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be visible for some considerable time, but the eye may We have received from Messrs. Charles Baker ; be fatigued for twenty minutes with yellow light with- catalogue of microscopes and accessories, all of whic: out interfering with the visibility of the red light. are manufactured at their factory in 'London. Tir (3) The eye may be fatigued with red or green without list includes several new models, amongst which are altering the hue of spectral yellow. This may be three instruments similar to the Continental design shown by wearing red or green glass spectacles which the prices of which compare very favourably with thos are transparent to yellow. (4) When a sodium flame quoted abroad. Another instrument of interest is is viewed after fatigue with spectral red light it is very the workshop metallurgical microscope." The cata. little affected in the region of the after-image, though logue is well produced and copiously illustrated. the green-blue after-image is very strongly marked on either side of the sodium flame, when the afterimage is larger than the flame. The fundamental

OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. phenomena of colour sensation are still very obscure. THE STRUCTURE OF THE UNIVERSE.-If the distance Perhaps the most difficult fact to explain away is the of each star were known in addition to its position obvious simplicity of white, if it be indeed true that it in the sky, our knowledge of the present structure is compounded of many tints.

of the universe would be complete. In order to dete.

mine the change in the structure, it would be on y BULLETIN No. 1 of the Chemical Section of the necessary to know the motions of the stars. We know Wellcome Tropical Research 'Laboratories, Khartoum, the positions of a great number of the stars and their contains a paper on the estimation of methyl alcohol

motions across the line of sight; we know also the in the presence of ethyl alcohol, by Mr. W. A. R.

velocities in the line of sight of a few, and the dis

tances of a still smaller number. The data for the Wilks; in this paper the standard process of Thorpe solution of the problem are therefore very meagre. and Holmes is slightly modified so as to increase the Nevertheless, there are indirect methods of attacking degree of accuracy. Bulletin No. 2 is a discussion of the problem which may tend to lead one to an approxi. the applicability of papyrus to paper manufacture by mate solution, and it is these methods which form Dr. W. Beam; it is concluded that after allowing

the subject of the very instructive article which appears for the collection and transport of the papyrus to

in the July number of Science Progress by Mr. H.

Spencer Jones, of the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. Europe, there is a margin for profit for this substance The idea, as he states, that the centre of our system is as a raw material in the paper industry. Bulletin occupied by an immense sun, many thousands of No. 3, by Dr. Beam, deals with tests for hashish, times larger and more glorious than our own sun, more particularly the test which depends upon the fact

and that round about it are millions of lesser suns of that the resinous matter, “cannabinol,” of hashish

various sizes, together forming the nucleus of an

immense spiral nebula, of which the spiral arms coll. produces a rich purple colour on treatment with a

ing around the nucleus appear to us as the Milky War, small amount of caustic alkali. The principal point and that this to us immense system is but one, and to which attention is directed is that the extract of perhaps a comparatively small, island universe Cannabis indica does not usually respond to this test; amongst thousands or millions of other island universes the influence of soil, climate, method of cultivation, in space, is an idea which by its magnificence appeals

to the mind of man. and curing seems to have much greater effect on the

What forms the substance of chemical composition of this plant than has hitherto

the article is the basis of truth upon which this con

ception is founded, and the straightforward and clear been suspected.

way in which the author has marshalled his evidence PROF. F. C. Lea and Mr. W. Norman Thomas have

makes the article of particular interest. an article in Engineering for July 2 on the change in The NEBULOUS REGION NEAR OMICRON PERSEI.-It is density of mild steel strained by compression beyond due to photography and the portrait lens that our the yield point. Experiments were undertaken with a

knowledge of the large diffused nebulæ and the dark

regions of the sky has been gained, and it was only view of ascertaining how far changes of density occur

recently that Prof. E. E. Barnard's work in this field in overstrained mild steel, and whether any change in

was referred to in this journal. Attention is now density occurs with time after the straining-load is directed by him to the great nebulous region near released. Preliminary experiments definitely indicated Omicron Persei (Astrophysical Journal, Mayi, a photothat a change of density was brought about by over- graph of which he describes and illustrates. The

