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young men's societies. They excite, and, form an opinion on the other subjects, which in part, gratify the natural desire of the would be taken up in the series of essays and mind for knowledge. This is their use and discussions. Each member having a part to advantage. To render these societies more act, and each essay depending on the other, beneficial, the following hints might be found an interest would be created otherwise unserviceable. Instead of the usual course of attainable, acting up, as far as possible, to self-selected essays on miscellaneous subjects, the advice stated in the “ Aids to Selflet the members, by mutual compact, fix on Culture," on the “ Art of Reading History," one subject, -either history, poetry, science, British Controversialist, March, 1855. philosophy, or art,--and let there be a series The “Dramatic Literature of Britain;" of essays and discussions on the subject de- the “Sensational School of Philosophy;" the termined on. For example: A number of “ Epic Poetry of the World;" the “Cruyoung men, forming themselves into a mutual sades;” the " English Revolution of 1688;" improvement society, might resolve to con- the “ French Revolution of 1789;" “ Pope fine their attention, for a period of time, to a Hildebrand;” “Mohammedanism;" “ Chivalbranch of history, -say the Reformation, -ry;" the“Ballad Poetry of Britain," and other upon something like the following plan:- subjects, might be taken up as the members REFORMATION.
determined on. An objection might be urged
against this method, viz., the difficulty of Essays—I. General.— The State of Britain obtaining a number of young men of similar prior to the Reformation.
tastes to unite together. But history and II. The Causes or Origin of the Refor- poetry are subjects which young men ought mation.
to study, and which they will study if they III. The Object of the Reformation
desire sound knowledge. We have no doubt IV. The Leaders of the Reformation.
the Editors of the British Controversialist V. The Effects of the Reformation. —who have so often shown their sympathy Sa. Germany
with the earnest young student - would i. Territorially 6. Britain
insert notices from young men desirous of
forming societies for the study of history, a. Literature
politics, or science, so that they might i. Intellectually 6. Philosophy attract the notice of other young men
similar tastes in our large towns or cities. d. Religion
A second objection might be urged, viz., Discussions.-I. Whether did Wickliffe, the difficulty of drawing up a course of Latimer, Luther, or Knox adopt the most essays on periods of our history and other advisable means of effecting the Refor- subjects. This might be obviated by the mation?
gentlemen who write the “Aids to SelfII. Did the Reformation originate from Culture” furnishing a list of essays on the personal circumstances and nature of various subjects which societies might fix these men, or from real evils in the church ? on, at the same time specifying the books to
III. Was secession from the church ad- be consulted on such topics. Such a guide visable?
would not only be useful to societies, but IV. Whether was Luther or Knox the also to individuals who have not the
tunity of meeting with others.* V. Which country was most benefited by II, YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIAthe Reformation, England or Scotland ? TIONS.— These associations are originated
The series of essays and discussions on to promote the intellectual and religious this period have been fixed, and the members improvement of young
This is having selected their themes; and supposing done by a miscellaneous course of lectures this had been determined on prior to the so- by popular men, and on sabbath evenings ciety's breaking up for the season, then the by a series of lectures on the evidences interval of three or four months would allow of Christianity. We do not object to the sufficient time for members to investigate the subject; and, when so doing, they were at be general, to supply a series of synoptical tables
* We shall be most happy, should such a wish the same time gathering materials, so as to for students.-Eds. B.C.
latter, but the tendency of the former is “ popular lectures ” might be superseded by to dissipate the mind. A lecture on " Habit;" an evening young men's christian college, another on “Geology," or " Romanism,” where there might be lectures on history, or “Lord Byron," are not as a whole self- literature, science, and logic, by which the benefiting. The mind is led from one sub- mind would be thoroughly disciplined, and ject to another, and hence the knowledge genuine knowledge acquired? The British acquired is superficial, although the advice Controversialist has taken the initiative, given is worthy of all praise. The popular in the establishment of various classes for lectures of young men's christian associations genuine instruction. It is a true college, but, are too often got up to attract large audiences unlike other colleges, it is free, and the lecto dazzle rather than instruct. The man turers or teachers are personally unknown, is the attraction, not the subject. Instead though not unappreciated. of general lectures, they might have a con- These hints may be found useful to young nected course of lectures on a particular men bent on true self-culture, and to those subject, so that the members would get a whose“ hope of the future is in the young.” knowledge of the subject, and such infor.
