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We have received from the University Press of as chairman of the governing body. In speaking of Liverpool a copy of a report of the Senate of the the work of the institute, Sir Boverton Redwood said University upon research and other original work that such work as is being done was never more by members of the University published or completed needed than at the present time. Among other during the session 1913-14. The titles of papers and things which the war has done for us, it has shown other publications are arranged under faculties and us that there must be a much more intimate relation numbered consecutively, those published during the between science and industry in this country; and it session being placed first. The abbreviations adopted is to be hoped that the students will avail themselves in the titles of scientific periodicals are those used in to the fullest possible extent of the facilities which the the “International Catalogue of Scientific Literature." institute affords them of becoming better qualified to

discharge the duties with which they will be enAt a meeting heid in New York, on January 27, trusted. If one result of the war is to bring about a in connection with the inauguration of the Engineer- better recognition of what is needed in this direction ing Foundation, it was announced, says Science, that we shall have some compensation for the sacrifices the initial gift had been made by Mr. Ambrose which we are making. In referring to the courses on Swasey, past-president of the American Society of

fuel and power, arranged at the institute, Sir BoverMechanical Engineers, who has given 40,000l. for ton pointed out the all-important part that is now " the advancement of the engineering arts and sciences being played by liquid fuel both in the Navy and on in all their branches to the greatest good of the the field of battle on land, especially in connection engineering profession and for the benefit of mankind." with the “all-oil boilers now in use on the battleships The administration of the fund will be entrusted to

of the Queen Elizabeth class, all of which are driven the Engineering Foundation Board, elected by the

solely by oil fuel. trustees of the United Engineering Society. From the same issue of our contemporary we learn that the sum of 8oool, has been given by Mr. Andrew Carnegie

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. to Allegheny College for a chemical laboratory to replace that recently destroyed by fire; and that Mr.

LONDON, Patten, who has already given 100,000l. to the medical Geological Society, February 19.—Annual General school of Northwestern University, has now added Meeting.-Dr. A. Smith Woodward, president, in the 5400l. for scholarships.

chair.-Dr. A. Smith Woodward : Presidential Address. The Department of Agriculture and Technical In

The progress of geology depends on so many lines

of research, that each specialist does well at times to struction for Ireland has issued particulars of the summer courses of instruction for teachers to be held

pause and consider the relation of his own small part this year in Ireland. The courses, with the excep

to the whole. The president therefore reviewed some

results of his study of fossil fishes in their bearing on tion of that in rural science for national school teachers to be held in August, will begin on July 6 and

stratigraphy: However necessary detailed lists of close on July 30. Among the courses arranged may

species of fossils might be for comparative work be mentioned that on chemical manufactures intended

with sediments in restricted areas, he hoped to show

that in dealing with broader questions names were for teachers of chemistry in technical schools who hold a university degree in chemistry or equivalent

really of small importance. Certain general principles

had been arrived at, which would serve for all pracqualification; and those on the testing and working of electrical machines, practical mathematics and

tical purposes. Each successive great group of fishes

began with free-swimming fusiform animals, of which mechanics, hygiene and sick nursing, experimental science, and rural science (including school garden

some passed quickly into slow-moving or grovelling ing). Teachers who attend the courses from the be

types, while others changed more gradually into ginning to the end are allowed a sum of 31. 1os.

elongated or eel-shaped types. There was also a con

stant tendency for the primitive symmetry of the parts towards their expenses while living at the centre; and

of the skeleton in successive members of a group to those who travel more than twenty miles to the centre of instruction are allowed, in addition, third-class rail

become marred by various more or less irregular way fare for one return journey from the railway

fusions, subdivisions, and suppressions. Some of the station nearest their school.

