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WEDNESDAY, JUNE 16. ROYAL METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 4.30.-Discontinuities in Meteorological Phenomena : Prof. H. H. Turner.-Bartle Weather in Western Europe, 9 months August, 1914, to April, 1915: C. Harding.

THURSDAY, JUNE 17. ROYAL SOCIETY, at 4.37.- Probable Papers: Analyses of Agricultural Yiele

11. The Sowing-date Experin.ent with Egyptian Cotton, 1913: W. L. Balls and F. S. Holton.-Soil Protozoa and Soil Bacteria : E. J. Russell.-The. Enhanced Series of Lines in Spectra of the Alkaline Earths: Prof. W. M. Hicks.-On Certain Linear Differential Equations of Astronomical Interest : Prof. H. F. Baker.-The Partial Correlation-Ratio: Prof. Karl Pearson. The Effect of Temperature on the Hissing of Water when flowing through a Constricted Tube: S, Skinner and F. Entwistle. And other papers.

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Red Books of the British Fire Prevention Committee.

No. 189. Pp. 38. (London: British Fire Prevention Committee.) 35. 6.

Fifty-third Annual Report of the Secretary of the State Board of Agriculture of the State of Michigan, and Twenty-seventh Annual Report of the Experiment Station, from July 1, 1913, to June 30, 1914. Pp. 559. (Lancing, Michigan : Wynkoop, Hallenbeck, Crawford Co.)

Library of Congress. Report of the Librarian of Congress, and Report of the Superintendent of the Library Building and Grounds, for the Fiscal Year ending June 30, 1914.

Pp. 216. (Washington : Government Printing Office.)

Library of Congress. A List of Geographical Atlases in the Library of Congress. Compiled under the direction of P. L. Phillips. Vol. iii. Pp. cxxxvii+ 103o. (Washington : Government Printing Office.) 1.25 dollars.

Contributions from the Princeton University Observatory. No. iii. : A Study of the Orbits of Eclipsing Binaries. By H. Shapley. Pp. xiv +176. (Princeton, N.J.: Observatory.)

The Natural Theology of Evolution. By J. N. Sherman. Pp. xv+288. (London: G. Allen and Unwin, Ltd.) 1os. 6d. net.

Materials of Construction : their Manufacture, Properties, and Uses. By Prof. A. P. Mills. Pp. xxi+682. (New York: J. Wiley and Sons, Inc.; London : Chapman and Hall, Ltd.) 195. net.

Constant-voltage Transmission. By H. B. Dwight. Pp. 115.

(New York : J. Wiley and Sons, Inc.; London : Chapman and Hall, Ltd.) 5s. 6d. net.

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CONTENTS.

PAGE School Science. By G. F. D....

391 Practical Plant Physiology. By V. H. B. ,

391 Mathematical Principles and Practice. By D. B. M. 392 Our Bookshelf

393 Letters to the Editor:

The Continuous Spectra of Gases.- Prof. E. P. Lewis 394
The Relation between Chromosomes and Sex-

determination in “Abraxas grossulariata.”—Dr.
Leonard Doncaster, F.R.S.

395
Cavities due to Pyrites in Magnesium Limestone.
(Illustrated.)—George Abbott

395 Poisonous Gases in Warfare and their Antidotes.

(Illustrated.) By Sir W. A. Tilden, F.R.S. .. 395 Visibility. By C. C. Paterson .

397 Olfactory Structures in Insects.

399 Sir A. H. Church, K.C.V.O., F.R.S. By A. P. L..

399 Notes

400 Our Astronomical Column :Parallaxes of Four Visual Binaries,

405 Abnormal Variability of Mira Ceti

405 Report of the Bombay and Alibag Observatories 405 The Annual of the National Observatory of Rio de . Janeiro

405 Agricultural Research at the Rothamsted Experi

mental Station Presentation to Sir Philip Magnus .

406 The Universities and Investigation. By N. R. C. 407 Economic Geology of Navanagar. By G. A. J. C. 407 The Royal Observatory, Greenwich . . Radio-Therapy: Its Scientific Basis and its Teaching. By Prof. J. Joly, F.R.S.

409 Library Provision and Policy.

414 University and Educational Intelligence

414 Societies and Academies

415 Books Received

417 Diary of Societies

405

DIARY OF SOCIETIES.