D. M. W. mation as would enable them to follow out [Without wishing to be considered as enthe course specified. Why do these societies dorsing all the opinions expressed in this not adopt a higher standard of instruction ? paper, we deem the hints thrown out worthy Can the minds of the young men
Britain of serious consideration, and shall be happy be disciplined by such means? We are to do anything in our power to further the afraid not. Is it not possible that these important object desiderated.] --Eds. B. C.
QUESTIONS REQUIRING ANSWERS. me," &c., &c. But Dr. Smith (in his “Classical
Dictionary," p. 132) says, the name Cæsar “is 261. May I be permitted to ask a favour from probably connected with the Latin word Cæs-aryour correspondents, viz., that they will kindly ies, and the Sanscrit kêysa, ‘bair, for it is in inform me of the origin of the “broad arrow," 1 accordance with the Roman custom for a surname mean the government mark / ?-Wales.
to be given to an individual from some peculiarity 262. Being but an amateur medalist, I am some in his personal appearance." And in Adams's what puzzled by some old Roman coins, the “ Roman Antiquities," by Boyd, p. 141, it is said, reverse and obverse being of different coinages; "CÆSAR was properly a family title. According can any of your correspondents account for this? to Dio, it also denoted power."--W.G. H. -CÆSAR.
264. J. T. C. would feel obliged by being in263. Cæsar.-This name has been variously formed through the pages of the British Controexplained in classical dictionaries, but I think a versialist, the origin of the term “The White more satisfactory explanation may be deduced by Feather," and why it is applied to individuals comparing it with several oriental names—as, who are not remarkable for their bravery. 6.9., Aserymus, brother and successor of Delea 265. Can any of the readers of the Controverastartu, king of Tyre; Esarbaddon, Shalmaneser, sialist give me any information regarding what and Tiglath pileser, kings of Assyria. To this is called “ The Collodion Process" of Photomay be added, that Esar was the name of the graphy; also direct me to a good manual of Phochief divinity amongst the ancient Etruscans. tography, with the publisher's name, price, &c., Query: Is Esar the same element in all the &c.--SCIPIO. above names? And if so, Aserymus may be ren- 266. Would any of your correspondents exdered“ mau" (i. e., worshipper)“ of the god Aser plain to me the mystic and mysterious operation or Eser." In like manner, to me, at least, the of death? How, for instance, a little arsenic, wame Cesar seems connected with the name of when taken into the stomach, has such an intrinthe Etruscan god Esar, and the initial C, per- sic potency, as to cause the almost immediate haps, an honorific prefix. Should my conjectures separation of the soul from the body ?-HIDER. be erroneous, may I request the favour of some
your talented correspondents to supply the ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS. needful correction?