examine more straining, and that the time factor was important. photograph was specially taken to Until this was recognised it was difficult to get con

closely this region for dark or partly luminous matter

which produces the apparent vacancies. The attempt sistent results. For results to be comparable two con

was successful after giving an exposure of 6 hours ditions must be observed. First, if the specimens are and 41 minutes with the Bruce 10- and 6-in. telescopes. loaded considerably beyond the yield point, the final Prof. Barnard describes the photograph in some deiail, loads must be kept on the specimens for the same and points out the association of this region with time; in other words, the amount of strain, and thus

that of the Pleiades, of which it forms part. the change in density, are dependent upon the time of WORK AT THE LOWELL OBSERVATORY. -Among the loading. Secondly, the densities should be determined many interesting contributions to the American as soon after the loading as possible. Results show Museum Journal (vol. xv., No. 5), two deal with the that an increase in density occurred during a rest

fine photographic work which is being carried on at period of from thirty-five to thirty-eight days after the

the Lowell Observatory, this observatory being situated

in Arizona at an elevation of 7250 ft., the finest site load had been removed. Experiments are suspended

of any existing similar institution. The articles in meanwhile as Birmingham University is in use as a question are on the subjects, “Oxygen and Water on hospital.

Mars” and “The Photograph in Astronomy," and are

а

some

written by the director of the observatory, Prof. Per- activities, and the museum sends him back with more cival Lowell and Mr. E. C. Slipher respectively. The intelligent interest in those activities. On the true illustrations are a distinguishing feature of both com- scientific foundation must be based appropriateness of munications; they show the great 24-in. refracting tele- design, carried out by sound workmanship; and so scope and the dome in which it is housed; comparison Mr. H. H. Peach, of the Leicester Art School, exspectra of the moon and Mars demonstrate the differ- pounded the objects of the newly-formed Design and ence in darkness of the water-vapour band indicating Industries Association, and indicated the help that the the presence of water vapour in the atmosphere of museum might best give in its attempt to organise Vars. Photographs of the planets Saturn and Jupiter the artistic faculty in union with the technical ability give one an idea of the great advances made in record- and commercial enterprise of the nation. ing their surface features and satellite phenomena, As regards industries, museums have also their own while the spectrum of the latter planet affords a means interests to serve; glass jars and other apparatus, of measuring the speed of rotation by noting the slant metal trays and cases, formalin and various reagents, of the lines. Photographs of nebulæ and comet 1910a are among the museum material hitherto obtained are included among other illustrations.

chiefly from Germany, owing to the inability or unwillingness of British manufacturers to meet the de

mands of curators. A committee was appointed to THE MUSEUMS ASSOCIATION.

approach manufacturers with a statement of probable

requirements and to invite tenders. We trust that this ΤΟ

O associations as to individuals there comes a time ccmmittee will consult with those committees of the

of trial, when their worth to the world is tested. British Science Guild which are doing similar work The Museums Association, like other bodies, had to (NATURE, July 8, p. 520). be proved by this year of war, and if it hesitated fully But dearth of men will be a greater danger than to grasp the great occasion, yet it rose not ignobly dearth of material, and, as was forcibly pleaded by towards it. Devoted to the arts and studies of peace, Nurse Prior, museums might well follow the example it would fain have withdrawn awhile from the of Leicester, and devote a section to children's welfare, turbulence, had not a fortunate rule insisted on at showing by concrete examples the right and the wrong least a general business meeting. Still wishing to be ways of nursing, feeding, and clothing babies. inconspicuous, it chose London as its place of assembly And then these children will have to be educated, a on July 7-8, proposing to do little more than prolong task in which the museum will take no small share. the official life of its officers and council who, it was Of all peaceful activities the education of the young thought, had been robbed of their opportunities by the is the one that most needs to be kept going, and day war. Happily for the association,

wider by day we realise afresh that the thing seen is more imaginations took a stronger line, and determined to forcible than the thing heard. show that the association and its constituent museums It was thus most fitting that the conference should could now serve the nation better than ever. Happily, conclude with a discussion between museum curators too, the hospitality of the Victoria and Albert Museum, and representatives of the Education Section of the gracefully offered by the Board of Education through British Association. The case of the educationists was Sir Cecil Smith, dragged the conference from its self- presented in a profound yet lucid address by Prof. sought obscurity.