THURSDAY, JUNE 10. Royal INSTITUTION, at 3.-Method of Presenting Character in Biography

and Fiction : Wilfrid Ward. Royal GEOGRAPHICAL Society, at 5.—The History of the Gradual

Development of the Groundwork of Geographical Science : Sir Clements

Markham. INSTITUTE OF ACTUARIES, at 5.-Annual General Meeting. Optical Society, at 8.-Note on the Achromatism of a pair of separated

Lenses : T. B. Vinvcomb.--Optical Accessories : W. Salt.-Trial Frame Manipulation :- John H. Sutcliffe.

408

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FRIDAY, JUNE 11. ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 9.-Music and Poetry : Dr. H. W. Davies. ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL Society, at 5.--Methods of Determining the Tilt of

Photographic Places : R. J. Pocock.—The Form of a Rotating Fluid Mass as Disturbed by a Satellite: H. Glauert.-Nore on Errors of Measurement: H. C.'Plummer.-The Rotation Period of Neptune : M. Hall. --Probable Paper: Determinations of Stellar Parallax made at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich : Communicated by the Astronomer

Royal. PHYSICAL Society, at 8.- The Coefficient of Expansion of Sodium :

418

Editorial and Publishing Offices :

MACMILLAN & CO., LTD., ST. MARTIN'S STREET, LONDON, W.C.

Advertisements and business letters to be addressed to the

Publishers.

E. A. Griffiths and E. Griffiths.-(1) Notes on the Calculation of Thin Objectives : (a) On Tracing Rays through an Optical System: 1. Smith. -The Accuracy of the Lens and Drop Method of Measuring Refractive Index: H. Redmayne Nettleton.

MONDAY, JUNE 14. ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY, at 8.30.- Expedition to the Karakoram

and Eastern Turkestan : Dr. Filippo de Filippi.

TUESDAY, JUNE 15. ROYAL STATISTICAL Society, at 5.-Annual General Meeting. At. 5.15.

The Multiplier and Capital Wealth : B. Mallet and H. C. Strutt. MINERALOGICAL SOCIETY, at 5.30.– Detrital Andalusite in Cretaceous and

Eocene Sands : G. M. Davies. — The Garnets and Streaky Rocks of the English Lake District : J. F. N. Green.- The Errors in the Angle of the Optic Axes Resulting from those of the Principal Refractive Indices Determined by Total Reflection : Dr. S. Közu. -- The Meteoric Stones of Warbreccan, Queensland: Dr. G. T. Prior.-Autunite : A. F. Hallimond.

Editorial Coinmunications to the Editor. Telegraphic Address : Phusis, LONDOX. Telephone Number : GERRARD 8830.

I ,

THURSDAY, JUNE 17, 1915.

needs may be met, to separate the invention of new methods of offence or defence from an in

crease in the supply of high explosive shell which THE MOBILISATION OF SCIENCE

has loomed so large in the newspapers.

The N a letter to the Times of June 11 Mr. H. G. novelty of the conditions and the unconvention

ality of the methods employed in this war carry heeded in days of peace, may awaken a sym- the first problem outside the grooves in which pathetic response while the stress of war is upon naval and military engineers have hitherto the nation. In asking that faith in the man behind worked; and the united efforts of civilians and the gun shall not be made any longer an excuse Service men will be required for its solution. The for providing him with fewer or inferior weapons, necessity has arisen for surveying the whole he invites political leaders and the War Office to scientific field to discover methods of destruction make the fullest use of scientific men and method which we may use ourselves or from which our in the conduct of the war. He asks for the men look to us for protection. It is not enough appointment of an acting sub-Government of that the Government should call in a scientific scientific and technically competent men which will expert to advise in respect of what has occurred; organise our utmost resources of scientific know they must be ready to meet it when it does occur. ledge and promote the employment of the most Moreover, such intelligent anticipation ought not effective means of dealing with the enemy. to be the special property of one department, and

There are signs that things are moving in the departmental rivalry or indifference ought to be direction which Mr. Wells indicates as the road smothered at birth by the appointment of a along which triumph must be assured, and his National Committee with a ee hand and ample letter should hasten the organisation of the funds for experimental work. scientific forces which will assist to this end. The Such an arrangement is the more necessary in publication of the total number of casualties order to prevent the diffusion of effort over too during the last ten months ought to convince the wide a field. Some men are already engaged upon nation that this war is one in which we cannot investigations of first-rate importance and yet afford to give odds; and that all the force of unconnected either with industry or war; and scientific ingenuity and scientific organisation must others are doing work upon which the maintenbe concentrated upon the military and naval ance of trade depends. It should be possible to operations. There are hundreds of men of science secure a sufficient number of men of adequate in the country whose energies and expert know-standing without encroaching in any way upon ledge are not being effectively used. We should

.

those we have mentioned. For the war will bring possess a scientific corps, with men investigating its aftermath of international competition, and we at the Front as well as at home, instead of one might as well lose as neglect to prepare for it. or two committees advising officials as to possible We plead, therefore, with Mr. Wells for a central means of offence or defence.