Of course I am aware that the Tartars and other Orientals give the name of 255. How to obtain a thorough Knowledge of Kyser or Cæsar to the sovereigns of the West, as Latin.--"A thorough knowledge" of the Latin an equivalent to Emperor; and hence we find in language, which it is our friend, R. Clark's desire
“ Autobiography the following to acquire, is, we would assure him, the work Statement and use of the appellation :-"When of years' study. The term, “thorough knowthe Kyser (Emperor) Bayezid advanced against ledge," necessitates this. “To translate Latin
into English, and English into Latin," a person, it as “ a thorough knowledge of the Latin lanmust not only have had long practice in compo-guage," as this much is absolutely necessary in sition and the inany rules, with their various order to eusily and correctly translate Latin into exceptions and modifications, of syntax, but be English, and vice versa. inust have largely perused the Latin classic authors It has been the custom to put, as a first book, --not as a mere reader, but as a collating stu- a Latin grammar into the hands of a beginner. dent, observiug the different styles of composition This we think decidedly wrong. A grammar in and idiomatic construction with which classic any language can be of but little use until the Latin abouuds. Let us not be misunderstood on mind is somewhat familiar with the words and this point. We take the words “ thorough know- general features of the language itself: ergo, as ledge" in their legitimate meaning. Far be it a first book, let“R. Clark" take Henry's First from us to discourage any learner in his pursuit Latin Book," and first commit to memory the few after Latin lore; we would much rather aid him preliminary rules with which it commences; also in his arduous work, and, as a proof, now offer the collection of words before the opening exer. such a one our services as pioneer, having had cise of translating English into Latin, which is long experience both as a learner and teacher in followed by an exercise vice versa. Particular the many difficulties which beset the students attention must be given to the declensions of path in this important study.
nouns and conjugations of verbs. Take succesIt has become the fashion in this fast age of sively the exercises as they occur, and having ours to sweep away all difficulties besetting the gone through the first twenty exercises, go over path to universal kuowledge, i.e., professionally them again, comparing them this time with the so. True it is, and we rejoice in the fact, that the declensions of nouns and conjugations of verbs facilities of learning are now vastly increased, and as contained in Valpy's “ Latin Grammar," and that so many from amid the plebeian ranks of this will prove a good introduction to the otherEuglishmen may ever be seen climbing the steeps wise unmeaning study of the grammar alone, and of knowledge, and not a few reposing, crowned as a first book. Ever bear in mind that, as a with amaranthine, on its glorious summits, general rule, the key to the declension of a noun poesy, science, art, and literature.
is the genitive case, and the key to a verb is the Nevertheless, the acquisition of knowledge, termination of the infinitive mood; observing this especially languages, is anu must ever be attended simple rule, much difficulty in parsing and con. with difficulties, even in the experience of the struing Latin may be avoided. Having done this most gifted among men-difficulties, be it ever much, you may, as an extra exercise, take Valpy's remembered, which nothing but industry and “Delectus," and commence translating; but take application can remove. Every reader must have particular care to parse every word, as that will been often astonished with the flaming announce- ultimately render translation comparatively easy. ment of works or pamphlets, professing to teach If parsing were more particularly obserred, espethe languages in a few months. We have seen cially with beginners, much of the difficulty which them. One now lies before us, according to attends the reading of authors would be avoided. which, Hebrew may be well learned in three Do not be too anxious to commence“ Cæsar, months! It is by one H. M. Wheeler. Neither * Virgil,"“ Ovid," &c., &c. Content yourself with is he alone in such professional humbug. We the acquisition of the elements of the language, might quote books of similar pretensions in other and occasional glimpses of the glory to be relanguages. Latin in six months ! French in vealed in the " Delectus." Remember that the three! and so on. Now this is all popular non. closer you apply yourself to the study of the sense, aud vile lite quackery, and merits the elements, the easier and pleasanter will be the most unqualified denunciation, inasmuch as it is reading of the great standard works in Latin. a serious stumblingblock to self-educators, who Before you commence“ Virgil" or “ Cæsar," you credit such works.
ought to be able to do any exercise in “Henry's In the course of our experience, we have met First Latin Book," or to translate and parse with unsuspecting individuals in the height of any passage in the “Delectus." expectation, led by such literary quackery to try Thus far we have merely opened up our plan for their plans of learning Hebrew, Latin, French, studying Latin; of course there are many things &c., in three or six months, as the case of wonder which might be here mentioned if space and time may be. But what has been their unvarying permitted. experience? The worst kind of disappointment. We may further enlarge on a future occasion; They have ere long found out the delusion, and in the meantime we shall be happy to render too often have never had the courage to apply “R. Clark" any help in his study. Our name then selves to the study again. Unapprised of and address may be obtained of the Editors.the real difficulties in the outset, they have met ROLLA. them unprepared, and the meagre resources of 255. It would evidently be impossible to satisfy their catch-penny instructors failing them, the in these pages a want which the most elaborate study has been abandoned with disgust and dis- grammars, dictionaries, and works bearing on appointment.
