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THURSDAY, JULY 29, 1915.
author has certainly achieved his purpose. He has written an interesting book full of suggestions,
and he has presented his subject with remarkable THE STUDY OF METALS AND ALLOYS.
fairness, and due acknowledgment to other An Introduction to the Study of Physical Metal
workers. Chapter xi, dealing with the effect of lurgy. By Dr. W. Rosenhain. Pp. xxii + 368. strain on the structure of metals, a field of (London: Constable and Co., Ltd., 1914.) investigation in which he has been one of the Price ios. 6d. net.
pioneers, is one of the best pieces of writing T may be doubted whether the title of this extant on this subject.
book has been happily chosen. So far as its No one acquainted with Dr. Rosenhain's subject matter is concerned, with the exception of technique will be surprised to hear that the photoone chapter on the mechanical testing of metals, graphic illustrations are excellent, but some of it has hitherto been described by the term the diagrams are far from satisfactory. In “Metallography.” The latter, which dates back describing the copper-aluminium equilibrium, to 1721, was originally used to signify the certain letters are used in the text which are description of metals and their properties. In obviously meant to correspond to similar letters this sense it is certainly obsolete, but it was in the constitutional diagram, but which are conre-introduced in 1892 to describe the microscopic spicuous there only by their absence. It is structure of metals and alloys, since when, as somewhat surprising to come across the stateDr. Desch points out in his text-book, “Metal. ment (page 110) :-“No investigation of the lography” (Longmans and Co.), "it has been constitution of a system of alloys can be regarded generally accepted, gradually receiving an exten- as really complete until a study of electrical consion of meaning to include investigations by other ductivities and temperature coefficients has been than microscopic means.” Dr. Rosenhain, in using carried out." Very few systems are composed the term physical metallurgy to describe such of alloys which are ductile from one end of the subject matter, writes :—“The scope of physical series to the other. In the great majority of metallurgy is an exceedingly wide one, and one cases, as the author himself points out, there which brings it well over the borderland of several exists in the middle regions of the binary series sister sciences—such as chemistry on the one side, a zone of brittleness and weakness where, not only physics on another, and that branch of knowledge can the alloys not be drawn into wires, but where generally known as 'strength of materials' in they cannot even be turned in a lathe. Deteryet another direction. Besides these, crystallo- minations of electrical conductivity would in such graphy bears largely on our subject." This cases have to be made on rods cast to shape, and being the case, it appears to the writer that owing to their proneness to contain cavities or “Metallography” is the more appropriate title, blow-holes, they would not be suitable for exact as being both more accurate, more inclusive, and work and therefore as evidence in questions of better suited to a rapidly growing science. No- constitution. Microscopical and thermal analyses where in this book, so far as can be seen, does still remain the fundamental methods of investigathe author attempt to bring the terms “Physical tion in the determination of the constitution of Metallurgy” and “Metallography” into relation alloys, and in most cases they are sufficient. with each other, and there are places where he The author regards as anomalous and as appears to use them as interchangeable expres- requiring further research (page 305) the fact that sions.
a brasses cannot as a rule be hot-rolled (although The book is divided into two parts. The first they can be cold-rolled) whereas a +B brasses can deals with the structure and constitution of metals be hot-rolled even though B is considerably harder and alloys, the second with the properties of metals than He mentions, however (footnote to as related to their structure and constitution. As page 145), that he has recently seen an a brass the title indicates, it is an introduction to a par- successfully hot-rolled, and suggests therefore that ticular type of study, but it also serves as an “ the hot shortness of the brasses may not be an introduction to a metallurgical series which is in inherent property of the alloys.” In reality the course of publication under the author's editor- explanation is quite simple. Lead is an invariable ship. This being so, he writes :-“The treatment constituent of all commercial brasses. It is almost of the whole subject in the present work has been insoluble in a brass and the red shortness of this intentionally kept somewhat general, the object material is due to the presence of films of liquid of the author being to awaken interest and to lead among the solid a crystals. If, however, stimulate thought and ideas rather than to com- a brass is made from copper and zinc free from municate a great mass of detailed data." The lead it can be hot-rolled without difficulty. The
B constituent, on the other hand, dissolves lead to be examined to make sure that species apparappreciably above 470° C., and hence at the tem- ently new to science have not been already described. perature of hot rolling the a+B alloys do not Assistance is afforded by elaborate monographs contain liquid lead and are not hot short.
of separate groups, such as Sir George Hampson's H. C. H. CARPENTER. monumental catalogue of the Lepidoptera Phala
næ, in thirteen volumes. But there is no finality PENCIL AND PEN IN SYSTEMATIC
in these obliging auxiliaries, for, as usual, while ZOOLOGY.