successive species of each group increased in size,

until the maximum was reached just before the time The metallurgy laboratory for the mechanical testing

for extinction. These and many other more special of metals and alloys, presented to the Sir John Cass

inevitable changes had now been traced in most Technical Institute by the Worshipful Company of

groups, and the various geological dates at which Goldsmiths, was formally opened by Sir Boverton

they occurred had been determined by observations Redwood, Senior Warden of the Goldsmiths' Com

on fossil fishes from many parts of the world. Even pany, on March 3, in the unavoidable absence owing

fragments of fish-skeletons, too imperfect to be named, to illness of Sir Robert Mowbray, Prime Warden of

often therefore of value for stratigraphical the company. The work of this new laboratory,

purposes. which will form an important extension of the metail- Royal Anthropological Institute, February 23.—C. urgy department of the institute, will be carried on Dawson : Flint implement cultures of the Sussex Ouse from the metallurgical rather than from the engineer- Valley, with special reference to the Piltdown graveling point of view, and will be closely related to the spreads and deposits. Among the exhibits were instruction already provided in connection with the originals and casts of the rude iron-stained Paläolithic metallographic and pyrometric examination of metals implements discovered at Piltdown. They are really and alloys, including iron and steel and the materials large flakes worked on one face, rather after the used in the motor-car industry and in the construction Chellean culture. The other face is unworked, like of aeroplanes, high-speed machinery, and the like. those from the Mousterian cultures. The large Previous to the opening of the laboratory, Sir Bover- elephant-bone implement trimmed to a point like a ton Redwood distributed the prizes gained by students stake at one end, and roughly rounded by cuts at the of the institute during the past session, and delivered other end, was exhibited. By comparison it is found an address, the chair being taken by Sir Thomas that this implement is made from one of the thighElliott, who has succeeded the late Sir Owen Roberts bones of a large species of elephant not yet discovered

were

or

occurrence

later than Late Pliocene or Early Pleistocene ages. is an entirely new fructification, consisting of thecæ Mr. Dawson specially dealt with the “* columnar with eight teeth, terminating the branches of a dicho*prismatic ” flints of which the gravel-spreads of the tomously branched axis. These thecæ are regarded neighbourhood is mainly composed. Among these as being probably of the nature of cupules. Spheno. Hints have been discovered many of the Eolithic type pteridium rigidum, Ludw., is recorded for the first forms and some rostro-carinate varieties,

time from Britain. The other fossils can only be

identified generically as Sphenopteris sp., Telangium Zoological Society, February 23.--Prof. E. W. Mac- sp., Knorria sp., and Cordaites? sp. These are the Bride, vice-president, in the chair.-Miss Kathleen oldest (in a geological sense) fossil plants of terresHaddon : The methods of feeding and the mouth-parts trial habit yet known from England.-H. Hamshaw of the larva of the glow-worm. External digestion is Thomas : Some new and rare Jurassic plants from a phenomenon of fairly wide

among

Yorkshire-the male flower of Williamsonia gigas, various groups of insects, and the mouth-parts are in

L. and H. The female strobili of this species were some cases specially adapted to this purpose. The described many years ago, but the male sporophylls larva of the glow-worm (Lampyris noctiluca) feeds have remained a matter for speculation. When examon snails, of which it leaves no residue but an empty ining the specimens in the Yates Collection in the shell; it is unlikely that there is any preliminary Museum of Natural History at Paris, the author found anæsthetising as asserted by Fabre. The mandibles an example showing an undoubted male flower of of the larva bite up the food and each mandible is the same general type as Williamsonia spectabilis, pierced by a fine tube, through which a dark-coloured Nath. Though not attached, there were strong reasons fluid is exuded. The bases of all the mouth-parts are for regarding it as belonging to the species W. gigas. covered with fine outwardly directed hairs, which are The flower was briefly described, and compared with bathed in the juices of the snail whilst the larva is other species in the genus.—Dr. C. E. Moss : Nomenfeeding; the juice is sucked into the æsophagus,

