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all other things also; but it rather proves horse, the elephant, or the monkey in our them to be void of reason.”
menageries; but it is a development of menIt appears evident to us that all the tal and reasoning powers. All man's knowinstances of extraordinary sagacity in the ledge and wisdom, exclusive of what has brute creation are either the result of human been revealed from God, has been attained instruction, or arise from the instinctive by himself. All the resources of mind principles — selfishness chiefly - which in- which he has exhibited have been developed fluence all animals to a greater or less by himself. True, that men instruct each degree. We do not remember ever hearing other; but they ar fellows, they are not of a single instance of extraordinary devel- trained by a superior being. This makes opment of the so-called reason in brutes the great difference between man and other that had not been brought up under the animals, and demonstrates the superiority fostering care and tuition of man, other than of his mental resources to those of the brute. what could easily be attributed to the prin- The latter cannot instruct itself further than ciple of self. They have not the necessary what relates to its present enjoyment. Selfresources within themselves for elevating enjoyment is deeply implanted in the nature their state.
They cannot rise above a of all animals. By this are they, to a great certain level. They may be somewhat extent, impelled to protect themselves, and elevated, but they cannot elevate themselves. to perpetuate their kind. By this do they Were a thousand generations to follow each perform some of their most wondrous achieveother, the thousandth would not be a whit ments, and all this apparently unconsciously. the wiser or more sagacions than the first; The beaver in the construction of its tenethe daily existence of the last would be ment, the bee in the storing of its honey, very similar to the daily existence of the and all animals in the propagation of their first.
kinds, evidently have no other stimulus than We completely fail to discover any pro- the enjoyment of self. But most of their gression in brutes. Man, on the con- more curious and less frequent achievements trary, instructs himself and instructs his seem, as already said, to be the result of brother. Even deaf mutes are known to human instruction; and if they be the result have cultivated their mental faculties to of human instruction, they cannot by any some extent, and to have evinced a desire argumentation be employed to prove more for knowledge before being taught any kind than the adaptiveness of their mental inof language. True, these instances may be stincts or faculties within certain limits. few, but none the less confirmatory of their such instances as the sly look of the dog superiority to brutes. For instance, Mas- when spoken of, and the remarkable incident sieu, in France, who begged to go to school of the wren mentioned by your corresponwith the other children of the village, and dent “ Clement," may not rigidly come under who, in after years, displayed great ability either of these categories, but we think them and even originality as a thinker. An in- by no means inexplicable apart from reason. telligent writer, also, in the “ Bibliotheca All animals have the instinct of sagacity Sacra,” p. 566, No. 47, says, “ Some cases wisely endowed them for their self-protection we have known in which the mental and and enjoyment, and this instinct is more moral development has reached a point highly developed in some instances than in decidedly beyond the average unlettered others; but to assert that those higher speaking men, where yet there is either a developments are proofs of the possession of very slight knowledge of words, or even reason, is as absurd as to say that plants none at all.” These facts show that, wher- have sensational organs, because some of ever reason is, it will exhibit itself, and is them can adapt themselves, like animals, to accompanied, to some degree, by action the circumstances under which they cxist. worthy of it; and it also proves that man This is an analogous case, and quite as has resources within himself. All thinkers reasonable as the other. assert that every man must develop his own Another fact which inilitates strongly resources himself. It is not the mere learn- against the supposition that reason is not ing a few words on the tongue like the confined to man is, that the power of speech parrot, performing a few tricks like the is confined to himn. " To say,” remarks Dr
,* " that brutes have voices, or in- fectly, for they can be taught to articulate articulate language, adequate to the indica- a few words; but the fact of their not tion of certain appetites and passions, only making use of those words, after being increases the force of the remark. For how taught them, to express thoughts, feelings, unlikely is it that they would be endowed or reasoning of their own, makes it extremewith the means of expressing animal feel ly probable that they have no thoughts, and ings, and be denied the power of imparting cannot reason. ideas, supposing them to have ideas to The stationary position of the brutes is impart! And besides the inconsistency, conceded by all parties. What they were a perhaps few things would seem to impugn thousand years since, that are they to-day, the goodness of the Creator more than to No symptoms of progress in the remotest withbold from a creature capable of even degree can be discovered in any of their very limited reasoning, the faculty of ex- movements or actions, other than what they pressing and imparting its reasoning." There are instructed by man. They have no new is no