Green, of Sheffield, who urged the claims of the chilAt the outset the dominant note was struck by Dr. dren and other uninstructed visitors. For them are Bather (Natural History Museum), Mr. Butterfield not wanted the analysis and system of the specialist, (Hastings), and Mr. G. W. Prothero (Central Com- but a free synthetic treatment that shall bring each mittee for National Patriotic Organisations). Both object into relation with the outer world, and parnow and for a long future the situation is changed, ticularly that world which is known to the child. The and museums, they said, must meet it. Working by difficulty raised by Mr. Madeley, that each visitor their special methods, they can stimulate enthusiasm, brings a different world of his own, shows that labels ward off discouragement, teach people how to help are insufficient to give the synthesis needed for each the forces at sea and in the field, how to fight disease

We must have recourse to the human interand its causes, how to economise with profit to the preter, and the question is—in what form ? The best nation as well as to themselves, how to supplement interpreter ought to be the trained teacher already our food-supply; and, looking further ahead, they can familiar with the child's mind and world; but, unindicate within the Empire sources of supply for our fortunately, the elementary-school teacher must himindustries, can furnish manufacturers with foreign self be taught how to use a museum. Two means of models, and, above all, can help in the physical and effecting this were suggested : Prof. Green would premental upbringing of the coming generation, to whom sent the teachers with a printed guide, showing them they must hand on undimmed the lamp of peaceful how to utilise the exhibits. Mr. Spurley Hey, director learning

of education for Manchester, had selected the most The sort of exhibits by which this important work suitable teachers and handed them over to the directors might be accomplished are sketched in an editorial of museums to be trained as they thought best for the already published in the Museums Journal for July. purpose of taking pupils round. This might partly Many of them were dealt with in more detail by meet the financial difficulties, which were emphasised speakers in the discussion (especially Messrs. Howarth, by Messrs. Bolton and Woolnough. Modes of coof Sheffield, Bolton, of Bristol, Woolnough, of operation between museums and teaching institutions Ipswich, Deas, of Sunderland, and Williamson, of of higher rank were suggested by Dr. Bather, and Derby), or formed the subject of separate papers. Thus other solid contributions to the discussion were being Dr. Grant Ogilvie (Science Museum) showed how the made by speakers of varied experience, when the conditions of life and the earning powers of the com- meeting was brought to an abrupt conclusion, munity might be improved by a carefully thought- During its first quarter of a century this association out scheme of exhibits linking up the fundamental has, we gather, proved of service to its members; if principles of science and the elementary materials of now they will act up to the ideals set before them art with the industries of each locality; the visitor is at this twenty-sixth annual meeting, it should prove more interested in things connected with his daily of no less service to the nation.

case.

152 -6° 57 miles

20

to

...

12

THE

Fireball of July 5, 8h. 30m. THE DAYLIGHT FIREBALL OF JULY 5.

Radiant point VERY large meteors apparently exhibit a preference Height at beginning for the early evening hours. The fireball of Height at end

28 March 28 last came at 7.48 p.m., and a great number Length of luminous path

260 of corroborative instances might be cited. The Velocity per second majority of these bodies travel with comparatively Position over English Channel from... S. of Plymouth slow motion over extensive arcs, and are directed

Boulogne, France from radiant points in the western region of the Number of description's heavens. On Monday evening, July 5, at Sh. 3om., a few

The radiant was near the W. by S. horizon, and minutes after sunset, a splendid fireball passed from

its position must have been deflected several degrets west to east in a long and nearly horizontal flight

towards the N.E. by the effect of zenithal attraction. across the southern sky. The weather was generally

There is a special reason why so many fine meteors clear over the south of England at the time, and

overtake the earth in nearly horizontal courses, and thousands of observers were fortunate in catching a

appear in the earlier hours of the night.

W. F. DENNING. sight of the meteor as its nucleus disintegrated into a series of glistening balls strung on a fiery cord.