When a

man of organisation which shall direct into the most science of such distinguished eminence as Prof. useful channels that mass of scientific knowledge J. A. Fleming can say, as he does in the Times and skill which is only waiting to serve the of June 15, that after ten months of scientific war

country's need. fare he has never been asked to co-operate in any But valuable as the work of such a committee experimental work or place any of his expert might be, it would not obviate the desirability of knowledge at the disposal of the forces of the using technically trained men to a far greater Crown, though he is anxious to give such assist- extent than is at present attempted, in increasing ance, it is evident that the people in authority the output of the ordinary munitions of war. The cannot understand the value of the scientific forces problem before the new Minister is a dual one, which it cheerfully neglects. Not a day passes and the two factors are labour and organisation. but we are asked by men of science how they can No man can do more than Mr. Lloyd George in devote their knowledge to national needs; and persuading the workmen as a body to recognise there is no ready answer. The organisation of the importance of unity and the danger which the scientific intellect of the country is essential, arises from industrial disputes; and every speech yet almost nothing has yet been done towards its he delivers is both an inspiration and a warning. accomplishment.

But it remains to be seen how far he will be It seems necessary, in considering how national able to secure that smoothness and efficiency of administration that is so completely the need of as a war of guns and ammunition, and if we are the hour.

to hasten that end which we believe to be inevitThe intention of the Minister has been pretty able, we must concentrate

every element of clearly expressed. Production is to be speeded scientific knowledge and technical skill into its up by using at first the most perfectly equipped prosecution. shops, and by drawing labour and machines from Scientific discovery, mechanical invention, and those less fully qualified to undertake the work. a highly technical organisation as employed by the It is to be hoped that an effort will be made Germans are only to be beaten by similar forces to work three shifts in the twenty-four hours. arrayed against them. It is not a time to say There seems to be no reason why the students in what ought to have been in the past, but what the scientific and technological faculties of the should be now and in the immediate future. We universities and older boys in public schools know that up to a certain point the scientific should not be mobilised for this purpose.

The resources of the country have been drawn upon, greater number of jobs are carried out on auto- but beyond the fact that one man is working at matic machines, the control of which can be explosives, another at the Royal Aircraft Factory, learnt in a fortnight or less. The main object, and a third is testing for the Admiralty, we want however, is that the most efficient and economical to feel that these are only details of a wider methods of production must be adopted; the small scheme so perfect in its organisation that the full shop, therefore, must stand out; and the individual effect of our forty-five millions of people is brought must express his patriotism in co-operative effort. to bear upon the enemy. Many people would

Not a great deal of consolation is to be derived sleep more peacefully if they knew that every from the administration of local committees con- technically trained man in the universities, unistituted by a careful balancing of interests and versity colleges, technical institutions, and in "municipalised” by the presence of the chief the Government Departments was not doing his magistrate. If the local employers, managers, or “business as usual,” but making it his special foremen are giving the most effective service in business to provide the nation with the scientific their own works they will have little time for material and machinery by which alone can our attending committees. A committee is as effective forces achieve success in the present conflict. in affording opportunity for personal differences as it is for securing unanimity as to method and aim.

MODERN ELECTRICAL THEORY. The more such bodies are used in an advisory, and the less they are used in an execu

The Electron Theory of Matter. By Prof. O. W.

Richardson. tive capacity, the happier will be the result of

Pp. vi +612. (Cambridge: At their efforts. For getting things done one auto

the University Press, 1914.) Price 18s. net. crat is worth twenty committees, provided that

HIS book is based on a series of lectures he has common sense and is neither a politician

delivered by Prof. Richardson at the nor a lawyer who regulates action by precedent. University of Princeton, and gives a general The work of organising our scientific and survey of the electron theory. The book starts

with

account of the elementary printechnical forces should not be put into the hands of men whose knowledge is limited to the ety

ciples of the theory of electricity and magmological derivation of the names of things re

netism, and a discussion of phenomena which quired--at least not in time of war, and it is

can be explained on the general Maxwell theory.