clature of Pteris aquilina. which is extremely narrow, by the action of a pharyn

DUBLIN. geal pump similar to that found in other sucking insects.--Dr. J. F. Gemmill : Ciliation of asterids and Royal Irish Academy, February 22.-Count Plunkett the question of ciliary nutrition in certain species. in the chair.-J. A. McClelland and J. J. Dowling : The arrangement of the ciliary currents on the various Some electrical properties of powders in thin layers. surfaces of four widely different species of starfishes A very thin layer of a conducting powder, such as is described in detail. This arrangement is constant graphite, is formed on the surface of an insulator, for all individuals in each of the species, and, except usually paraffin. Tinfoil strips a few centimetres as regards external surfaces, is practically the same in apart are fastened on the layer so as to make good all the species. Everywhere the arrangement is electrical connection with it, and the conductivity of shown to be explicable by physiological needs. Cilia- the layer measured. The strips being earthed, a high tion in the perihæmal spaces is demonstrated.-R. E. potential is applied to a plate parallel to the layer, a Turner : New fossorial wasps. The wasps were mostly few millimetres of paraffin intervening between the collected while on a recent expedition to Australia, plate and the layer. The conductivity of the layer but include a few received from the Queensland and is then found to be very much increased. The points West Australian Museums.-Lt.-Col. J. M. Fawcett : of resemblance and of difference between this effect A collection of Heterocera made by Mr. W. Feather and the coherer effect are discussed in the paper, and in British East Africa. The bulk of the species was the laws obeyed by the conductivity are studied in taken at light during damp evenings, and perhaps detail. the most interesting capture is that of a specimen

PARIS of the celebrated Actias besanti, Rebel, a large and

Academy of Sciences, March 1.-M. Ed. Perrier in most beautiful Saturnid moth distinguished by its the chair. The President announced the deaths of extremely long tails. This is a well-known rarity of

George William Hill and G. F. J. Auwers, correthe “first water," and only four specimens were

spondants in the section of astronomy.-E. L. Bouvier : previously known to have been taken, two of which

The adaptative forms of Scyllarus arctus and the are in the British Museum and two in Germany. Besides the forms described as new species, there are

post-larval development of Scyllarus.-Haton de la

Goupillière : The sums of like powers of integral numa good many previously described forms not as yet

bers.-J. Guillaume : Observations of the Mellish represented in the National Collection, which of itself

comet made at the Observatory at Lyons. Six posiis evidence of their raritv. Mr. Feather is to be especially congratulated upon the very perfect con

tions given for February 20, 23, 25, and 26. The

comet appeared as a circular nebulosity, diameter dition of his specimens and the very accurate record he has kept of the dates of their capture and the

about half a minute of arc, with faintly marked

excentric nucleus. Was' about the uth magnitude.localities. Many of the forms dealt with in this memoir were only previously

M. Coggia : Observations of the Mellish comet made known to science

at the Marseilles Observatory. Positions given for through specimens brought from tropical West Africa, and were previously unrecorded from British East

February 20, 23, and 25.-W. Sierpinski : A curve of Africa. But this region still remains to be properly Brochet : The catalytic reduction of indigo. In slightly

which any point is a point of ramification.-André worked out, and a great field of research is in store

alkaline solution indigo is rapidly reduced by hydrogen for anyone who can find time to take the matter in hand.

in presence of suspended metallic nickel. The indigo

white obtained has the advantage of being free from CAMBRIDGE.

saline impurities.-J. Caralp : A Permian melaphyre Philosophical Society, February 22.- .-Prof. Newall,

in the Ariège Pyrenees.-Marin Molliard : Free president, in the chair.-Dr. Arber and R. H. Goode : nitrogen and the higher plants. Experiments are Some fossil plants from the Devonian rocks of North

described proving that the radish, grown aseptically, Devon. In addition to the first record of an obscure is incapable of assimilating atmospheric nitrogen.. plant specimen from the Lynton beds, some six other

Georges A. Le Roy : The use of low temperatures in types are described from the Baggy or Cucullæa beds toxicological analysis. The fine subdivision of tissues of the Upper Devonian. One of these, Xenotheca, i is facilitated by a preliminary solidification by freezing.

