheries, but Dr. Jenkins showed that was done. The sugar in their blood

also it was possible to trawl in the Bay of Bengal through- diminished. out the whole year. The vessel caught on the In a commercial establishment employing about average, 26-6 cwt, of fish a day. (The average catch 4000 clerks, it was found that the building was grossly per day's absence from port of an English steam overheated. The fault lay in large part with the distrawler varies from about 60 cwt. to about 9 cwt., repair into which the thermostats had been allowed according to the fishing ground. The average catch to fall. In certain ducts designed for fan ventilation per day for the North Sea, before the war, was about no fans had been installed, while in others the fans 17 cwt.) If it were possible to eat, with pleasure, were running at only a fraction of their efficient speed. all the species of fish caught, the Golden Crown In other ducts the register openings were so badly therefore had good results. Dr. Jenkins showed also adjusted that while some rooms received more air that it was possible to send fish in good condition than needed, others received less. to the Calcutta markets, and that the difficulty of In one hospital in New York notorious for its overnavigation of the Hooghly could be evaded. There heating, records of 70°, 74°, and two 750 and above for believing that European fishery

were obtained. In the children's wards five out of methods would succeed in the Bay of Bengal.

eleven records were more than 70° F. In one hosBut so far they have not been attempted, nor has the pital the children's ward was 76° in the daytime. development of the fresh-water and estuarine fisheries The Commissioner regards anything below 70° F. as been seriously attempted. One's impression in read- free from over-heating! ing the report is that of a Department which, having Abominable conditions are proven then in certain the conviction that something ought to be done, yet

institutions in New York, conditions which sap the contents itself by doing it badly. Commercial ex- health and vigour of the young, and turn them, so to ploitation is, of course, a matter for private enter- speak, into weak hothouse plants. General recogniprise, but it is “up to” the Department which has tion is required that the chief aim of ventilation is to modelled itself on European lines to see that scientific provide a moving current of cool air, to remove research is adequately promoted.

J. J. the heat produced by human metabolism, and by the

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