From this we are gradually led to the discussion imperative to consider whether the real resources

of such phenomena as dispersion and selective of technically trained men have been tapped. A

absorption, which have first found satisfactory great many have entered the army and have been

explanations on the electron theory. Next follows drafted into regiments where their specialised

a closer account of the theory of the mechanics knowledge is of little use. Even then the fact

of electrons, containing detailed considerations of that they can write has resulted in their being the problems of electromagnetic mass, the radiaburdened with clerical work, which could as easily tion from an accelerated electron, and the properbe done by women. But there are many men who ties of moving systems. This part ends with a for more or less adequate reasons

not in

brief account of the principles of the theory of uniform and are only awaiting the call to indus- relativity. After this we return again to the contrial service. In comparison with previous wars sideration of the general properties of matter, and the present conflict is not a war of men so much the results deduced in the preceding chapters are

THE

an

are

employed in a discussion of the bearing of the ment, it would, perhaps, be to examine the conelectron theory on the problems of temperature stitution of the special atomic systems actually radiation, magnetism, and the theory of metallic existing, and then, by means of the directly conduction. Finally, after an account of the observable properties of matter, possibly to deduce theories of spectroscopic phenomena and the the general principles. If so, the evolution would phenomena of radio-activity and X-rays, we are be exactly the reverse of that anticipated. led into a discussion of the theories of the con- In the present unsettled state, Prof. Richardstitution of the atom.

son's book, which gives a balanced and masterly It will be seen that the book covers a very

survey of a wide range of knowledge, will no extensive field. To give an adequate representa- doubt be especially welcome. It can be most tion of the entire electron theory is naturally a heartily recommended, not only to students who task of the greatest difficulty, but the author seek an introduction to the electron theory, but appears to have done this in an admirable manner. to all interested in the modern development of Of necessity the treatment is at many points very physics.

N. B. restricted, but almost all points of general interest are considered.

If any problem is treated more fully than others it is the theory of metallic con

HORTICULTURE AND BOTANY. duction, as might naturally be expected from the (1) The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture. author's own work. The exposition is through

Vol. ii., C-E. By L. H. Bailey. Pp. 603-1200. out very clear and concise, and Prof. Richardson (New York: The Macmillan Co.; London : possesses a great gift of making even complicated Macmillan and Co., Ltd., 1914.) Price 255. net. arguments very easy for the reader to follow. A (2) Forage Plants and their Culture. By C. V. close connection with the latest experimental pro- Piper. Pp. xx+618. (New York: The Macgress is everywhere maintained, and problems millan Co.; London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd., which involve hitherto unsolved difficulties are 1914.) Price 75. 6d, net. treated in a manner very far from being dogmatic. (3) American Science Series. Essentials of Col

In reading Prof. Richardson's book one gets lege Botany. By Prof. C. E. Bessey and Prof. ample opportunity to think about the present state

E. A. Bessey. Pp. xiv + 409.

(New York: of theoretical physics. The collection of the Henry Holt and Co., n.d.) Price 1.50 dollars. numerous brilliant achievements of the electro- (4) The Story of Plant Life in the British Isles : magnetic theory and the electron theory fills one Types of the Natural Orders. Vol. ii. By A. R. with the greatest admiration. Still, the difficulties, Horwood. Pp. xiv +358. Vol. iii. Pp. xvi + first discovered with relation to the problem of 514. (London: J. and A. Churchill, 1914.) temperature radiation and later in other problems, Price 6s, 6d. net each. seem to be so great and of such a fundamental

'HE second volume of Bailey's “Cyclocharacter that the theory will need very great

pedia of Horticulture" contains inalterations. Even if a way is indicated by Planck's formation on every subject pertaining to horticultheory no satisfactory solution of the difficulties ture from "Cabbages” to “Extension Teaching

· has yet been found. In text-books only a few in Horticulture,” and is of a remarkably compreyears old one finds great enthusiasm over what hensive character. was called the future programme of the electro- Every plant of interest the name of which lies magnetic theory. It was believed that this theory between these two extremes is referred to; the deconstituted a final accomplishment of ordinary rivation of the name is given, descriptive partimechanics, and there appeared to be no limit to culars of the plant, its geographical distribution, the application of the general principles of the and notes on its method of cultivation go to make theory. This attitude has changed most decisively. up each successive article. The book, though The impression obtained by reading the present written primarily for the American horticulturist, book, however, is anything but merely dis- contains much valuable information for extraillusioning. Scarcely at any time has our know- American countries. Certain articles, as that on ledge increased so very rapidly as of late years, the chestnut, remind one of the American origin and, above all, we now possess much

of the work, as we are fortunate in being free powerful methods of experimental attack than from the dreaded chestnut fungus Diaporthe parawere dreamed of a short time ago. Especially

