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tenant of the Active during the Zulu war of 1878-9, lake twenty miles away. Such “showers of frogs," and was promoted Captain in 1896. He afterwards when satisfactorily authenticated, are to be ranked became Assistant-Director of Torpedoes (1902), Con- along with showers of sticklebacks, herring, and even troller of the Navy (1905), and Chief of the War Staff larger fishes. Some of these showers are well vouched at the Admiralty (1913-14). In science Sir Henry Jack- for, and admit of physical interpretation. In an eddy son's work refers chiefly to electrical physics. In the of a whirlwind there is sometimes draught strong ’nineties of last century he was among the first to enough to suck up dust and leaves and sheaves, or engage in the practical application of electric waves water and fishes and frogs. The whirling column is transmission; in other words, wireless telegraphy. He borne on by the wind and may transport its burden for early made the acquaintance of Mr. Marconi, the two many miles until the rotational energy is expended collaborating in important researches. In 1895 Sir and the little tornado is over. It must be carefully Henry began systematic experiments and trials under noted, however, that the sudden appearance of multisea-going conditions (inclusive of the use of balloons tudes of small frogs often implies nothing more than and kites), with the view of utilising the effect of the usual migration of the young frogs from their Hertzian oscillations for naval signalling purposes.

birthplace in the pond to their summer quarters in The results were embodied in a paper read before the fields. Similarly, as Gosse pointed out long ago, the Royal Society, entitled On Some Phenomena alleged “snail showers” are apt to disappear under Affecting the Transmission of Electric Waves over the scrutiny, and "a torrent of periwinkles” turns out Surface of the Sea and Earth." From 1905-6 he to be a migration of Helix virgata or the like. In was A.D.C. to King Edward VII. ; in 1906 he was his “Románce of Natural History” Gosse inquired made K.C.V.O., and, in 1910, K.C.B. The Royal in a fair-minded way into the various kinds of animal Society elected him into its fellowship in 1901. A member of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, the records were worthy of credence as regards frogs, and an associate of the Institution of Naval Archi- toads, and fishes. It is probable enough, then, that tects, Sir Henry also serves on the general board of the Gibraltar shower was genuine. the National Physical Laboratory, and has consistently

A REMARKABLE discovery of flint implements has promoted its interests in official quarters. It may be been made recently at Highfield, Southampton, and of interest to give the names of those fellows on the

a large selection of them is now displayed in two new Royal Society's current list who either are naval men

cases in the prehistoric section of the County Hisor are engaged on Admiralty service. They comprise

torical and Antiquarian Museum at Tudor House. Admiral Sir A. M. Field, late Hydrographer ; Capt. The spot where they were found is apparently the T. H. Tizard, late Assistant-Hydrographer; Sir Τ

site of the workshop or cache of a Palæolithic masterHenry J. Oram, Engineer Vice-Admiral, Engineer-in- craftsman in flint, and great numbers of implements Chief of the Fleet; Capt. E. W. Creak, C.B.; Sir

in various stages of fashioning were brought to light Philip Watts, late Director of Naval Construction;

on a limited area. The series shown covers the whole Mr. R. E. Froude, Superintendent of the Admiralty technique of manufacture, from the roughly-shapedExperimental Works at Gosport; Sir J. A. Ewing,

out slabs of table flint to beautifully chipped and comDirector of Naval Education ; Sir John Thornycroft ;

pleted implements, with their edges still unabraded. and the Hon. Sir Charles Parsons.

