« AnteriorContinuar »
been ravaged and defiled by the invader, and in always noticed where there's so many Generals its simple eloquence appeals irresistibly on behalf there's not much danger!'" of those for whom relief is asked. “La Basilique- She spoke to a douce, demure young HighFantôme," by Pierre Loti, translated by Sir Sidney lander, taking his Sunday afternoon's walk as Colvin, under the title of “The Ghost of a Cathe- quietly as if he had been in Glasgow : “How are dral," is a remarkable word-picture of the present things going? Do you think the Germans are state of the cathedral of Rheims, composed with coming ?” “I've been hearing, Matam, that the that charm of expression and wealth of imagery Chermans will have been hafing a pit of a setwhich we have learned to associate with the work back," said he. And this was how Madame of its eminent author :
Duclaux first heard of the victory of the Marne. “Oh, to think of the gross and dastardly and
Space will not permit us to dwell further upon brainless brutality of hurling those canisters of this most interesting and most admirable work. scrap-iron in volleys against the fretwork, delicate It is in every respect creditable to all engaged in as lace, which for centuries had reared itself its production, and eminently worthy of the good proudly and confidently in air, and which so many cause which evoked it, and as such we commend battles, invasions, and whirlwinds had never dared to touch! . . . for all their shameless denials, it
it to all who sympathise with the stricken folk of was the very heart of ancient France they were
the invaded Departments. Its price is well within bent on here destroying. It was some super
the means of even the poorest of book-lovers, and stitious idea which drove them to it, not merely in purchasing it they will have the satisfaction their natural instinct as savages; and they worked of knowing that they are not only contributing fiercely at this particular piece of destruction.... their mite towards the relief of those who sorely “The most irreparable disaster is that of those
need it, but that they are acquiring possession of great stained windows composed by the mysterious artists of the thirteenth century in their
what they will come to treasure as a beautiful devout dreams and meditations, and depicting souvenir of a never-to-be-forgotten time. men and women saints assembled by the hundred
T. E. THORPE. with their translucent draperies and luminous aureoles. There, again, the great bundles of German scrap-iron came stupidly volleying and
ENOTHERA AND MUTATION. crashing. Masterpieces that no one can repro
The Mutation Factor in Evolution, with Particuduce showered down their fragments never to be lar Reference to Oenothera. (Macmillan's sorted again, their wonderful golds and reds and
Science Monographs.) By Dr. R. R. Gates. blues, of which the secret has been lost, upon the Pp. xvi + 353
1os. net. (London: Macmillan pavement stones. Gone for ever those rain
and Co., Ltd., 1915.) bow transparencies, gone for ever those companies of saints with the charm of their simple attitudes
INCE the publication of de Vries's classic and pale, ecstatic little faces. Those innumerable work the Enotheras have attracted more precious cuttings of painted glass, which in the attention than almost any other plant or animal. course of ages had acquired an iridescence like So extensive a literature has already grown up that of opals, lie strewn on the ground, and
about them that a critical guide to this great mass shattered as they are still gleam there like gems.'
of papers would be cordially welcomed by every Madame Duclaux's “Les Coulisses d'une student of genetics. To some extent Dr. Gates Grande Bataille," which she translates under the has attempted the task, and if he has not been title of “The Background of a Victory," is a entirely successful this must be put down more charming description, of mingled pathos and to the immense difficulties of reducing the motley humour, of the events of September, as they pre- mass of facts to reasonable order, than to any sented themselves in the fields of the high- lack of diligence and enthusiasm on the author's lying rolling plains that reach from the Marne part. His book will certainly prove of service to the Seine. She tells of the horror of the to those who wish to obtain some general idea women of Melun at the sudden apparition of the of the problems offered by this famous genus, Highlanders. “Ce sont maintenant les Alle- and have neither the leisure nor the inclination mands," they cried, as the squealing pipers to wade through the thousands of pages, largely tramped into the old market-square. She has in foreign tongues, that have been written something to say, too, of the imperturbable upon it. humour of Tommy and his invincible optimism. The principal features of the genetic behaviour "• Are we getting the best of it?' she inquired of of the Enotheras are brought out, and the author one.