The spectacle was viewed by persons who sent in reports from Gloucestershire, Dorset, Hants, Essex,

THE MATERIAL BASIS OF EVOLUTION, Somerset and Surrey, but the descriptions are rather HE “Origin of Single Characters as Observed indefinite owing to the conditions prevailing at the in Fossil and Living Animals" forms the subtime. No stars were visible to which the path of the ject of an illuminating essay in the American object might be referred. Yet, though daylight was Naturalist for April, by Prof. K. F. Osborn. Since so strong, the meteor brightly illumined the sky and it contains some trenchant criticisms on recent attacks attracted people to look upwards to ascertain the cause. on the evolution theory, and on Darwin's work, it is

Mr. W. G. Wallace, of Broadstone, Dorset, writes likely to be much discussed in the immediate future. that his sister saw the meteor in a S.S.E. direction, The main purpose of his address is to insist on the altitude about 30°. It disappeared over E. by S., alti- importance of single characters, or “ least characters," tude 20°. The object presented a brilliant mass of as indices of the trend of evolution rather than on greenish-yellow light, moving slowly, and near the the sum of the indefinite number of single characters end of its flight it divided into two portions.

which make up the individual. “In a sense," he Mr. A. G. Pile, of Old Sodbury, Gloucestershire, remarks, “the species, subspecies, and variety, and observed the meteor moving from S.W. towards E. in even the individual, is not a zoological unit, whereas from four to five seconds. It emitted a bluish-yellow the 'character,' when narrowed down to the last point flame, and looked like a large sky-rocket.

of divisibility, seems to be a unit ... and a very Mr. Dick, of Purley, Surrey, states that it quite lit stable one, with certain distinctive powers, properties, up the sky, and travelled from S.W. to E. by S., about and qualities of its own." This conception of the 20° high. It split into two large fragments early individual as a complex of separable and independently in its flight. What specially struck him was the variable units represents a view which has been gainhorizontal course, duration about 13 seconds.

ing ground for some time past. Mr. W. J. Allen, of Thornbury, Glos., saw the But Prof. Osborn attempts to systematise this newer bright light of the meteor traversing the sky in a conception of the factors to be reckoned with in study. horizontal direction from S.W. to E. When first

ing the elusive and complex phenomena associated noticed it apparently consisted of three electric balls, with the transformation of animals. He distinguishes but at the end only two could be discerned.

two aspects of this process—the study of the birth and Mrs. L. E. Butter, of Bishops Waltham, Hants, development of proportional, and of numerical charreports that her son, when sitting in the garden, acters. Those of the first category he defines as called her to see a bright, comet-like appearance travel- universal and abundant; they are such as distinguish ling from S.W. to eastward. There was a secondary species and subspecies one from another, and may be head merging into the tail. The object finally burst germinal and therefore heritable, or merely somatic, like a rocket.

due to environmental influences; while numerical Mrs. H. I. W. May, of Chadwell Heath, Essex, characters, on the other hand, are solely germinal. relates that her daughters saw a brilliant star in the As numerical characters he cites the number of the south going from west to east. While watching it

teeth and of their cusps, the number of toes and of the head divided into three stars and then disappeared. vertebræ, and so on, such being relatively stable

At Bristol the meteor passed from W. of S. to characters which may be shared in common between a E.S.E. ;

the angle of descent was slight, motion rather large number of species and genera. slow, and the nucleus consisted of two balls of fire, the That no hard and fast line can be drawn between leader being the largest. There was a profuse emission 'proportional” and “numerical" characters Prof. of sparks as the object sailed along, and the duration Osborn himself realises, for he uses as an illustration for the section of the flight which came under observa- the reduction of the digits, as in the case of the tion was six seconds.

evolution of the horse's foot. Hence it seems difficuit Mr. E. W. Barlow writes that at Bournemouth the to accept his dictum that proportional and numerical phenomenon was remarked by various people who characters are due to a different series of direct causes. could not, however, give exact particulars of the event. Rather they seem to be merely measures of degree When passing due S. the altitude was 40° to 45°, and quantitative and qualitative. the motion horizontal. The direction was from west Towards the latter part of his essay he aims a blow to east.