It includes blanks or shaped forms of flint cut with We learn from the Scientific American that Mr. astonishing precision, portions of implements broken Walter G. Davis, director of the Argentine Meteoro

in process of making, chips, etc. Some of the smaller logical Service, recently retired on a pension, and was

implements vie in beauty of workmanship with the succeeded by Señor Martin Gil, described in the fine products of Neolithic culture, and are also of Argentine newspapers as a wealthy amateur meteoro- shapes generally associated with the later Stone Age, logist and astronomer, much interested in long-range

though their gravel patina is indisputable proof that weather prediction.

they came from the river drift, and so are of Palæo

lithic origin. Series of both large and small impleA War Exhibitions has been organised to assist

ments, the latter including various forms of scrapers, the funds of the Belgian Red Cross Anglo-Belgian

arrow-points, etc., are shown in their different stages Committee, whose patroness is the Queen of the of making, so that the processes of manufacture Belgians. The exhibition is designed to present an become clear to the student. It is worthy of recording idea of the extent to which science and industry are that the surface soil of the site yielded some interesting being utilised in every branch of the present gigantic Neolithic implements, which are also shown. struggle. The exhibition comprises seven sections, which include, with others, armament and ammuni

STONEHENGE, the most remarkable of our national tion in the making, Red Cross work, science and

prehistoric monuments, is included in the Amesbury industry applied to war, food and hygiene, and a

Abbey estate, Wiltshire, which is to be sold by maritime and aerial section. The exhibition will be

auction in September. Much information about this held at Prince's Skating Club, Knightsbridge, London,

notable structure and its significance will be found from June to October.

in Lady Antrobus's “Sentimental and Practical Guide

to Amesbury and Stonehenge" and Sir Norman During a thunderstorm near Gibraltar on May 25 Lockyer's “Stonehenge and other British Stone a cloud is said to have belched forth millions of small Monuments Astronomically Considered.” The first frogs which had apparently been drawn up from a British author who is considered to make unmistak

was

able mention of Stonehenge is Henry of Huntingdon tion were beginning to find true scope in the com(twelfth century). He refers to it as the second plicated task of determining questions of states and wonder in England, and calls it Stanenges. Geoffrey copies amongst the early engravings forming part of of Monmouth (A.D. 1138) wrote of it about the same the vast collections bequeathed by Francis Douce to time, as did also the Welsh historian, Giraldus Cam- the University. In a short time he did much valuable brensis. The outer circle of thirty upright stones has work. A remarkable memory and grasp of the nature a diameter of about 100 ft. These stones formerly of facts gave his judgment the sureness only acquired stood 14 ft. above the surface of the ground. Within as a rule by long experience. It seemed safe to prethis peristyle there was originally an inner structure dict that his career, cut short at twenty-five years, of ten stones arranged in the shape of a horseshoe showed promise of a future of much brilliance. formed of five (but some think seven) huge trilithons,

The late Captain S. A. Macmillan, attached to the which rose progressively in height from north-east

58th (Vaughan's) Rifles, Indian Army, whose death to south-west, the loftiest uprights being 25 ft. above

at the front has recently been reported, had been the ground. About one-half of these uprights have

engaged for about a year on the work of the survey fallen; during the operations connected with the

of the mammalian fauna of India, Burma, and Ceylon. raising of one of the uprights in 1901 numerous flint

This survey was started in 1911 by the Bombay axe-heads and large stone hammers were four at

Natural History Society with the object of carrying a depth of from 2 ft. to 3 ft. 6 in. underground—all

out, in conjunction with the British Museum (Natural tending to prove the great antiquity of the monument.

History), a systematic study of the Indian mammal From his investigations of the orientation of Stone

fauna. Early last year the society secured the serhenge, upon the assumption of the structure having

vices of Capt. Macmillan as a collector in Burma to been erected as a solar temple, Sir Norman Lockyer

work with another of their collectors, Mr. Guy Shortconcluded that the date of its foundation

ridge, who is now serving in France as an officer of 1680 B.C.

the 29th Bengal Lancers. Capt. Macmillan had been We regret to learn of the death of Dr. Aksel S.

on a rubber estate in Tenasserim, and was not only a Steen, director of the Norwegian Meteorological In

keen hunter, but also possessed a local knowledge of stitute, and fellow of the Norwegian Academy of

languages, etc., which proved of great value to both Sciences. Dr. Steen was for many years assistant

collectors whilst in Burma. They were doing splendid director of the Norwegian Institute, and he succeeded work for the survey, and had made a very fine colthe veteran Prof. Möhn in the directorship in Sep

lection of mammals from Monywa and Kindat in tember, 1913. He contributed many papers to meteoro