Is there much danger?' 'Well, miss,' has included a chapter dealing with the cytosaid he, 'it's like this: the place is full up with logical side with which he is probably more Generals; and I don't know how it is, but I've familiar than anybody else.
familiar than anybody else. The book is well
produced and amply illustrated, though the nature adequate that we feel little doubt that, had the of the material is against some of the photo- analysis proceeded further, an interpretation in graphs being very illuminating.
terms of a few factors would have been forthIn writing this book Dr. Gates evidently had coming, and we cannot but regret that this proa thesis which he was anxious to prove. He mising series of experiments should have been left wishes to show that the various forms known as in so indecisive a state. mutants, which are constantly thrown by many Rigorous genetic analysis, working character by varieties of Enothera, cannot be regarded as the character, has yet to be applied to the Enotheras. outcome of any process of Mendelian segrega- That it will prove more complicated than in most tion, but that they are due to some other process plants there is no question. The work already done of germinal rearrangement which is termed shows that the Enotheras, like some other plants, mutation. Mendelian segregation, as is well may present differences in the genetic properties known, is an orderly phenomenon enabling us of the male and female gametes produced by the to predict the gametic output of an individual same plant. They are also characterised by the formed by the fusion of two gametes of different high percentage of bad pollen grains, which may genetic properties. We gather Dr. Gates's con- mean that some possible combinations are not tention to be that, because in most cases it has formed. Indeed Renner has recently shown that not been found possible to predict the various in the ovules, too, there may occur an abortion of Enothera forms arising from a cross, the ordin- embryos corresponding to a given class of offary rules of segregation do not apply, and that spring (cf. Gates, p. 248). Differences in viability, these forms owe their origin to some process as Dr. Gates points out (p. 89) may also charnot yet understood.
acterise different forms. With all these possible The explanation of this process of mutation is
sources of complication to be taken into account considered by Dr. Gates to reside probably in it is not surprising that the genetic behaviour of abnormal divisions of the chromosomes following the Enotheras is still in a state of chaos, and until upon the loss of some hypothetical "condition proper methods of analysis have been applied and of balance." He attempts to draw a sharpproved definitely to fail, it is surely premature to distinction between this process of mutation and state that the ordinary rule of segregation does what he terms the Mendelian hypothesis of muta- not occur in this genus. tion, by which the new form originates through In conclusion there are a few small alterations the loss (or possibly also by the addition) of a which we should like to find in another edition. definite factor or factors. His point of view is “20 ” on line 3 of p. 23 should surely be “20 not easy to grasp, and perhaps may be best per cent.," and to call Drosophila a "pumice-fly" illustrated by some of his experiments. In a (p. 303) might lead to pisapprehension as to the culture of rubrinervis some years ago there manner of its subsistence. We think also that in appeared a new type which he called rubricalyx. an English book the form Venice is to be preThis form behaves as a simple dominant to ferred to Venedig (p. 248). A common error is rubrinervis, and we suppose that Dr. Gates would perpetuated in the sentence on p. 320—“The new say that on the Mendelian hypothesis of mutation character is, at least in some cases, a dominant in it arose through the addition of a factor R.
crosses, which accounts for its spreading.” The When rubricalyx was crossed by grandiflora l dominant, qua dominance, has, of course, no ad
! (pp. 254-9), a green-budded form, it gave an Fi vantage over the recessive in a mixed population. generation with red buds, though not so red as in rubricalyx. In ten different F, families the proportion of reds to greens varied greatly, being in
EVOLUTION THE OTHER WAY ABOUT. one case as high as 33:1, and in another as low Histoire de l'Involution Naturelle. By E. as 3:1. In a number of Fg families similar Marconi. Translated from the Italian by M. I. ratios of reds and greens were obtained, while it Mori-Dupont. Pp. xii + 505. (Paris : A. was shown also that some reds bred true to red, Maloine, 1915.) Price 15 francs.