the structure of the Latin language are but We have said this much to guard our friend attempts to supply; but, as the number of guide from the delusion so common, and which so books is legion, a few words as to choice may be characterizes the present age. Superficiality of more real service than a useless endeavour to meets the knowing and learned mind on every give a summary of the contents of any one of hand, but that which excites a smile with him, in them. For the prima elementa (supposing the many gains credit and fires hope. There is a querist knows nothing as yet), the Eton Latin slight ambiguity in “ R. Clark's" question, and Grammar stands its ground well as a school book, we propose that instead of saying a thorough but I see no reason why a private student should knowledge of Latin arrangement, to understand not commence at once with Dr. Zumpt's “ Latin
Grammar," as translated by Dr. Schmitz, reading nion with the great minds of past ages,-although first chaps. 5–43 on the Accidence, and carefully these are something,—but in their very difficulty. learning throughout the declension of nouns and As an educational maxim, it is allowed by nearly conjugation of verbs. Next, go carefully through all, that exercise of the intellectual faculties in Arnold's “Henry's First Latin Book," a capital the pursuit of knowledge, whereby the powers of elementary work, now used in almost all public the mind are harmoniously and progressively and private schools, and recomiended by the developed, is of infinitely more importance than Oxford Diocesan Board of Education, at the same the merely storing the memory with any amount time reading, with the help of a grammar and a of positive information. Thus, however carefully good dictionary (Riddle's school edition, or An. the controversial articles in this magazine may drews'), one or more of the easier Latin authors, be read by anyone, he cannot, although standing as “Eutropius," or "Cornelius Nepos," and sub- to the writers in the enviable position of a judge sequently “Cæsar;" for the accurate study of to special pleaders, derive half so much benefit good classical models should always accompany from them as the latter; because the writing of attempts at composition. Proceed then gradually any article demands far more labour and research 10 " Henry's Second Book," and to Ovid's “Epis- than the perusal of it. And what modern lan. tles," and afterwards to Arnold's “Introduction guage, or what branch of science, can afford such to Latin Prose Composition," Part I., which varied and such bracing exercise of the mind as should be gone over again and again (nocturnâ the study of Greek and Latin? Moreover, the l'ersate manu, versate diurna), and the exercises affinities existing between these and modern written, till the use of the different cases, moods, European languages, which the earnest student and tenses, and verbal and idiomatic peculiarities, cannot fail to notice, will quicken bis perception are thoroughly mastered. Part 11. may then be of the ultimate unity of national modes of thought, tried, and having read carefully through chaps. and of language, which is thought's exponent. 44 to 68 in Zumpt's “Grammar, so as to under- But to resume. 'í'here is one caution it appears stand the irregularities of verbs, the subsequent necessary to make in reference to Latin compoportions of that admirable work should be care- sition (for I do not remember to have seen it in fully studied, viz., the Syntax and Syntaxis Or. books, perhaps because considered too olvinus), nata, of which chap. 69, on the Connection of viz., beware of attempting to translate abstract Subject and Predicate ; 76, on the Use of the ideas from English into Latin literally. It might Tenses; 77 to 83, on the Moods ; 84, on Pecu- by some be thought unnecessary to warn the liarities in the Use of Parts of Speech; and 87, youngest school-boy against rendering such on the Arrangement of Words and Structure of phrases as “sphere of duty," "in point of fact," Periods, appear to me most important. Compo- &c., by “sphæra officii," " in puncto facti," &c., sition in verse migbt be attempted at about this yet I have known errors quite as grave made by stage, or a little previously, with Arnold's “ First much older students. In all such phrases we must Verse Book," then Rapier's “Introduction consider what the English means, put it, if possi. (edited by Arnold), and subsequently Arnold's ble, in another form, and be sure that the Latin larger “ Introduction," containing the Horatian word, or combination of words, besides being the metres. Much assistance herein will be derived nearest equivalent to the English idea is admissi. from committing to memory daily a dozen lines ble. Thus,“ sphere of duty" may be rendered by or so from Ovid's “ Epistles," or the “Fasti," or "bounds or limits of duty or occupation;" “in point from any part of “ Virgil ;" and of course the of fact" meaning" indeed ;"“ in reality,” “truly,"