:

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WEDNESDAY, MARCH 17. INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, al 7:45.-Students' Section

Some Experiments on the Induction Generator : W. H. Date. ROVAL SOCIETY OF ARTS, at 8.-The Industrial Uses of Coal Gas: H. M.

Thornton. ROYAL METEOROLOGICAL Society, at 7.30.— The Meteorology of the

Sun : Dr. W. Geoffrey Duffield. ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 8. ROYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY, at 8.-A New Mitotic Structure Disclosed

as the Result of New Techuique : E., J. Sheppard.-Notes on the Structure of Tests of Fresh-water Rhizopoda : G. H. Wailes.

THURSDAY, MARCH 18. ROYAL SOCIETY, at 4:30.- Bakerian Lecture : X-rays and Crystals : Prof.

W. H. Bragg ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 3. - The Form and Structure of the London Basia :

Dr. A. Strahan.
ROYAL SOCIETY OF Arts, at 4.30.—The Indian Army: Lieut.-Colonel

A. C. Yate.
INSTITUTION OF MINING AND METALLURGY, at 8.-Annual Meeting.

FRIDAY, MARCH 19.
ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 9.– The Modern Piano Player-Scientific Aspects :

Prof. G. H. Bryan. INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS, at 8.-The Chemical and

Mechanical Relations of Iron, Cobalt, and Carbon : Prof. J. 0. Arnold and Prof. A. A. Read.

SATURDAY, MARCH 20. ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 3.-Recent Researches on Atoms and lons : Sir J. J.

Thomson.

BOOKS RECEIVED. The Carnegie United Kingdom Trust. First Annual Report. Pp. 34. (Edinburgh : T. and A. Constable.)

Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India. Palæontologia Indica. Vol. v. Memoir No. 2. The Anthracolithic Faunæ of Kashmir, Kanaur, and Spiti. By Dr. C. Diener. Pp. 135+plates xi. (Calcutta : Geological Survey; London : Kegan Paul and Co., Ltd.)

Twenty-seventh Annual Report of the Purdue University Agricultural Experiment Station, Lafayette, Indiana. Pp. 88. (Lafayette : Haywood Publishing Co.)

Clark University, Worcester, Mass. Register and Twenty-seventh Official Announcement. Pp. 112. (Worcester, Mass. : Clark l'niversity.)

Memoirs of the Geological Survey, Scotland. Explanation of Sheet 74. The Geology of Mid-Strathspey and Strathdearn. By L. W. Hinxman and E. M. Anderson, Pp. V +97. (London: H.M.S.O.; E. Stanford, Ltd.) 25. 6d.

Memoirs of the Geological Survey, England and Wales. Explanation of Sheet 269. "The Geology of the Country around Windsor and Chertsey. Bi A. Dewey and C. E. N. Bromehead. Pp. vi + 123. (London : H.M.S.O.; E. Stanford, Ltd.

2s. 6d.

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36

CONTENTS.

PAGE A Text-Book of Forestry .

29 The Languages of Southern Nigeria. By Sir H. H. Johnston, G.C.M.G., K.C.B. .

29 Household Insects. By G. H. C. .

30 Geographical Texi.Books

31 Our Bookshelf

32 Letters to the Editor :

Resonance of Sodium Vapour in a Magnetic Field.-
Hon, R. J. Strutt, F.R.S.

33 The Spectra of Hydrogen and Helium. - Prof. j. w. Nicholson .

33 A Neglected Correction in Osmotics. - The Earl of Berkeley, F.R.S.

33 Chemistry and Industry. - Justin E. Pollak

3+ Measurements of Medieval English Femora. -Dr.

F. G. Parsons
The Green Flash.--C. T.
Whitmell:

35
The Prices of Chemicals.-J. J. .
Through Siberia. (Illustrated.) By Prince Kropotkin 36
A Biological Puzzle .
Prof. James Geikie, F.R.S. By J. W. J.

40 Emile-Hilaire Amagat. By C, H. L.

41 Notes.

41 Our Astronomical Column :

Mellish's Comet
The British Eclipse Expeditions of 1914
Astronomy in America
Grundspectra of Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals .

Electrons in the Sun's Atmosphere.
The Chemical Industries of Germany. By Prof.
Percy Frankland, F.R.S.

47 British Association Discussion of the Nature and Origin of Species. By T. J. .

49 Forthcoming Books of Science

50 The Second Indian Science Congress

51 University and Educational Intelligence

53 Societies and Academies .

54 Books Received Diary of Societies

38

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46 46 46 46

DIARY OF SOCIETIES.

THURSDAY, MARCH 11. Royal Society, at_4.30.-Contributions to the Study of the kionomics

and Reproductive Processes of the Foraminifera : E. Heron-Allen.—The Occurrence of an Intracranial Ganglion upon the Oculomotor Nerve in Scyllium Canicula, with a suggestion as to its Bearing upon the question of the Segmental Value of certain of the Cranial Nerves : G. E. Nicholls. -Experiments on the Restoration of Paralysed Muscles by Means of Nerve Anastomosis. 111.- Anastomosis of the Brachial Plexus, with a consideration of the Distribution of its Roots : Prof. R. Kennedy.-On the Mecbanism of the Cardiac Valves. A Preliminary Communication :

A. F. S. Kent. INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGIngers, at 8.-Electric Cooking, mainly

from the Consumer's Point of View: W. R. Cooper. CHILD STUDY Society, at 6.-Discussion : The Care and Development of

the Child-during School Age – Treatment Centres and their Possibilities: Miss Margaret McMillan.-Care Committees : Mrs. Evelyn.

FRIDAY, MARCH 12. Royal INSTITUTION, at 9.—Back to Lister : Sir R. J. Godlee. PHYSICAL. Society, at 8.-(1) The Estimation of High Temperatures by the

Method of Colour Identity: (2) The Voit of Candle-power in White Light : C. C. Paterson and B. P. Dudding. - The Relative Losses in Dielectrics in Equivalent Electric Fields, Steady and Alternating

(R.M.S.): G. L. Addenbrooke. MALACOLOGICAL Society, at 8.-Hclicella crayfordensis, n.sp. from the

Pleistocene deposits of S.E. England : A. S. Kennard and B. B. Wood. ward.-Further Notes on Radulæ: the Rev. E. W. Bowell.-The Editions

of Swainson's “ Exotic Conchology": A. Reynell. ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, at 5.-Double Stars Measured at the

Cape: J. Voûte.-Comet Westland : E. H. Beattie.-A General Solution of Hill's Equation : E. Lindsay Ince.-Note on the Comparison of Two Plates of the Same Region in the Vatican Zones of the Astrographic Catalogue : Ethel F. Bellamy.-Probable Papers : The Dynamics of a Globular Stellar System. II.: A. S. Eddington.-The Secular Acceleration of the Moon's Mean Motion, as Determined from the Occultations in the Alinagest : J. K. Fotheringham and Gertrude Longbottom. - Micrometrical Measures of Double Siars made in 1914: Rev. T. E. R. Phillips.

SATURDAY, MARCH 13. ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 3.-Recent Researches on Atoms and lons : Sir J. J. Thomson.

MONDAY, MARCH 15.? ARISTOTELIAN SOCIETY, at 8.-The Philosophy of Values: Dr. Tudor

Jones. Victoria INSTITUTE, at 4. 30. --The Determination of Easter Day: Dr.

A. M. W. Downing. ROYAL SOCIETY OF Arts, at 8.-House Building: M. H. Baillie Scott.

TUESDAY, MARCH 1o. ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 3.—The Belief in Immortality among the

Polynesians : Sir J. G. Frazer. ROYAL STATISTICAL Society, at 5.15.—The Cost of the War: E. Crammond. ILLUMINATING ENGINEERING Society at 8.-Discussion : The Marking

and Rating of Lamps and the best methods of specifying their Illuminat.

ing Value MINERALOGICAL Society, at 5.15.–The Dispersion of Adularia from

St. Gothard, Felspar from Madagascar, and Moonstone from Ceylon : Dr. S. Kôzu.-- The Meteoric Stone of Launton, Oxfordshire : Dr. G. T. Prior.