law in creation more evident than the mode of enjoying themselves or protecting law of adaptation. Look where we will, we themselves;—the bird has merely its pretty, find its consummate perfection. Nothing but old-fashioned nest; the beaver its house can be mentioned that would detract there- of ancient design; the fox its usual kind from, neither can any part thereof be im- of hole; the bee extracts its honey in the proved. According to this law, we find same old method, and preserves it in cells that every animal is peculiarly adapted to of the same style of mathematical conthe sphere wherein it lives, and the objects struction; and the shell-fish form the same which it attains. Its physical organs and kind of shells; and so on throughout all its general qualities are not only the very creation. And why are they thus stationthings necessary, but, so far as our krow- ary? Evidently because they are destitute ledge goes, they are the only ones that can of reason. They needed it not, and the adequately reach the necessary ends; and, Creator has not endowed his creatures with still further, the conditions under which it anything superfluous. The right thing is exists are eminently adapted to develop its in the right place, and nothing more. They characteristics. Improvement in any way are gifted with what is necessary, and that is thus impossible. But this could not be is sufficient. The objects of their lives are said had the brute creation reason, for they reached without it. The appetites, the are deficient of what is essentially necessary passions, the memory, are amply sufficient, for the full development of that which would without reason, to reach their ends; and we be their chief endowment; and this would be have not sufficient grounds for believing that utterly inconsistent, 'not only with God's reason has any part to do in any of their goodness, but with his method of procedure. actions. Why did God give man an articulated In looking at the history of man, how. language? “Just because he gave him ever, we find him eminently a progressive reason (for what is man's word but his being. His reasoning powers are continually reason coming forth, so that it may behold on the increase. Under favourable circumitself ?); that he gave it to him, because he stances, they develop themselves daily. To could not be man--that is, a social being—what extent they are capable of expanding without it.” + Had he given the brute we know not: they may be, as the heavens, creation reason, we feel persuaded that he boundless. It is sufficient for our argument would also give them the means for develop that he exhibits his progress on earth. He ng it; but as they are deficient of that improves his enjoyments continually. He medium, it affords the strongest presumptive advances from stage to stage unintermitproof that they have no reasoning power, tingly. Week after week do we bear of his otherwise it would be incompatible with the inventions and of his schemes, and they are general law of adaptation. Some animals, ever a source of wonder to us. His great it is true, have the organs of speech imper- power of mind, which would fain grasp the
universe, and render it subservient to his * “ Pre-Adamite Earth," p. 261.
progress and happiness; his mastery over + Trench's “ Study of Words," p. 15. the irrational creation; and his profound and
subtle courses of reasoning, are evidences of is broken, and the door of his cage opened, his elevated position in creation. He towers the prisoner of the earthly tenement will infinitely above all earthly existences. Were then take his flight to the infinity, wherein we mentally to place ourselves in the posi- he will have sufficient scope to develop his tion of some of the brutes that perish, we powers, and wherein he will exist for endless should find ourselves necessitated to look up cycles. Then the development of his mental to him as to a god. Creation is at his service powers will enable him to partake more in this life; but he requires infinity to act largely of the boundless pleasures that are in, and all the extent of God's treasures to in God, or to receive more and more of his revel in. His energy and activity are in just indignation and wrath. Our existence this world trammelled. Here, he is as in a in the world to come will be a development cage—the frailties of the body are as so of our principles in this. We are destined many wires encircling him, and keeping him to spend an eternity of progress in corrupfrom that liberty which he demands for the tion or holiness. As man is thus a profull exercise of his powers. They therefore gressive being, both mentally and morally, restrain his action, and, to some extent, and is responsible for all his doings; and as deter his progress. Having lost the image we fail to perceive either the one characterof God,* he has lost the chief source of istic or the other in the brute creation, we enjoyment. Man cannot, therefore, approach feel compelled to ascribe to man alone that God and enjoy his presence as he did before faculty which places him in so responsible the fall. But when the slight tissue of life and prominent a position in the scale of crea
ARHONDDU. * We may state that we widely differ from our respected friend“ Persona as regards the image ot God with which man was endowed at creation. lost the free will, nor our intellectual faculties. So It could not have consisted of the free will and we believe that the“ image" must have consisted intellectual faculties, as man, through sin, lost of moral perfections-holiness, justice, &c. These the image of God, and thereby totally incapaci- qualities certainly were lost. "Reason, however, tated himself to enjoy God. Now, we have not' was essential to man as a probationary being.