Upper Chindwin and elsewhere in Burma when the logical literature on the climate and weather of Nor- war broke out, and abruptly put a stop to their efforts way, but he is perhaps best known for his compre

in this direction, the activities of both being transferred hensive report on the observations made at the Nor

to the military. Before leaving India Mr. Shortridge wegian station at Bossekop in connection with the

and Capt. Macmillan exhibited their specimens at a international exploration of the polar regions during meeting of the Bombay Natural History Society, the the years 1882–83, and for his report on the terres- fine series of different squirrels particularly creating trial magnetic results of the second Norwegian Arctic

much interest. The Society has lost in Capt. MacExpedition in the Fram in 1898–1902. The latter

millan a keen worker of the highest efficiency, who report was supplemented by an interesting discussion promised to accomplish still more valuable work on the diurnal variation of terrestrial magnetism in

towards bringing the survey to a completion. the northern hemisphere. Dr. Steen's visit to Eng- By the recent death of Prof. D. A. Louis, at fiftyland in 1904 as a member of the International Solar eight years of age, the technical Press has lost one Commission which met at Cambridge in that year, of its most gifted representatives. A Londoner by is pleasantly remembered by those who met him on birth, he studied at the Royal School of Mines in the that occasion. He was born at Christiania in 1849, year 1876 and 1881, devoting most of his attention to and died there on May 10.

chemistry, metallurgy, and physics. From 1882 to

1886 he was employed at Rothamsted on agricultural In this country it is unfortunately so rare to find research, and there carried out important experiments young men, equipped by a scientific training with for Sir John Lawes. His connection with mining the exact habit of mind essential to all historical and metallurgy is to be traced to an appointment he studies, willing to turn their attention to art-history had in Colorado, where he gained practical experience and museum-management, that the loss of such a in mining. From 1891 he practised as a consulting promising recruit as Second-Lieutenant Percy Herman mining engineer and metallurgist in London, making Charles Allen (3rd attached to 2nd Battalion East periodical visits abroad to most of the European and Lancashire Regiment), killed in action in France on American mining districts. In 1893 he became an May 9, is much to be deplored. Educated as a mathe- assistant examiner in mining to the Board of Educamathical exhibitioner of Christ's Hospital, and scholar tion, and in 1900 was appointed professor of mining of Caius College, Cambridge, Mr. Allen became for a at the Yorkshire College at Leeds. In 1907 he took time an assistant in the Victoria and Albert Museum, a prominent part in the third International Petroleum and in January, 1914, was appointed assistant keeper Congress at Bucharest. In 1910 he was hon. secrein the fine art department of the Ashmolean Museum, tary of the metallurgical section of the seventh InterOxford. His natural taste and exactitude of percep- national Congress of Applied Chemistry; and as a

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petroleum mining expert he visited Egypt, Russia, were numbered men like Birt, Dawes, De la Rue, Galicia, and Rumania. As a journalist Prof. Louis Green, and Webb, there was no literature to meet had a marvellous gift of assimilating information their special necessities. The first edition of Mr. rapidly; and his wide scientific knowledge was never Chambers's “Handbook," published in December, at a loss. He was a constant contributor to many 1861, formed an admirable compendium of the results leading technical journals in this country, and fre- of astronomical science at that date in the departments quently reported meetings of the British Association which particularly appealed to the amateur observer. for the Times, the Engineer, etc. Prof. Louis was The success of the adventure was pronounced; other for many years foreign representative of the Inter- editions followed, and when the fourth and last edition national Association of Journalists. He acted as hon.