at the Mendelians, and remarks that “If the student I have been in correspondence with the various of genetics abandons the natural and the normal for observers and elicited much further information, the unnatural and the abnormal and sticks solely in which has enabled me to derive the real path of the his seed pan and his incubator, he is in danger of meteor. But the result may possibly require revision observing modes of origin and behaviour of charon the basis of additional records :

acters which never have, and never will, occur in

nature.” Nor is he less positive that there is no ! for the management of their own homes, and a further evidence whatsoever in support of the theory that two years' course of training for teachers of domestic “ species" may arise from fortuitous, saltatory char- economy. acters. This is one of the traditions, he tells us, of

We have received a copy of the report of the council the master mind of Darwin that we must abandon

to the members of the City and Guilds of London entirely. But this, surely, is yet at least a debatable

Institute for the year 1914. The results in the departpoint. Prof. Osborn apparently is convinced that all

ment of technology show that the year 1913-14 was a characters must run the gauntlet of selection. To attempt to defend such a position is to court disaster.

record year, so far as regards attendance at classes As Prof. Osborn himself maintains, the individual is technological subjects were registered by the institute

in technology. During the session 5049 classes in to be regarded as a complex of unstable units, and this instability is expressed in a tendency to develop

in 321 towns, and these classes were attended by ment along new lines of growth. Each unit, in short,

55,996 students, showing an increase of 1486 on the has its own individuality and potentialities of develop

numbers in the previous year. At the examinations, ment, which are controlled, in the first instance, by the

23,119 candidates were presented in technology, showimmediate environment—the neighbouring units of the

ing an increase of 1241, and by including candidates organism-just as the organism as a whole is in turn

from India, from the overseas Dominions, and from controlled by the external environment, or by “selec

other parts of the Empire, and for special subjects tion." Where the incidence of the struggle for exista

other than technology, the total number of examinees ence falls lightly, such units may give rise to hyper. severely in this as in other departments of the insti

was 26,776. But the effect of the war has been felt trophied outgrowths, as, for example, in the train of the peacock, or in the huge wings of the Argus

tute's work. Four appendices contain detailed reports

of the dean on the City and Guilds (Engineering) pheasant : where the struggle for existence is severe, ornament and other exuberances of development are

College, of the principal on the City and Guilds Techsuppressed.

nical College, Finsbury, on the City and Guilds South Finally, in regard to natural selection and its rela

London Technical Art School, and on the work of the tion to the origin of characters, Prof. Osborn remarks

department of technology, in each case for the session that we know nothing; hence he seems disposed to

1913-14 regard with something like approval the recent enunciation of Prof. Bateson that we may have to forgo

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. the theory of the addition of germinal factors, or

LONDON. determinants, and substitute the theory of variation by loss of factors.

Physical Society, June 25.-Dr. A. Russell, vice-presi.

ConThis theory of evolution by “loss" seems to have

dent, in the chair.-Sir J. J. Thomson : captivated many, but surely when the phenomena on

duction of electricity through metals. The discovery which this is based are carefully examined it will be

by Kamerlingh Onnes, that at the temperature of found that the phrase "evolution by loss” amounts

liquid helium some metals can exist in a state in to no more than an emphasis of the fact that the

which their specific resistance is less than one hundred evolution of new types is but a more striking phase of

thousand millionth part of that at o° C., appears to the evolution of species. For with types, as with the

necessitate the abandonment of the ordinary theory of species which they embrace, the material basis of

metallic conduction, as the experimental conditions evolution is afforded by Prof. Osborn's “allometrons

prohibit the explanation of the phenomenon by an or “proportional characters."

abnormal increase, either in the number or
free path of the free electrons. The effects observed

by Kamerlingh Onnes may, however, be accounted UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL

for by a theory of metallic conduction previously given INTELLIGENCE.