NEGATIVE ARTICLE.-IV. We have carefully perused the different As in the case of those of his own species articles on this subject in the Controver- born deaf and dumb, no one doubts their sialist, and have come to the conclusion, with possession of reason merely because they are “Clement" (who has, it seems to us, stated deprived of the noble faculty of speech; their the question fairly), that reason, as distin- actions and behaviour sufficiently prove their guished between man and the animal world, intelligence. Of course, none of those who is rather a question of degree than of kind. maintain the negative in this argument None of our opponents attempt to deny the claim for animals the same degree of reason indications of reason shown by the higher as belongs to man. We do not pretend they class of animals, as developed in the nume- can solve geometrical problems, or even unrous and well attested anecdotes which are derstand them; or that they know the princontinually presented to our notice, and ciples of engineering as practised by man; which might be increased by hundreds more nor do we suppose that the finer shades of if
necessary. Persona” sneers at the bring- thought, the power of mental analysis, or ing forward of these anecdotes in support of the flights of imagination in which man can our position, and J. F. affects to doubt the indulge, and which he can communicate to accuracy of some of the statements; but we his fellows by means of written language, maintain it is a perfectly legitimate mode of are common to them; but we think it almost supporting the negative argument, for these demonstrative that the broad distinctive instances of reason and sagacity may be marks of reason, as shown in man, belong in considered in the light of experiinents, and an inferior degree to the lower animals, each as man has no direct means of communica- according to its peculiar organization, and tion with the lower animals by speech or suitable to the peculiar habits of its life and otherwise, he can only judge of the extent of the requirements of its nature. their faculties by contemplating their actions. aware that here we may be met by the as
sertion that what we claim for them is only the mysterious principle of perception or instinct under another name. But to this mind is not connected with matter, any furwe demur, for we may equally contend that ther than as making use of the body, with instinct is only another name for a modified its organs of sight, touch, smell, &c., as a degree of reason. In order to come a little medium of communication with the outer nearer the question, we will shortly inquire world, and that the death or destruction of what are the principal characteristics of the these organs does not necessarily or logically mind of man, and then examine whether the involve the annihilation of the perceptive faanimal world does not possess these charac- culty, and foreseeing that the same argument teristics in a inodified degree. We are aware is applicable to the perceptive faculties of that metaphysicians have classified the pow- brutes, and, consequently, if the mind of man ers of the mind under many different heads, be immortal, so may that of brutes, he says, but on this occasion we will only refer to “Suppose the invidious thing designed in three, viz., memory, judgment, and foresight. such a manner of expression were really imMan is also endowed with passions, the prin- plied, as it is not in the least, in the natural cipal of which are love, hatred, fear, and immortality of brutes; namely, that they revenge. These are not properly considered must arrive at great attainments, and beas part of the reasoning faculties, though come rational and moral agents; even this undoubtedly connected with and influenced would be no difficulty, since we know not by them, in a more or less degree.