Sir George's catalogue was being issued between (1) Catalogue of the Amatidae and Arctiadae
1898 and 1913 other workers were industriously (Nolinae and Lithosianae) in the collection of grapher has had to provide a supplement, begin(Nolinae and Lithosianae) in the collection of making it incomplete, so that already the monothe British Museum. By Sir G. F. Hampson. Plates i-xli. (London : British Museum (Natural ning with a first volume,of nearly 900 pages.
Some complication in descriptive work is also History) and Longmans, Green and Co., 1915.) unavoidable, when several independent expeditions Price 335. 6d. net.
make their way to the same goal, as within the (2) A Revision of the Ichneumonidæ based on the
last few years has been the case with ships visiting Collection in the British Museum (Natural
the antarctic region and exploring the marine History), with Descriptions of New Genera and
fauna at stations along the route. Species. Part iv., Tribes Joppides, Banchides,
To meet the initial difficulties in investigation and Alomyides. By C. Morley. Pp. x+167.
of species nothing is more time-saving to the (London: British Museum (Natural History) naturalist than trustworthy illustrations of the and Longmans, Green and Co., 1915.) Price 6s.
group he is studying. Faithful colouring is in (3) The Syrphidae of the Ethiopian Region based
some parts of the animal kingdom an additional on Material in the collection of the British Museum (Natural History), with descriptions of costliness of production, and, consequent upon
boon of great value. The drawback is the initial New Genera and Species. By Prof. M. Bezzi. Pp. 146. (London: British Museum (Natural many instances to rely upon borrowed copies or
this, prohibitive prices forcing the student in . History) and Longmans, Green and Co., 1915.) occasional visits to distant libraries. During the Price 6s.
last two centuries the extreme desirability of well(4) British Museum (Natural History): British
illustrated zoology has been evidently fully appreAntarctic (“Terra Nova") Expedition, 1910.
ciated though very variously provided for. Among Natural History Report. Zoology, vol. i.,
individual efforts none is more remarkable than No. 3, Cetacea. By D. G. Lillie. Pp. 85-124.
that of the Dutch physician, Albert Seba, who in (London: British Museum (Natural History) and
the first half of the eighteenth century must have Longmans, Green and Co., 1915.) Price 7s. 6d.
spent a fortune over the production of his 450 (5) Catalogue of the Fresh-Water Fishes of Africa large folio plates, many of which are double. in the British Museum (Natural History).
Latreille in 1830 commended them as excellent, Vol. iii. By Dr. G. A. Boulenger. Pp. xii +
though he condemned the “Accurata Descriptio" 526. (London: British Museum (Natural
as worthless. At the same period Cuvier and his History) and Longmans, Green and Co., 1915.) colleagues paid the plates an extraordinary comPrice 21. 55.
pliment by re-issuing the whole mass with a brief (6) The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon revision under the editorship of Guérin. Just and Burma. Mollusca (Fresh-water Gastropoda then, also, the French Government was issuing and Pelecypoda). By H. B. Preston. Pp.
198 rather larger and much more refined plates, xix + 244. (London: Taylor and Francis, 1915.) illustrating the voyage of the Astrolabe, to which Price ios.
Mr. Edgar A. Smith makes several references in (7) British Museum (Natural History): British his recent memoir.
Antarctic ("Terra Nova") Expedition, 1910. As the accomplished authors whose works are Natural History Report. Zoology. Vol. ii., mentioned at the head of this notice must all be No. 4, Mollusca Part i., Gastropoda Proso- acutely conscious of the expediency of doing. unto
. branchia, Scaphopoda, and Pelecypoda. By others as they would that others should do unto E. A. Smith. Pp. 61-112. (Londop : British
them, it is interesting to compare the different Museum (Natural History) and Longmans, ways in which they have dealt with the supply Green and Co., 1915.) Price 4s.
of illustration. (1) The forty-one plates of HampODERN researches provide a well-trained son's supplementary volume are filled with deli:
army of naturalists with an almost over- cately coloured representations seemingly of all whelming supply of material. A vast literature has the species recorded in the supplement which have
not been previously figured. An economy now opinion there are two objections : one, that with commonly practised, and no doubt very necessary, the Coronula once fixed in the whale's soft skin, shows the wings only of one side. This should more irritation would probably be caused by redeem from heartless ridicule the proverbial pig rubbing it off than by leaving it alone; the with only one ear, but by depriving the moth or other, that the soft-stalked Lepadid Conchoderma butterfly of its bilateral symmetry it makes it so curiously and prominently planted on the somewhat of an artistic failure. A carcinologist Balanid implies that the Coronula is a place of is apt to find variation in colour-marking very exceptional security. untrustworthy for specific distinction.