Further, HE evolutionthere were several cases of an intermediate red breeding here. Dr.
that the things has come about. It is not demonstrable like different ratios of reds to greens and the fact of the law of the conservation of energy; it is a way, intermediates breeding true negative any Men- of looking at things-an interpretation. It reads delian interpretation. Nevertheless the data as the present as the natural outcome of the past. In given present so many features in common with this broad sense Dr. Enrico Marconi might be cases where a Mendelian interpretation has proved I called an evolutionist, but he refuses the label,
and that green gave nothing but greemme Fatehend T way in which the present-day state of
having a special theory of his own. According to illustrating the occasional occurrence of degenera- . the generally accepted interpretation the great tive or involutionary changes in the history of movement of the ages has been in the direction of animal life, but the author will have no halfincreasing complexity and control (differentiation
measures. From an originally perfect manifestaand integration), always allowing for some simpli- tion of life man has fallen; and the ape and the fication in the case of parasites and other de- tiger, the mole and the bat are his descendants ! generates. But according to Dr. Marconi's inter- When we read the words “involution naturelle ” pretation the historic movement has been in the on the title-page we hoped that some light would opposite direction. Mammals did not evolve from be cast on Prof. Bateson's recent hard saying: a Reptilian stock, but Reptiles from Mammals. “We may as well see whether we are limited to Amphibians did not spring from a Piscine stock, the old view that evolutionary progress is from but Fishes from Amphibians. The mistake that the simple to the complex, and whether after all evolutionists have made in contemplating the it is conceivable that the process was the other stream of life is not a little one; they have actually way about.” But while Dr. Marconi is convinced mistaken the direction of the current! The author that it has been the other way about, he starts asks us to replace the evolution-idea by the invo- from a super-man, and we do not suppose that lution-idea.
this expresses Prof. Bateson's conception This arch-heresy has been suggested before, primordial life. In one of Dostoievsky's novels but it has never had, so far as we know, such an it is quaintly remarked of one of the characters elaborate and beautifully printed presentation that he was the only man in the company who
. The author is obviously sincere and in earnest, but could move about on his head. We think that He has not learned the humility of refraining from the author of this extraordinary, topsy-turvy interdiscussing questions, such as cell-division, which pretation of the world must be similarly unique. he has utterly failed to understand. What are we to say of this ingenuous and occasionally ingenious heretic?
ELECTRICITY FOR THE FARM. There was a time long ago when our earth was
Electricity for the Farm. By F. I. Anderson. too hot to offer hospitality to any living creatures
Pp. xxiii +265. (New York: The Macmillan of the sort we know about, and it is useless to
Co.; London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd., 1915.) speak of others. Therefore, so far as the earth is Price 5s. 6d. net. concerned, “matter” antedated “life.” But it is HIS book is addressed particularly to open to anyone to defend the metaphysical thesis
American farmers who may not know how that in the world as a whole "life" is antecedent easy it is to make use of a stream of water in to “matter.” We would not quarrel with Dr. producing electric power and transmitting it for Marconi over a luxury of this sort. But when we lighting and heating and mechanical purposes on remember the fact that according to the rock re- a farm. It shows that the initial cost is usually cord there were invertebrates before there were small, that measurement of power is simple, that any vertebrates, and fishes before there were any although the farmer must buy apparatus he can amphibians, and reptiles before there were birds do this without employing an expert, and that he and mammals, and so on, we require arguments need have no difficulty in putting it up and getting more cogent than Dr. Marconi's to persuade us it to work in such a way that it will give no to become “involutionists.” And as to the develop- trouble afterwards. ment of the individual, while we agree with the The author knows his farmer well, and his exauthor that the recapitulation doctrine requires planations are obviously such as will be undercareful handling, we do not think that the life- stood. How to compute the power required for history of a frog, for instance, offers any sug- so many lamps in rooms and out-houses; for so gestion whatsoever of the reptilian origin of many heaters of various kinds; for so many motors amphibians.
doing small or large domestic or farm work. How We shall not discuss Dr. Marconi's detailed to measure the amount of water flowing in a arguments that cyclostomes sprang from gnatho- stream, and knowing the fall to calculate the stomes, and ascidians from amphioxus, and power of the stream.