was brought out, in 1889 and 1890, the book had secretary for the congress which was held in this expanded into three volumes, containing altogether country in the year 1909, when his gifts as a linguist, more than 1600 pages. The speciality of the work his knowledge of foreign countries, and his geniality lies in the number which it contains of useful cataand savoir faire were invaluable. His loss is deeply | logues, of auxiliary tables for the simple reductions of felt by a large number of friends.

a private observatory, of descriptions of different forms In an article entitled “Stricken Serbia" in the

of telescope mountings and houses adapted for small Times of May 28, a distressing picture is given of the

observatories, and so forth. Mr. Chambers, though ravages of typhoid, typhus, and relapsing fever in that

he was himself the possessor of one of the small country. The two last diseases, which accounted for

observatories for which he especially catered, did not some 15,000 of the sufferers, were traced to the Aus

contribute much to science by his own personal observatrians who left their sick at Valievo. The conditions

tions, but he was indefatigable in compiling useful on the arrival of the various relief organisations were

or popular works on the subject. One work upon appalling; an observer speaks of "the mass of fever

which he bestowed a great amount of labour, patients lying in all their filthy and verminous rags

viz. his revision of Admiral Smyth's “Celestial Cycle," on the floors and under the beds of what are not

proved a failure, since his direct practical knowledge hospitals but mere charnel-houses for the dying”!

of double star astronomy was not sufficient to warrant Nevertheless, in less than two months the diseases him in undertaking so important a task; but his were got under, typhus being almost stamped out.

smaller and more popular astronomical books have This was accomplished by the energy of Colonel

met a cordial reception from the public. These are Hunter and Lieut.-Colonel Stammers and the devoted

his “Pictorial Astronomy" and his “Stories" of the band of doctors and nurses acting under their direc

sun, stars, eclipses, weather, and comets. He was an tion. Six months of war had depleted the country of

original member of the British Astronomical Associastores and provisions, and hospital stores and comforts

tion, and served for many years as vice-president or on had to be brought from England or Malta. Clearly

its council. In connection with this association, he took the first need was to break the lines of communication

a great interest in eclipse expeditions, and spared no between the troops and the rest of the country.

time or energy in ascertaining the best routes by Quarantine stations were established, all railway com

which intending observers could travel to places within

the shadow track. munication was suspended for fifteen days, all leave from the army was stopped, and soldiers on leave

The Daily Telegraph published a telegram "From were recalled. The problem of typhus was compara

our own correspondent at Copenhagen," on May 26, tively simple, as this disease is spread by lice. Three

reporting that A Danish surgeon and scientist of weeks were given up to the disinfection of clothes,

the highest reputation has succeeded in discovering blankets, and linen; and hospitals and their contents

what the German soldiers use to protect themselves were disinfected. Notification was enforced, and in

against the asphyxiating gases which they employ fectious patients were removed to isolation hospitals.

against the enemy." The discovery” is that the The sanitary staff travelled from place to place in a

Germans make use of solutions of hyposulphite and bispecial train and instructed the people what to do.

carbonate of soda to moisten their respirators. The Preventive inoculation especially against cholera

announcement reminds us, however, of the belated was also resorted to, as this dread disease is very

discovery of the lamented death of Queen Anne! The likely to break out under such conditions. The work

use of such solutions is well known to all workers was carried out by two hospital units, Lady Paget's

with chlorine gas, and was mentioned in daily papers and Lady Wimborne's, each with about fisty doctors, nurses, and orderlies, and by smaller contingents charge the gas upon our troops.

a day or two after the Germans commenced to disunder Dr. Moon and Mrs. Hardy. MR. G. F. CHAMBERS, whose death on May 24 at

DR. A. R. FRIEL describes, under the term “pianseventy-four years of age we regret to record, was a

tication,” modifications of microbes induced by treatvery voluminous writer on many subjects, legal, ing them one or more times with blood-serum, which political, ecclesiastical, but the book which gives him transmissible to, and cumulative in, their the best scientific claim to remembrance was written

descendants. Thus organisms which previously when he was not yet twenty years of age. This was almost completely resisted ingestion by leucocytes when the “Handbook of Descriptive Astronomy.” In 1861, “pianticated” are ingested in large numbers by leucothough England then boasted a distinguished and cytes (South African Institute for Medical Research, zealous band of amateur astronomers, amongst whom January 26, 1915).