(5) Dr. G. A. Boulenger's fine catalogue of tomologist, on the other hand, appears to rely fresh-water fishes of Africa is now continued in upon it with considerable confidence.
a third volume, with promise of a fourth. (2) This is further exemplified in Mr. Claude species described are 394, and there are 351 textMorley's revision of the Ichneumonidæ, although, figures, 45 of them species not in the British so far as illustration goes, that work is in striking Museum collection. It is pleasant to observe that contrast to the generous treatment of the Lepi- for the Muraena anguilla of Linnæus Dr. Boulendoptera. For Part iv., with more than forty new ger accepts the name Anguilla vulgaris, Turton, species, has only a single figure. This one in place of the barbarous tautology in which some example, however, is furnished with the full com- authorities delight. In dealing with the Cichlidæ, plement of wings, antennæ, and hexopodal appur- which occupy three-fourths of the present volume, tenances, and is to some extent suggestive of the he is forced to admit that Nature is sometimes “remarkable grace and beauty, combining delicacy very ill-natured to the conscientious systematist, of outline with both fine and brilliant, not infre- spoiling the best-laid schemes of classification by quently metallic, coloration," which Mr. Morley a very inconvenient interlacing of characters. claims for the objects of his study. It is rather This appearance, however, of what our distant unfortunate that the plate unmistakably shows an cousins call Schadenfreude is not due to a pure insect in which the wings have each a brown band delight in mischief, but is the simple result of and brown apex, while the Joppa nominator, that universal consanguinity in which the sincere Fabricius, which it is said to represent, is de evolutionist is bound to believe. In a synopsis of scribed by Fabricius as having "alis omnibus 41 genera, and a further synopsis of a genus with fascia apiceque nigris" ("Ent. Sys.," vol. ii., 94 species, there are pretty sure to be some p. 158, 1793). Mr. Morley reveals without ex. entanglements. To lovers of odd fishes, Psettus
. plaining the discrepancy.
sebae may be commended, with its "body deeper (3) Prof. Bezzi's work on the African Diptera than long," a species figured life-size by Seba as of the family Syrphidæ is less abstemious in the Chaetodon quadratus. The mouth of Corematodus matter of illustrations, and, besides a useful shiranus, Boulenger, must be useful for hygienic explanatory diagram, furnishes very full and im- mastication, but disagreeable to its prey, as its portant keys for the discrimination of the genera massive jaws are fitted with "extremely broad and species. Mr. C. J. Gahan's verdict may well bands of innumerable minute club-shaped teeth." be accepted that the present treatise "greatly (6) In Mr. Preston's treatise, “wherever posadvances our knowledge” of the group. There sible, illustrations of hitherto unfigured species are said to be about 2300 described species, and have been given." The author regrets that he
the difficulty of dealing with them is attested by "can, in most instances, only deal with the shells
of the genus Syrphus, "this genus I do not touch upon work not being available. But in his Introduction at present in view of the large number of supposed he is able to give several interesting bionomic species described from Oriental regions, and their notes, and for the anatomy of one species, Mulleria close affinities (“Records Ind. Mus.," vol. ii., dalyi, Smith, he has a sad satisfaction in quoting p. 57, 1908).
largely “from the late Mr. Martin F. Woodward's (4) Passing now from the air to the water, it invaluable Paper on the subject." In some of will be found that Mr. D. G. Lillie gives as many his references Mr. Preston leaves the student illustrations of the Cetacea as could be expected rather in the dark. Thus he cites :—“Theodoxis, from his opportunities, seeing that he starts with de Montfort, Conch. Syst., ii., 1810, p. 350; the acknowledgment that the Terra Nova "did Neritina, Lamarck, 1822 [Neritine, 1809). Type, not succeed in capturing any specimens of this T. lutetianus, de Montfort (fluviatilis, Linn.)”, group.” He mentions the belief of whalers that without saying whether Neritine is French or humpback whales rub themselves against rocks to Latin, or where it is to be found, and without get rid of the Balanid Coronulae. To this showing that p. 350 in de Montfort is only a plate,
while the description of genus and species on traditions of Canada will be adopted by England. p: 351 gives the authoritative spelling in the name The book covers the usual ground. The problem, Theodoxus lutetianus.