46

56 56

Editorial and Publishing Offices :

MACMILLAN & CO., LTD., ST. MARTIN'S STREET, LONDON, W.C.

Advertisements and business letters to be addressed to the

Publishers.

Editorial Communications to the Editor. Telegraphic Address : Phusis, LONDON. Telephone Number : GERRARD 8830.

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THURSDAY, MARCH 18, 1915.

form, stereotyped, and antiquated pattern, but must be elastic and carefully adapted to the needs

of each particular class of the community. EduSCIENCE AND INDUSTRY.

cation of every kind has been promoted, not only THATEVER the political changes resulting by pecuniary endowment but by the granting of

from the present European struggle may exceptional privileges, both material and social, be, it is certain that the industrial and economic

to those possessing attainments of a higher order, changes will be of an equally striking and revolu

e.g., by the reduction of military service to a tionary character. Those of us who can remem- period of one year only in the case of all boys ber Europe as it was before the war of 1870 and who have passed beyond a certain school standard. now look back upon the forty-five years which Research of every description, not only in science have elapsed since that fateful conflict, cannot but in every other branch of learning, has been fail to realise that the transfer of Alsace and

fostered to an extent quite unknown in any other Lorraine from France to Germany was an event country. of vanishing importance compared with the gigan- This has resulted in Germany becoming beyond tic disturbance which has been brought about in all other countries the land of the expert, Europe and throughout the world by the unprece- "a country of damned professors," as Lord dented industrial expansion of Germany which Palmerston once called it in the language of a has taken place during the same period. Some bygone day. It is the country in which every idea of the stupendous magnitude of this rapid man is proud of knowing his own particular busidevelopment in the matter of chemical industries

ness, nor will he be listened to on any other submay be gathered from the figures cited by Prof. ject. In England, if a man succeeds in catching Percy Frankland in a lecture recently delivered the public ear, his utterances on every conceivable before the Society of Chemical Industry, and of subject will be accepted by thousands. Nothing which an abstract was published in our last issue. is more astounding than the faith which large The magnitude and variety of the German chemi

sections of people put in the omniscience of our cal industries are surpassed in wonder only by the prominent men.

We can

well remember how rapidity with which they have developed from the Mr. Gladstone, who had adopted the plan of very small dimensions which they possessed prior replying by post-card to his innumerable inquirers, to the war of 1870. Still more remarkable, how- was once not only asked for his opinion on the ever, is the fact that a similar investigation of efficacy of vaccination, but actually thought fit to many other activities, such as the textile, mining, express it. Other and much more recent examples

. metallurgical, electrical, agricultural, and ship of the faith reposed in self-constituted oracles ping industries, would reveal developments almost amongst us will occur to most of the readers of equally startling.

NATURE. In Germany knowledge is so widely It is this great industrial prosperity which has diffused, and it is so generally understood that rendered possible the vast and amazing effort to real knowledge can only be attained by years desecure German supremacy in Europe of which voted to some kind of research, using the word we are the spectators to-day. The older ruling in its widest sense, that most educated Germans class in Germany had but little interest in com- are aware that any given individual, however merce and industry as such but it had the sagacity brilliant, can only be an authority in a comparato see that its dreams of empire could only be tively limited field of knowledge. In Germany, realised by fostering industrial and commercial | therefore, it is only the opinion of the accepted enterprise in every possible way. The ruling expert that counts. If Germany is the land of class, at bottom despising the tradesman in every experts, England is undoubtedly the land of shape and form, has had the wisdom to recognise amateurs, and, owing to the extraordinary genius that its prejudices must be concealed, and that of our countrymen, it is quite true that in the everything must be done to put the wealth- past most striking achievements must be credited producing classes into the most favourable posi- to amateurs. Priestley and Cavendish were tion for competing with the similar classes of amateurs, as were Darwin and many others of rival countries. The rulers of Germany had the high distinction that could be mentioned, but they discernment to apprehend that one of the most assuredly became experts also in fact, if not in important weapons in that competition was education, and that education must not be of a uni- Science is the dynamic and creative force in industry, and it is only through scientific dis-cipal corporations, in their capacity as employers covery that industry can rapidly advance. It is of chemists, are no better than the manufacturers. this fact which has been freely recognised in Ger- That the British manufacturer is himself in many, whereas it is from this fact that the great general entirely ignorant of chemistry is the result majority of Englishmen instinctively shrink. The of our antiquated system of education. WhatGerman believes in shaping his practice on theory, ever school he may have attended will almost cerwhilst the Englishman moulds his practice on tainly have been presided over by a headmaster tradition and instinct, and avoids all theoretical reared in traditions of medievalism, with the reconsiderations as far as he can. In the earlier sult that he probably imbibed the idea that the stages of chemical industry, and whilst chemical study of science would relegate him to an inferior science was in a rudimentary state, much was position in the school; at the university, unless he