are

In the Proceedings of the National Academy of prietors, or directors, so wholehearted in their patriotSciences, Washington (vol. i., p. 256), Dr. C. D. ism that they lose no time? Are they so skilled in Walcott announces the discovery of bacteria in one their respective spheres that they are able to guide of the petrified algæ from pre-Cambrian rocks in their staff and workmen? In large firms the organisaMontana, to which reference was made in NATURE tion is generally of a high order of efficiency, but it last week (p. 354). They appear in the algal tissue as must be confessed that a large number of small firms irregular chains of darkly stained cells from 0.95 to 1:3

work from hand-to-mouth in such a manner that outmicrons in diameter, and are very suggestive of put and delivery of orders to a stated time are quite Micrococcus. It is not always possible to distinguish problematic matters. Many of these smaller conwith certainty such fossils from purely mineral struc

cerns are in the hands of a family, or financial men, tures, but satisfactory traces of bacteria have already

who know nothing of the work being carried on, and been detected in the fossilised remains both of animal whose sole object is to derive as large an income as and plant tissues in European Palæozoic rocks, and

possible with the minimum of effort. Such firms they are to be expected among the earliest organisms.

which are not producing a good average should be Through Mr. Bassett Digby, the geological depart

visited by skilled managers, and the real cause located. ment of the British Museum (Natural History) has

If lack of capital is the cause, the Government should

assist; if incompetent management, the offenders lately obtained a well-preserved front horn of the woolly rhinoceros from the frozen earth of northern

should be removed; and if the cause is lack of plant Siberia. The specimen measures nearly a metre in

which cannot be immediately rectified, the factory

should be closed and the men drafted to a welllength, and, though partly cut as usual by the natives who found it, shows the backward curvature of its

organised concern. slender apex and the lateral compression of its

The director of the Geological Survey of the Union characteristic sharp posterior border. The new horn

of South Africa asks us to announce that no annual has been mounted, with a hinder horn already in the

report of the Survey will be issued for the year 1914. museum, above one of the exhibited skulls of woolly

The announcement is made to spare the necessity of rhinoceros from Siberia. It is thus possible to realise inquiries from the many scientific institutions, etc., the unusually large proportions of the horns in this

which are on the complimentary list of the Survey. extinct species.

ERRATUM.-In equation 2 on p. 359 of NATURE of THE question of the pollution of the air of our manu

May 27, the symbol T should appear as a factor in facturing towns has been a serious one for some time,

the denominator of the fraction, and there should be a and the report of the Air Pollution Advisory Board of

minus sign before r in the numerator. Both omissions the city of Manchester will prove a valuable document

were overlooked by the author in two proofs corrected to those seeking to mitigate a serious evil. It appears that the domestic grate is the principal offender and that the modern factory with mechanical stokers is

OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN.

OBSERVATIONS OF NEBULÆ AT THE HELWAN OBSERVAcomparatively, if not absolutely, innocent. In many

TORY.-Mr. H. Knox Shaw describes in Bulletin cases, however, the impurities are not due to in

No. 15 of the Helwan Observatory the observations different stoking, and for these the electrostatic method made with the Reynolds reflector up to the end of Sepof precipitation which has proved so successful in tember of last year, this paper being a continuation America may

be recommended. An interesting of that published in Bulletin No. 9. This work is account of the method and the results of its application

described as being somewhat of a reconnaissance to will be found in the Electrical Review for May 14.