by the author in “The Corpuscular Theory of EDINBURGH.–At the summer graduation on July 8 Matter." On this theory the atoms of some subSir William Turner, the Vice-Chancellor, who pre- stances contain electrical doublets—i.e. pairs of equal sided, said the University roll of honour now con- and opposite electrical charges at a small distance tains more than 4000 names. Among the honorary apart. The effect of an applied E.M.F. is to alter degrees conferred were the following :-Doctor of the heterogeneous distribution of the axes of these Laws: Sir Robert Blair, education officer, London doublets by bringing them into partial alignment with County Council; Prof. W. A. Herdman, University of the field. The function of the applied field is to proLiverpool; and Prof. Arthur Thomson, University of duce the alignment of the doublets; the actual transOxford.

ference of electricity is effected by the large inter

atomic forces brought into being by the polarisation The Department of Agriculture and Technical In- of the doublets. Thus, if the polarisation remains on struction for Ireland has issued as a pamphlet a withdrawing the applied E.M.F. the current will also descriptive account of the Irish Training School of remain.-Lieut.-Col. G. 0. Squier : An unbroken Domestic Economy. The school is situated at St. alternating current for cable telegraphy. (1) The Kevin's Park, Kilmacud, Stillorgan, Co. Dublin. The paper proposes a new angle of view in the method premises stand in grounds of about three acres, in one of transmission of signals in the submarine telegraph of the finest situations in South County Dublin. The cable, and describes some apparatus for operating on house provides ample accommodation for the staff and the general principles involved. (2) An ocean cable is students, in addition to class and recreation rooms. considered as a power line, and starting with the The school is a residential institution, maintained by standard form of circuit which would be used in case the Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruc- it were required to operate an electric motor through tion for Ireland, for the purpose of training teachers an ocean cable, experiments are described to determine of domestic economy, and also for providing a train- the minimum possible variations required in such a ing in household management for girls who have circuit to perinit the alternating current received to be received a satisfactory education. The work of the interpreted in dots, dashes, and spaces of the present school comprises two courses of instruction-a course alphabet. The uninterrupted alternating current used of instruction extending over one year in household in transmission is operated on synchronously by the management, the object of which is to train girls ! ordinary transmitting tape, so as to alter the im

mean a

pedance of the transmitting circuit at the instants bered caverns of Arran, described by Prof. Bryce, and when the current is naturally, zero. Dots, dashes, the Whitechapel English series of crania described te and spaces are each sent by semi-waves of either sign, Dr. Macdonnell. They are without doubt those of the but of different amplitudes. The alternating current descendants of the Iberian or Mediterranean stock it received may be read directly from the record made race who have remained in the West of Scotland and by a siphon recorder, or this current may be employed have been less influenced by the later brachycephal. to operate a siphon Morse printer, by means of an type than has been the case in the east of Scotlard. adaptation of Muirhead's gold-wire relay, or a Heurt- Their mean values represent only a type of Scotia ley magnifier and a local wire relay. (3) The voltage skull, but this type perpetuated in comparative part stress along an Atlantic cable when an alternator is in the present collection is that which, modified bi employed is shown, and the transmitting impedance various factors, has resulted in the diverse cranial forces of such a cable is computed as the frequency varies. seen in Scotland at the present day.-Dr. Ashworth and (4) A special form of cable dynamo to operate at Dr. J. Ritchie : The morphology and development u frequencies from 4 to 10 was used in the experiments the free-swimming sporosacs of the hydroid genus described. (5) The fundamental principle is developed Dicoryne; with description of a new species. THE of never metallically “breaking " the transmitter cir- sporosacs of D. parthenopeia closely resemble those ct cuit, which permits of greater accuracy in balancing D. conferta, except that they have a single tentack, the duplex bridge.

and the female sporosac bears only one ovum. The EDINBURGH.

oocytes are differentiated and grow in the ectoderin Royal Society, June 21.-Prof. Hudson Beare, vice

of a blastostyle in the position which the sporosac will president, in the chair.-Dr. A. Lauder and T. W. ultimately occupy; there is no migration of oocytes. Fagan : The composition of milk as affected by increase

The sporosac does not exhibit during development any in the amount of calcium phosphate in the rations of

trace of medusoid structure; there is no evidence that cows. In these experiments the amount of calcium this sporosac has undergone regression from the con

dition of a medusa or

The phosphate added was gradually increased to 8 oz. per

medusoid gonophore. head per day. No increase in the amount of phos- general structure of the colony of D. parthenopeia, ihr phorus or of mineral matter in the milk could be

regenerative capacity of the stolon, the method vf detected, in agreement with the generally received release of the sporosacs, and the early development of opinion that within wide limits the composition of

the egg are also described. milk was little affected by the nature of the food fed