name.

; accomplished by the eminently practical instincts were reading either classics or mathematics, he of Englishmen, but with the increasing complexity would not, even at the present day, be in the swim, and refinement of the problems involved, progress

and would find little or no favour with the head of has only become possible through profound know- his college, whilst until recently he would have been ledge gained by unceasing investigation directed of no account at all. He would then pass into his by theoretical considerations, and it has been hereditary position in the factory knowing nothing during this later phase that such rapid strides of the science upon which the business is based, have been made by the chemical manufacturers and incapable of understanding even the alphabet of Germany.

of the language of the chemical officers it may Of all the chemical industries, the one which de- possess. What wonder, then, that he distrusts pends most entirely on a far-reaching knowledge and fears these chemists, who are the brain of of chemical theory is that of Synthetic Organic his business, and that he prefers to confide in the Products (Artificial Dyes, Drugs, Perfumes, etc.), engineers, who are but little less ignorant of for it would certainly require instincts of even a chemistry than himself. super-British order to be capable of devising That this is the typical situation in the chemical methods for the economic manufacture of such industries of this country was revealed in a particommodities as indigo, adrenalin, and ionone! cularly significant manner in the House of It is not surprising, therefore, that this branch Commons only a few nights ago, when the of chemical industry is almost entirely in German Government scheme of “British Dyes, Limited,” hands, whilst the other branches are, for the most was under discussion. At the conclusion of the part, gravitating in the same direction.

debate, the Parliamentary Secretary of the Board It is not the unexpected which has happened, of Trade said that the man who was conversant for that the neglect of science by our manufac- with the science and practice of dye manufacture turers would inevitably lead to this result has was unfit to go on the directorate, because, as he been consistently preached by British chemists would know something of the business, the whole during the past forty years. The irony of the of the other directors, being but business men, situation lies in the fact that this relative failure would be in his hands. We are thus authoritaof our chemical industries to expand has gone on tively informed, from his seat in Parliament, by pari passu with a great increase in our output of the Secretary of the very Board which is entrusted chemical research, the quality of some of which with the duty to look after the commercial and has been of a particularly brilliant kind. That industrial interests of the country, that the first this capacity for research has remained almost qualification of a director of a public company wholly divorced from industry is due to the British subsidised by the Government is that he must manufacturer, who has almost entirely failed to know nothing of the business in which that comattract into his works the more brilliant chemists pany proposes to engage. Surely the report of trained in this country. The remuneration and this speech must have escaped the astigmatic eye prospects offered are in general of such a disad- of the official censor, or he would have passed vantageous character that they cannot be enter- his pencil over a piece of information so gratitained excepting as a last resort. It is, more- fying and useful to the enemy! As Prof. Armover, the absence of any prospect of reasonable strong, in commenting on this utterance in a remuneration in industrial chemistry that greatly letter to the Morning Post on Saturday last, very limits the study of chemistry as a profession in truly remarks: “Our fate as makers of dyes is this country. The Government and the muni- sealed. We, the taxpayers, can do nothing but

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