see which nebulæ would repay photographing with Briefly, the polluted air passes between electrodes

long exposures when the new Ritchey 30-in. mirror

is mounted. The paper gives a list of the nebulæ maintained at a difference of potential of 100,000 volts, observed, and also one of thirty-one new nebulæ conand the particles of carbon, arsenic, potash, or chlorine firmations of which have been made by second photoare carried by the discharge to one of the electrodes. graphs in each case. Referring to N.G.C. 6729, the About five kilowatts are necessary to deal with about

nebulæ attached to the variable star R. Coronæ,

Aust., the author states that this nebula is certainly 30,000 cu. ft. of air per minute, so that the cost is

variable, and the question as to how its variability slight. In many of the cases cited the value of the

is connected with that of the star is being studied, material recovered in a year exceeded the cost of and is promised as a separate paper. installation and working of the apparatus.

STARS WITH PROPER MOTION EXCEEDING 0:50" THE Times Engineering Supplement for May 28 ANNUALLY.--Mr. Adriaan van Maanen contributes to touches on a point in works organisation to which

the April number of the Astrophysical Journal (vol. too little attention has been given in this country,

xli., No. 3) a very useful list of stars with proper

motion exceeding 0.50" annually. This list is based on especially in the case of small- and medium-sized

Porter's and Kobold's lists, which indicated proper factories. Before the war, our industries suffered motions greater than 0-50" annually, on Bosseverely from German competition; this has been sert's catalogue of

proper

motions of 2641 attributed in varying degrees to free trade, lack of stars, and on numerous other subsequently pubtechnical education, and so forth. As the output of

lished notes

stars of large proper motion.

The present list is made far our factories must now be increased, our contem

as possible

homogeneous throughout, and deals with 533 stars. A porary asks : Given perfect workmen and entire

column is given showing the spectra of the stars as absence of alcohol, is the management of such a high determined by Mr. W. S. Adams or Miss Cannon. order that the output is a maximum? Are the pro- The positions in right ascension and declination are

by him.

a

on

as

for the equinox 1900-0, and the proper motions are A. Chaston Chapman, the chairman, in opening the given for both amount and direction. Remarks discussion, pointed out that from the technical point of regarding uncertainties in proper motions are added, view the purposes to be served by such analyses were, and in the case of double stars, the number in Burn- first, to indicate the general character of the process ham's General Catalogue is given. Attention is by which any particular extract had been prepared; directed to a list by Innes of proper-motion stars secondly, to throw some light on the source of the south of – 19°; this appeared subsequent to the print- extract and its genuineness or otherwise; and, finally, ing of the present paper, and Mr. van Maanen adds to furnish information as to the physiological properthe numbers of Innes's list which should be included ties of dietetic value. He then gave an outline of the in his communicatioli.

existing methods of analysis, and emphasised their ORBITS OF VARIABLE RADIAL VELOCITY STARS.-In limitations; more particularly the practice of returning the April number of the Journal of the Royal Astro

the “residual nitrogen" as “meat bases,” using the nomical Society of Canada some reductions are given

factor 3:12 for the conversion was a source of unof the measures of the variable radial velocities of certainty and confusion, especially as Hehner had stars. The orbit of 136 Tauri, deduced by J. B.

suggested the use of the ordinary protein factor, 6-25, Cannon, is based on sixty plates taken at the Ottawa

for the same purpose. The best plan was to return Dominion Observatory between November, 1911, and

the actual nitrogen percentages. January, 1915. The paper gives a list of the observa

Dr. F. Gowland Hopkins, dealing with the questions. The spectrum of this star is of the A type,

tion of the food value of meat extracts and similar and the deduced period is 5.969 days. The same writer

preparations, pointed out that the animal body dealt deals also with the orbit of $ Andromedæ, a star of

not with the intact proteins, or even with the albuthe K type spectrum, and utilises fifty-eight plates

moses and peptones, but with the free amino-acids taken at the same observatory between September,

which were the individual constituents of the protein

molecules. 1913, and February, 1915. On the average about

The way in which these acids were twelve lines were measured on each plate, and, gener