The farmer or his son, echinoderms from enteropneusts, and the bran- who will probably become an enthusiast, is chial arch system of a dogfish from the thoracic supposed to have much common sense and a skeleton of a mammal, for in truth what he says knowledge of simple arithmetic; he will certainly lacks zoological competence. It would have been in time get a good working knowledge of elecprofitable if Dr. Marconi had followed Dr. Dohrn trical engineering. The author makes remarks and Sir Ray Lankester and restricted himself to which may cause a physicist to smile; for ex
ample, "a falling body hits the ground with pre- "pedigree" theory was generally taken to be a cisely the same force as is required to lift it to means of breeding good stock as well as pure the height from which it falls." He evidently stock, and only the very greatest stock-breeders means that the work done in lifting the body is stood fast by the “best to best ” theory. equal to the energy which it will expend in falling. Like many a stock-breeder, Prof. Harper has His instructions as to the measurement of water lost sight of the main theory, and has allowed by weirs are too inaccurate to please a water
others to intervene. With him the Darwinian engineer, but they are really accurate enough for theory has effect as follows: "While the influence the farmer's purpose. His descriptions of tur- of climate and locality is great, and the factors at bines are too complex for the farmer and they do work are exceedingly complex, yet from not show great knowledge of the subject, but the practical point of view we may consider the food farmer does not need to understand them. The supply and more favourable conditions generally, author is excellent in describing how to make a
such as sufficient shelter, proper care, including dam. His description of the dynamo is quite good training and developing, as the more important and easy to follow, and it will certainly interest causes of variation.”
A paragraph is headed the farmer in electricity and cause the farmer's “Mendelism a Cause of Variation.” And, after son to study the subject more fully, not merely three chapters on Improvement due, i, to “selecthrough books, but through simple experiments. tion based on records of performance,” 2, to “seOn practical matters—types of lamps, sizes of wire,
lection the result of prepotency," and, 3, to wire joints, Ohm's law, wiring the house and "accumulative development," it is stated "that premises, etc.-the author gives good simple in
the degree of development depends on the structions. The last quarter of the book is less environment, including training, management, important; it is intended for farmers who have and the like." Apparently the weight of Bateson's no water power. It describes gas-engine plant “Materials for the Study of Variation,” and and accumulators.
Mendel's work has not yet been felt. It is no The American farmers have a respect for natural argument for the Darwinian view to say that science and they are glad to cultivate new ideas. "The thoroughbred horse has increased its speed We think that the publication of this book will by but eight per cent. in one half a century of induce such men and their families to begin a racing. During this same period the standardfascinating study at small cost, with results in bred, a comparatively new breed, has reduced its comfort and a widening of the mental horizon trotting record by 27 per cent." The words which ought to fill the town dweller with envy.
in italics indicate some part of the argument to the contrary.
Parts of the work of Galton and Pearson are PRINCIPLES OF STOCK-BREEDING.
cited, but with no indication how the formulæ of Breeding of Farm Animals. By Prof. M. W. these investigators, even if sound, are to be made
Harper. Pp. xvii + 335. (New York : Orange use of by stock-breeders; and the idea that “the Judd Co. ; London : Kegan Paul and Co., Ltd., new individual inherits all the characters of the 1914.) Price 1.50 dollars.
race to which it belongs," which is cited frequently EW callings have been more prolific in and appears to be regarded as fundamental, is of
theories than stock-breeding. Many have very doubtful accuracy when applied to domestic been erroneous, while others which have borne a animals. In the chapter headed "Mendel's Law strong semblance of soundness have been inappli- of Heredity,” the statements made that cable. Most of them have come from stock-breeders “Mendel made a series of studies ... from themselves; but others, which, as a rule, have which he drew some general conclusions, now received more attention, have come from outside known Mendel's law of heredity," and observers. The great stock-breeders,
Mendel's Law ... depends on three factors, especially the great improvers, have given little unit characters, dominance, and segregation." heed to any other theory than that which has been Apparently Prof. Harper has become acquainted tersely expressed in the words "put the best to the with Mendel's Law from later writers rather than best,” but others have been influenced by other from Mendel himself. theories, although their success in the production In his volume, however, a source of information of good stock has usually been parallel with the of very great importance is indicated. In the strength of their adherence to the main theory United States, careful records have been kept of whether that adherence was conscious or uncon- the performances of the Holstein-Friesian breed scious. After the introduction of printed herd and of cattle, and these show that, as they had none, stud books, and therefore of “pure " breeding, the or one, or two parents in what is called the ad
vanced registry, certain sires and dams had lines of printed directions at the top, followed in different chances of begetting progeny capable of many cases by a ruled form in which the student entering the same registry. Surely if these re
is intended to enter his results.