are based on the usual conventional figures. The (7) The numerous new species described in Mr. book is beautifully got up, the text and figures E. A. Smith's treatise are illustrated in two excel- both being admirable. lent plates. Mr. Smith's mastery of the subject (2) This book is also on Mongian geometry. almost forbids criticism, but may still excuse In place, however, of the conventional subjects, it inquiry in regard to his use of the generic names treats real problems of building construction Rissoia and Panope. the “Discovery " throughout. It is, in fact, intended as a builder's Gastropoda, 1907, he transferred without explana- text-book. Just on that account it forms a suittion his Rissoa adarensis to Rissoia. Under able book for any student of Mongian geometry. Rissoia adarensis (Smith) he now adds a note : The propositions of the subject presented in the “A synonym of Rissoa is Apanthausa, Gistel abstract are too difficult for the majority oi (Naturgesch. Thierreichs,' 1848, p. x),” without students. The treatment of the propositions as explaining what is the relationship of Apanthausa inductions from concrete problems makes them to Rissoia. In 1850, Gistel in the “Handbuch much easier to grasp and to retain. This distincder Naturgeschichte," p. 554, declares that Rissoa tion is realised by the author and forms the basis must be changed (though he does not say why) of the book, as indeed it does of the whole series. into his Anatasia, the date of which is given The book is certain to have a wide sphere of by Scudder as 1848. Neither Gistel in 1850 nor usefulness. Scudder later on makes any mention of Apan- (3) This book also belongs to the excellent series thausa. A further perplexity is caused by Mr. edited by Mr. Udny Yule. It is concise and clear, Smith's change of Panopaea zelandica, Quoy and the style simple and direct. The inductive method Gaimard, into Panope selandica, without any is wisely followed, number of particular reference to show that Panope, as the name of cases being followed by a generalised statement. a molluscan genus, antedates its use in 1813 by It is a useful book, and avoids confusing the Leach for a genus of Crustacea. Les “Panopes,” mind by excess of abstract reasoning. There is Lamarck, Ann. du Mus. Paris, vol. x., p. 394, a generous use of graphs, and the only fault 1807, is a French term.
we find is the failure to emphasise the fact that T. R. R. STEBBING. the “algebraic law of the relation between
two quantities" y = ax + b is only one among CHIEFLY MONGIAN GEOMETRY. many possibilities. (1) Descriptive Geometry for Students in Engineering Science and Architecture, A Care
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING fully Graded Course of Instruction. By Prof.
TEXT-BOOKS. H. F. Armstrong. Pp. vi+ 125. (New York: (1) A Treatise on the Theory of Alternating J. Wiley and Sons, Inc. ; London : Chapman Currents. By Dr. A. Russell. Vol i. Second
and Hall, Ltd., 1915.) Price 8s. 6d. net. Edition. Pp. xiv + 534. (Cambridge: At the (2) Geometry of Building Construction: Second University Press, 1914.) Price 155. net.
Year Course. By F. E. Drury. Pp. xii + 226. (2) Electrical Engineering. By Dr. T. C. Baillie. (London : G. Routledge and Sons, Ltd., 1915.) Vol. i. Introductory. Pp. vii +236. (CamPrice 3s. net.
bridge : At the University Press, 1915). Price (3) Practical Science and Mathematics. By E. J. Edwards and M. J. Tickle. Pp. viii + 175.
(3) Electrical Instruments in Theory and Practice. (London : G. Routledge and Sons, Ltd., 1915.) By W. H. F. Murdoch and U. A. Oschwald. Price Is. 6d. net.
Pp. viii + 366. (London: Whittaker and Co., "HE geometry of Monge, in which three- 1915.) Price ros. 6d. net.
dimensional bodies are represented by (4) Alternating-Current Electricity and its Applicaplan and elevation, is one of the most educative tions to Industry. First Course. By W. H. branches of mathematics; and yet it is taught
Timbie and Prof. H. H. Higbie. Pp. x+ 534. in this country only as a technical subject for (New York: J. Wiley and Sons, Inc. ; London: engineering and architectural purposes. The Chapman and
Hall, Ltd., 1915.) Price secondary school is unaware of its existence.