grouped in the protein molecule was not of much ally speaking, the agreement was very fair. The final consequence, but the effects produced by the individual period derived was 17.767 days. In both of the above

amino-acids were of extreme importance. He destars comparisons are made with the Lick Observa

scribed physiological experiments which he had made tory results. The orbits of the spectroscopic com

showing that when rats were given a diet including a ponents of 50 Draconis are discussed by W. E. Harper complete amino-acid mixture corresponding with the from the velocities of the ten plates secured at the

proteins of an ordinary diet, the growth was almost Yerkes Observatory, and thirty-four taken at the

exactly normal, but when arginine and histidine were Dominion Observatory. Both spectra were of the

removed from the mixture, growth ceased immeA type. The Yerkes and Ottawa observations both

diately, but was again resumed when the missing indicate a period of 4:120 days. The determination of

constituents were added. The removal of tryptophane the orbit of the spectroscopic binary, 1149 Groom

produced similar results, and Osborne and Mendel bridge, was also undertaken by the same writer using

had, in America, shown that cystine was similarly

essential. It did not follow that this was the case thirty spectrograms secured at Ottawa and three secured by Adams. The star is of the A5 type, and

with every amino-acid, and the question as to which the spectrum has numerous lines well adapted for

of these were vitally necessary offered a large field measurement. In the list of final elements derived the

for investigation. Experiment had shown that in the period is given as 9.944 days.

case of rats, the critical minimum for arginine lay

somewhere between 24 and 1 per cent. The functions MANCHESTER ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY.-No. 1 of the

of the individual amino-acids were not confined merely Journal of the Manchester Astronomical Society, for

to flesh formation. Thus, for example, the effect of the session 1913-14, gives a brief account of the origin feeding animals on zein, which was deficient in both of the society and a statement as to its growth since tryptophane and lysine, was not only to restrict growth, its foundation in 1903. The object is for the asso- but to shorten the survival; the same was true with ciation of amateur astronomers, for mutual help, their zein plus lysine, but with zein plus tryptophane the organisation in the work of astronomical observation, animal was able to maintain its weight for a long and the encouragement of a popular interest in astro- period, although it did not grow. nomy. The society numbers at present 131 members, Dr. E. P. Cathcart said that observations at present and its president is the Rev. A. L. Cortie, S.J. The available were so scanty that it could not be said journal gives excellent portraits of the present and past with certainty that creatine and creatinine had a four presidents; and the address of the president on the special niche in the organism. He did not think that origin of the sun and stars is printed and illustrated any end would be gained by the separate estimation with three plates. A paper on Japanese and other of these two substances. Mr. A. R. Tankard and magic mirrors is from the pen of the late Mr. T. Mr. E. Hinks dealt with questions of procedure, and Thorp, who was an original and active member of the

Dr. Percival Hartley described his experience of Van society. Lunar photography, by Mr. William Port

Slyke's method of estimating amino-nitrogen; further house; astronomy and ästhetics, by Mr. E. Denton remarks were made by Dr. Rideal, Prof. Barger, Dr. Sherlock; and a remarkable solar prominence, by Mr. Harden, and Dr. S. Walpole. A. Buss, form the subjects of other papers printed in this issue.

MUSEUMS AND EDUCATION,
THE

'HE Museums Journal for May contains an inCONSTITUENTS OF EXTRACTS DERIVED

teresting, and suggestive article on the educa

tional work of American museums, by the director of FROM ALBUMINOUS SUBSTANCES.

the Charleston Museum. It is abundantly clear from A JOINT meeting of the Society of Public Analysts this that the functions of the museum in America are,

and the Biochemical Society, which was held at so to speak, intensively cultivated. And nowhere is the Chemical Society's Rooms on May 5, was devoted this more apparent than in the facts which he gives to the discussion of the methods adopted in estimating in regard to the co-operation which has grown up the nitrogenous constituents of extracts derived from between the museums and the public schools. It is albuminous substances, such as meat extracts. Mr. now the rule, he tells us, for children to be brought

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