The exercises are intended "for high schools, cords were closely examined and the failures
agricultural high schools, and normal schools." counted as well as the successes, a more satis
There is a list of apparatus required for the exerfactory theory might be promulgated as to the cises, which includes such diverse articles as pieinheritance of milk and butter yield. The records tins, tomato-cans, compound microscopes, mill for of trotting horses have also been kept, and the pulverising soil (why not pestle and mortar?), and belief is strong that some are the parents of per
a compacting machine for soils, whatever that formers while others are the grandparents only: may be. The exercises themselves include the the intervening generation being merely breeders cutting; experiments on the separation of soil of performers. Surely, again, the failures might be particles, their appearance and properties; the counted and some useful explanation of this properties of sand, clay, and humus; the behaviour phenomenon discovered.
of water and air in the soil; cultivation, impleJAMES WILSON. ments, fertilisers, and gardening. A teacher who
lacked the knowledge or experience requisite for OUR BOOKSHELF.
designing exercises himself might find some of
the suggested exercises useful, but such a teacher The Material Culture and Social Institutions of would find himself in trouble with more than one the Simpler Peoples: An Essay in Correlation.
of the exercises. No. 19, for instance, where the By L. Î. Hobhouse, G. C. Wheeler, and M. scholar is directed to find the percentage of air Ginsberg. Pp. 299. (London: Chapman and in the soil by putting a measured volume of soil Hall, Ltd., 1915.) Price 25. 6d. net.
in a beaker and pouring water on to it until the It is difficult, and may be dangerous, to apply soil is just covered, would be likely to give very statistical methods to the sociology of un- curious results. Again in exercise No. 27, a civilised peoples. There are only a few mono- scholar who was accustomed to working with piegraphs written on scientific lines; the greater part dishes and tomato-tins would see all sorts of things of the evidence consists in the incomplete and except bacteria when "examining with a comoften prejudiced accounts of travellers. Results, pound microscope a small sample of fertile soil therefore, over a wide field, must necessarily be placed on a slide in a few drops of water.' rough, and, to attain even these, a very skilled
T. B. W. judgment is required. But, for all that, even rough results of very careful work are valuable. The Evolution of the Potter's Art. By T.
The authors of this study in correlation wisely Sheppard. Pp. xx. (London: Brown and Sons, choose material culture as the general character
Ltd., n.d.) istic of civilisation. By reference to this test, they The pretentious title of this publication will dishave established “an advance in organised appoint the student in search of an adequate treatgovernment accompanying economic develop- ment of a difficult problem. Such a work would ment." Similarly, with the social order generally not be an easy task for even the most learned The chapters dealing with these results are quite ethnographer, because it involves a knowledge of masterly, and the authors have the good habit of prehistoric and savage culture, acquaintance with stating fully their difficulties, and the pros and the technique of work in clay, and a special cons, in the doubtful cases. In various ways it is familiarity with burial customs. It would be unshown that a purely pastoral society tends to fair to expect these qualifications in the hardbecome a “blind alley” of progress. Interesting worked curator of a provincial museum. But it is results follow the discussion of marriage and the sufficient to quote his comment on the discovery family, especially in the cases of polygamy and in pots from the so-called Danes' Graves near the “consideration ” to the kin.
Driffield of the humeri of pigs : “so that we may Full tables of all the data used are given, and assume that a shoulder of pork was food for the there is a complete bibliography. The book is gods in the Early Iron Age." He must be aware absolutely essential to the student of social evolu- that the joint was intended as food for the dead tion. It breaks fresh ground and consolidates man's spirit. The book is really only an edition new positions.
de luxe of one of the useful penny pamphlets
which Mr. Sheppard has issued from time to time Agricultural Laboratory Manual : Soils. By Prof. for the instruction of unlearned visitors to the E. S. Sell. Pp. iv + 40. ( Boston and London :
museum at Hull.
It is fortunate in possessing a Ginn and Co., 1915.) Price is. 6d.
good collection of early Staffordshire ware, with This is a collection of forty exercises on soils. examples of the Worcester, Derby, Chelsea, The book consists of forty sheets of scribbling Dresden, and other famous schools. From these paper held together by paper-fasteners inside a materials the “Evolution of the Potter's Art” is brown paper cover, so that each sheet may be worked out in six pages. The best point about the used separately by the scholars and then bound work is the series of sixty-two photographs of the up again with the rest.
Each page has a few more interesting specimens in the collection.