of Horace should be “familiar in the may be rendered by “re vera,”. “re et veritate," mouth as household words," in order to attain "sane," or "profect Riddle and Arnold's Jacility of composition in the Horatian metres. English-Latin Lexicon” is the most complete Thus not only will the knowledge of Latin phrase- and exact guide in this particular, and should be ology and puetical imagery be increased, but a constantly in the hands of one ambitious of writfund of quotations, of daily practical application, ing Latin correctly and easily. It would be well, will be stored in the memory. For prose compo- if possible, to bare all written exercises looked sition, no author deserves more attention than over and corrected by a friend or tutor, to prevent Cicero: his style and language have generally loss of time or labour from "working in the been regarded as the standard of pure Latinity. dark.” Also, it may be desirable, as a test of Translations should be carefully made from the progress, or for various other reasons, to preserve “De Officiis," the “De Natura Deorum," the all translations, re-translations, notes on classical " De Finibus," or “Epistolæ ad Atticum," or authors, or original essays ; for which end I have from the two golden treatises, “ De Senectute' myself adopted the plan of having a number of and "De Amicitia." These should be rendered common school exercise books (buying as wanted), us literally as is consistent with good English ; which I rule with pencil, so as to leave a wide then laid aside for a time; and when the author's margin on each side of the page; and thus, when phraseology had passed from mind, be re-trans- a dozen or more exercise-hooks are filled, they
ated into Latin. This, both in Greek and Latin, may be arranged according to subject or tiine of is a most improving exercise, and, though diffi- writing, and sent to the binder, whereby a stout cult to do well at first, will serve the double pur- volume of useful MS. matter is obtained, in a pose of making the student familiar with a stand- form easy of preservation. A few leaves at the ard anthor, and with differences of idiom in the enit should be left vacant, and the whole properly two tongues. And here I would observe, by the numbered, so that an index may be made to the way, that the value of classical studies appears to contents. This is a bint applicable to any kind me to consist, not so much in their forming a of literary composition, or to extracts from books, Ellage whereby to test the intellectual capacities and for which probably many readers will feel of an individual, nor in the positive information obliged to-F.J.L. they convey, or the privilege of bolding commu- 260. Is Bull's Blood Poison ?-We take the
following hints upon this subject from an arti- as a poison, but asserts that it is innocuous at cle by Mr. Wm. Bates, of Birmingham, which has Ægira. He places also the blood of the horse in recently been published in “Notes and Queries." the same category. Passing on to modern disser. “The question, as to whether bull's blood pos- tations on the subject, the theory of M. Salverte sesses such qualities as, taken under certain con- is not unworthy of notice: Experience has ditions and in sufficient quantities, would produce proved that the blood of bulls does not contain death, arises from the assertion that certain indi. any deleterious property. But in the East, and viduals have died from its imbibition. If, there some of the Grecian temples, they possessed the fore, it can be shown that the alleged cases rest secret of composing a beverage which could proupon very slender authority, while modern expe- cure a speedy and an easy death; and which, from rience shows that such a draught is harmless, its dark red colour, had received the name of little will remain but to account in a plausible bull's blood," a name unfortunately expressed manner-as by the too literal interpretation of a in the literal sense by the Greek historians. Such figurative