Paris. to the cow.-J. Herbert Paul : A comparative study of

Academy of Sciences, July 5.-M. Ed. Perrier in the the reflexes of autotomy. Self-amputation of limbs in chair.—M. Giller : Lightning and telegraph lines. In the Decapod Crustacea is accomplished in various analysis of certain features common to all telegraph ways. Thus hermit crabs when removed from their

posts struck by lightning, and a suggestion for avaid. shells usually respond to injury by plucking off the ing damage by the introduction of a spiral resistanın damaged limb with their claws. The "true", crabs possessing self-induction.--Henri Pénau : Cytologs vi possess specialised mechanism by which the

the Bacillus verdunensis. This new species has been limb is weakened at the breaking plane, found in water at Verdun, and has some properties in that

very
slight force

sever it. In

common with the coli bacillus, from which, however, lobsters, special muscle, by violent contrac

it can be separated.

Details of various stages o: tion, weakens the limb along a groove in the growth are given.-M. Gard: A genus of Papilonactæ. third segment, and immediately the imprisoned limb

new for cyanogenesis.-Ed. Crauzel : The treatment of is left in the grasp of the enemy: If the more highly recent wounds by an expansible solution of iodine. developed mechanism is disorganised in certain species,

The use of ether containing 5 per cent. of iodine in the animal returns, as it were, to the ways of its

solution is suggested as offering advantages over the ancestors, and attempts to amputate the injured limb

usual alcoholic tincture. It does not change in by more primitive methods.-Dr. M. Young : A contribu

strength, and penetrates rapidly into wounds.-J. tion to the study of the Scottish skull. The investiga- Cluzet : A simple method for the electrical examination tion was based upon a study of more than 700 skulls of paralytics." The apparatus consists of a sistem et which have been for some years in the possession of condensers, capacity from 0:01 to 12 microfarada, the anatomical department of the University of Glas

capable of utilising directly current from lightins gow. The greater number were coilected by W. K.

mains. The use of the instrument in diagnosis is Hutton, lecturer in anatomy, Queen Margaret College, described. A. Policard and A. Phélip : The first stages and were obtained during the excavation of an old

of the evolution of lesions in wounds caused by var Glasgow burying ground. The skulls are in the great projectiles, with some practical consequences.

11 majority of cases West Scottish skulls. They are

fragments of clothing must be removed from the more dolichocephalic than the average of Sir William

wound at the earliest possible moment. Too free use Turner's series of Scottish skulls, but resemble most

of antiseptics may diminish the defensive reaction of closely those in this series which are derived from

the tissues in the neighbourhood of the wound.-M. Renfrewshire. Comparison between the two series

Billon-Daguerre : A mode of producing thin sheets of has been made by the ordinary method; and the Glas

liquids for sterilisation by ultra-violet light. gow collection has also been examined by modern biometrical methods, and the variability, as well as the

WASHINGTON, D.C. correlation of the West Scottish skull as regards many

National Academy of Sciences, presented of its dimensions and characters, have been determined Academy from April 15 to May 22.-C. G. Abbot, and compared with those found in other series of F. E. Fowle, and L. B. Aldrich : Confirmatory experi. skulls. One hundred specimens in the collection were ments on the value of the solar-constant of radiaiiin. divided in the medial sagittal plane, and from a study Observations at Mt. Wilson from sunrise until tin of the sectorial diagrams it appears that certain values o'clock, and records obtained by a recording purbelicof features which have been regarded hitherto as of meter attached to sounding balloons rising 10 the morphological importance in different races fall within altitude of 24 km. confirm the value of 1'03 caloria the range of variation shown by the large homo- per square centimetre per minute previously obtained geneous West Scottish series. The skulls are similar for the radiant energy received by the earth frim in type to the “ Long Barrow" crania from the cham- the sun.-T. H. Goodspeed and R. É. Clausen : Varia

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