Especially sitica, which has caused such havoc in the United investigation of the radiation from radio-active States. Diseases and insect pests receive extenbodies has proved most efficient in disclosing the sive notice, and some forty double-column pages internal structure of the atoms. If at present we are taken up with descriptions of the various pests may speak of a programme for the future develop- and the means of combating them. As with other

(1) THE

more

articles, the text figures of fungi and insects are the United States. Among the legumes, alfalfa numerous and on the whole well-executed.

or lucerne occupies the first place, and the various The genus Crataegus, which reaches so con- clovers, peas, and vetches, soy beans, and other spicuous a development in the States, has been sub-tropical leguminous plants are discussed in carefully worked up by Prof. Sargent, and some

some detail. nine hundred species are now recognised, to the Root crops also come in for their share of attenconfusion of European botanists and gardeners. tion. The book is written for the agriculturists In the encyclopædia the account of the genus occu- of the United States, but the information it conpies nearly eleven pages from the pen of Mr. tains should prove of value to agricultural Rehder, and the key to the fifty species which workers in South Africa, Australia, parts of he mentions lends considerable value to the northern India, and British East Africa, where article.

Eucalyptus again, another enormous many of the forage plants mentioned in the book genus but this time of introduced plants, occupies can be successfully grown. twelve pages, and there is a large illustration of (3) A text-book which is said to contain only the a very fine specimen of E. viminalis growing in essentials of the subject and written for “college California. The key, which refers to as many as teachers ” may well be an uninteresting producseventy-six species, is followed by short, useful tion, and that by Profs. C. E. and E. A. Bessey descriptions with a few text-figures interspersed. cannot be considered inspiring. It is to be hoped Other large genera which fall within the compass that the teachers who will use the book have of this volume are Cereus, Dendrobium, Echino- already had their interest in botany roused and cactus, Echinocereus, and Euphorbia, all of which their enthusiasm for the subject fired by other receive very careful treatment.

teachers before taking up “the essentials ” as a There are a certain number of full-page illus- course of study. Not even the illustrations lend a trations, either in colour or in the form of photo- helping hand, as they are singularly poor, and graphic reproductions, which are well executed; those of nuclear division are almost childish. among the latter that of cranberry-picking in a Though largely a very elementary treatise, the New Jersey bog makes a delightful picture; the chapter on the chemistry of plants, with its masses coloured plates might have been dispensed with of formulæ, is a formidable affair, and is too conas they are of no particular interest. It is diffi- densed to be of much practical value. The latter cult to find any plant of importance or value which part of the book consists of a rapid classificatory has been omitted. Owing to the large amount of survey of the vegetable kingdom with poor little material included, the volume is unduly bulky, figures.

The book should not meet with much and like other American publications suffers from popularity on this side of the Atlantic. its weight.

(4) Mr. Horwood's second volume follows simi(2) “Forage Plants and their Culture” comes lar lines to the first one previously reviewed in from the master-hand of the agrostologist in

NATURE. The introduction gives a rapid review charge of forage-plant investigations of the United of general botanical information which is not States Department of Agriculture, and is a valu- always sound; the statement on p. 8, for instance, able and well-illustrated agricultural handbook. that if the nucleus is damaged the plant dies, The introduction deals with forage crops gener

would suggest to the uninitiated that a plant posally, and in connection with the legumes an ac- sesses only a single nucleus. Other sweeping count of root nodules and nitrification is given. assertions, such as “the endodermis ... is graviThe chapters which follow treat of the preserva- perceptional,” that parasitic plants possess roottion of forage and choice of crops, in which the hairs, and that “the protection of the stomata results of feeding experiments, chemical analyses, from being clogged is ensured by the provision of the chemical composition as affected by the state hairs and their occurrence on the under-side of of maturity of the crop, and other particulars are the leaf,” may be received with caution by those given.

who have a wider knowledge of botanical facts. The chapter on “Seeds and Seeding” is illus- Mr. Horwood, after mentioning that "very

' trated by useful plates showing the noxious weed little free nitrogen is obtained from the air by seeds found among farm seeds. "Meadows and plants,” proceeds to remark on the temperatures Pastures ” and statistics of forage crops occupy favourable to plant growth, and apparently withthe two next chapters. These are followed by de- out having made his calculations from Centigrade tailed accounts of various crops, such as timothy, to Fahrenheit, states that the “most suitable temblue grasses, meadow grasses, the bromes, the perature for plant growth is about 28° C., though sorghums, millets, and other grasses which figure plants can grow below this," and further, “above prominently among the valuable forage plants of a temperature of 56° C. plants usually die.” This

a

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