expression-for the existence of a popu. is my conjecture, and I trust a plausible one.' lar belief. If, on the other hand, it can be shown Voltaire treats the whole matter as fictitious, and that deaths, penal or suicidal, ever have been so adduces his own experience as to the barmless. caused, there can be no doubt that the modus ness of the sanguinary draught. Similar opinions operandi, as explained by Mr. Leachman, is cor- were expressed by Sir Henry Halford, in an eru. rect, and the supposition of Niebuhr at once ex- dite paper on the poisons of the ancients, read in travagant and unnecessary. In an inquiry as to 1832 at the annual conversazione of the College the actuality of the alleged cases, it appears to me of Physicians. In this interesting dissertation that we may safely dismiss those of Aison and the idea that the blood of bullocks or oxen is Midas as belonging to a fabulous rather than an poisonous, and that the death of Themistocles or historical period, and allow the question to depend Hannibal was occasioned by its agency, is treated upon those of Themistocles and Haunjbal. With as a fable. Sir Henry farther states that he had regard to the former, the testimony of Valerius been informed by a nobleman, that at a bull-fight Maximus is the most unqualified and circumstan- in Spain, at which he had been a spectator, a man tial. Thucydides mentions the tradition while rushed forth, caught the blood of the dying ani. asserting that he died of disease. Cornelius Ne mal in a goblet, and drank it off in the belief of pos is aware of the diversity of opinion, but, fol. its efficacy as a cure for consumption. A writer lowing Thucydides, mentions the town where bis in the" Gentleman's Magazine (Vol. XXVIII. death from illness took place, and treats the story p.312), asserts tbat he has heard it said of the Rapof his suicide as a mere report. Lastly, Cicero parees in Ireland, that it was customary with accounts for the tradition on the ground of the them 10 bleed black cattle in the night time, and to opportunity which it afforded for rhetorical dis- carry off the blood for their nourishment; and play, and the prosaic nature of the actual fact. that, though taken from bulls, cows, and oxen I think that the consideration of these authorities, indiscriminately, no inconvenience was experiwithout further discussion of the corrupted pas- enced from its use. I myself am informed by a sage from Sophocles, will lead to the case of friend who has resided for some years in the Themistocles being given up. That of Hannibal south of Africa, that an exhausted Kaffir will appears still more improbable. The general be- plunge his attaghai between the ribs of a bull or lief is that this warrior, upon learning that Prus- cow, plunge his hand into the gory orifice, tear sias, King of Bithynia, had invested the house in forth the heart, and gulp down its contents with which he had taken refuge, destroyed himself by avidity, without the slightest fear of gastric inconmeans of poison which he carried about with him venience. Pliny, alter denouncing horse blood as in his ring, so as to be prepared for such an emer- poison, tells us of delicate cakes made by the gency. If this was not the case it will require to Sarmatians by mixing it with meal ; and visitors be explained how, under the circumstances, he to the Great Exhibition may remember the scheme contrived to obtain the hull's blood for the pur- of M. Brocchieri for utilizing the blood of the pose; unless, indeed, the poison in his ring were animals killed in the abattoirs of Paris; by sepaa concentrated preparation from that liquid, re- rating the serum from the crassamentum à hard sembling in its effects the prussic acid of modern dry substance was formed, available for food in chemistry. The evidence of Pliny is very unsa- various forms, as biscuit, bonbons, &c." tisfactory. It is true that he speaks of bull's blood
The Young student and Writer's Assistant.
GRAMMAR CLASS. Perform the exercise for the Senior Division contained in the July No. for 1854. Page 276.
MODEL EXERCISE, No. XXVI. 1. I intended to visit my friend last Thursday, if pressing business had not hindered me.
3. We have derived both pleasure and profit from reading Milton.
4. I have spoken to him about the business.
2. Neither he nor his wife was present when I called last.
7. At Lystra the people began to worship Paul as a god, and then stoned him as unfit to live.
8. The husband of that poor woman drank himself to death.