Ss. 6d. net. Hence the pleasure with which we find a Canadian (1) NEW edition of Dr. Russell's book will writer on the subject reckoning that his book will
be welcomed both by physicists and be used in high schools. Let us hope that the good electrical engineers, particularly by those who
have to teach advanced students. The addition to discuss the design and construction of electrical of greatest interest to electrical engineers is the instruments from the broadest point of view. chapter dealing with the theory of coupled elec- The theory of their action and their mechanism is trical circuits. This subject is now of great clearly laid down. The opening chapter contains importance in wireless telegraphy and a simple a brief summary of the history of exact measureand complete statement of the theory, such as that ment together with a short account of some worked out by Prof. Fleming or that contained absolute determinations of the fundamental elechere, is of great value. The tables for determin- trical
trical quantities. this connection it is ing high-frequency resistance and for estimating interesting to note that so recently as 1881 Kelvin the inductance of coils and for calculating the and Bottomley stated that “the most accurate effective capacity of a long antenna should also method of measuring candle power was by be of importance to radiotelegraph engineers. It comparing the shadows of a pencil illuminated by is impossible, in a short notice, to describe ,
the two sources.” The summary shows clearly adequately the vast field of theoretical work that how the development of electrical instrument conthe book covers, or to do justice to the masterly struction is related to the practical needs of the treatment of the many problems with which it industry. deals. The book has already taken its place as In an interesting chapter on damping, the a standard work on alternating current theory, general theory is laid down and discussed in and the additions made in this new edition will connection with the instruments in which it forms tend to establish it more firmly in the position it an essential feature, the Grassot fluxmeter being, has already attained.
of course, the outstanding example. The following (2) The opening chapter of Dr. Baillie's book chapters describe the ordinary form of moving on electrical engineering contains a useful sum- coil ammeter, electrostatic and current voltmeters, mary of the pioneer work on which the modern hot wire instruments, dynamometer type instrupractice of electrical engineering rests. Brief ments, and energy meters. In the chapter on reference is made to the work of Volta, Galvani, magnetic testing a suggestion is made to resusciSiemens, Ampère, Clerk-Maxwell and many tate the old magnetometer method of testing with others. At the present time it is perhaps of weak fields. This method is an admirable one interest to note that among those whose names under suitable conditions, but in a laboratory are household words in electrical science, only within range of an electric tramway or railway, two, those of Siemens and Hertz, are of Teutonic or even of electric light mains, it is nearly useless. origin. The following chapters deal with the There are numerous figures and results given ordinary phenomena of electrical conduction, the throughout the book which have been obtained measurement of resistance power and current, from the authors' own requirements, which are of about which all elementary students in electrical value as independent testimony to the accuracy of engineering have to learn, together with chapters the apparatus with which they have been made. on batteries and the electric light.
The book should be a useful work of reference Special mention may be made of chapter vii, for those who are engaged in the manufacture of which deals extremely well with the potentiometer electrical instruments and in electrical testing. and its uses, and to the chapter on batteries, which (4) The book on alternating current electricity is exceptionally clear and good. The book is and its application to industry by W. H. Timbie sufficiently elaborate to meet the needs of students and H. H. Higbie is an attempt to simplify the taking a first year course in a technical college teaching of alternating current technology for Some doubt may be expressed as to the value of engineering students. The teaching of this such figures as 18, 19, 20, 21, 24, 25, 26, which subject has advanced with great strides since the show the outer cases of instruments. This, how- time, some twenty years ago, when the study of ever, is a minor defect; the illustrations do not alternating currents was regarded as a branch of detract from the value of the book, they merely applied mathematics, to be taken after an elaborate add unnecessarily to its bulk. As a text-book for introductory mathematical training. Alternating elementary courses in electrical engineering it current work should form part of a normal should fulfil a useful purpose, a result which is second year course for all engineering students, greatly assisted by the 125 examples, to be worked and this book is one which should be most by the students, which are given at the ends of useful as a text-book for helping in the teaching the chapters.
of this subject during the early stages. The (3) The book by Messrs. Murdoch and Oschwald hydraulic analogies in many cases are ingenious on electrical instruments is a welcome attempt and enlightening, and explain the apparent incon