what latent powers and capacities they may Now it seems to us impossible to deny be endued with. There was once, prior to that the lower animals, such as the dog, cat, experience, as great presumption against hahorse, elephant, &c., are susceptible of all man creatures, as there is against the brute these. In fact, our opponents, who will only creatures, arriving at that degree of underallow what they call “ blind instinct” to the standing which we have in mature age, for possession of animals, are compelled to admit we can trace up our own existence to the that it is joined with other qualities which, same original as theirs." in form a part of what is called reason. Montaigne, also, after bringing forward Hence they are driven to the necessity of many striking proofs of the sagacity and claiming for these creatures a power they reasoning powers of animals, and attributing designate instinct, with occasional and into them in degree all the faculties possessed termittent indications of another power, re- by man, asserts that it is the overweening sembling reason in man, but still distinct pride and presumption of man which will from instinct. Addison is so sensible of the not concede to brutes their fair due: “ 'Tis difficulty of the position, that he says, — by the same vanity of imagination that he “There is not, in my opinion, anything more equals himself to God, attributes to himself mysterious in nature than this instinct in divine qnalities, withdraws and separates animals, which thus rises above reason, and himself from the crowd of other creatures, falls infinitely short of it. It cannot be ac- cuts out the shares of the animals, his felcounted for by any properties in matter, and lows and companions, and distributes to them at the same time works after so odd a manner, portions of faculties and force as himself that one cannot think it the faculty of an thinks fit. How does he know, by the intellectual being. .... To me it seems strength of his understanding, tlıe secret and the immediate direction of Providence, and internal motions of animals ?
From what such an operation of the Supreme Being as comparison betwixt them and us does he that which determines all the portions of conclude the stupidity he attributes to them? matter to their proper centre.”
When I play with my cat, who knows wheThe celebrated Dr. Butler, also, in his ther I do not make her more sport than she well-known argument, “The Analogy of Re- makes me? We mutually divert one another ligion," seems to have been so impressed with with our play."* the indications of reason in the brute world, We may here notice the affectionate interas to be willing to concede them an immor- est shown by the poet Cowper in the lower tality hereafter; for, after maintaining that animals, and his beautiful poem, “ The Dog
Spectator," No. 120, 121.
* Montaigne's " Essays."
With fixed considerate face,
and the Water Lily," which, he adds, is “no of the anatomist, and the multiplied observafable," and would almost seem to show that tions and speculations of the phrenologist, the poet attributed reasoning powers to his from Gall and Spurzheim to the modern profavourite dog. The anecdote proves that the fessors of that science, the functions of the dog clearly understood his master to be de- different parts of the brain, whether in man sirous of possessing the lily, and observed or animals, are still matter of dispute and his disappointment at not being able to reach question; and, in our humble opinion, must it. How beautifully the reflective attitude ever be. We believe an accurate knowledge of the dog is suggested in the verse- of the mode of action of the brain, and the “ Beau marked my unsuccessful pains,
uses and properties of its different parts, and
the mysterious connection between the mental And puzzling set his puppy brains and moral phenomena of the human mind To comprehend the case."
and that organ, never can be traced into all And although his attention was called away its ramifications. It is, however, unanifor a time from the circumstance, the parti- mously agreed that the brain in man is the culars were imprinted on his memory, and, organ of the perceptive and reasoning powers. on their return, affection for his master How and in what manner we know not; but prompted him to dash into the water, and all experience shows that it is so, as much lay the lily at his feet.
as the leg and foot are the organs or instruBut we have no need to fall back upon ments specially made and adapted for locoany authorities to prove the possession by motion, the hand for labour, or the heart for the lower animals of the powers and passions the circulation of the blood. Anatomists we have described. The experience we have tell us, also, that this organ is considerably of our own domestic favourites, when they larger in man in proportion to his size than are attentively watched, affords daily proof in any other creature whatever. In quadruof a considerable degree of intelligence and peds and birds its size gradually diminishes, reasoning power. How readily they perceive something in the ratio of their reason and when they have done wrong, and we are instinct, whilst in insects the brain is small offended with them. How the doubts and and imperfect. fears that agitate them are expressed in their Now, unless the brain in animals is formed eye and gestures. How much, and how soon, for the purpose of furnishing them with their they learn from experience what is pleasing perceptive and reasoning powers, it is diffior distasteful to their master. How readily cult to suppose it can answer that end in they detect when he is in a glad and joyous man, or even to conceive any special use for humour, and when in a depressed and me- it at all. But “when there is no organizalancholy one; and how skilfully their conduct tion,” says Mr. Belsham,“ as far as our is regulated accordingly. Most readers of observation extends there is no perception. this debate can readily call to mind many Wherever such an organic structure as the instances within their own personal know- brain exists, perception exists. Where this ledge, of a sagacity displayed by these crea- organization is imperfect, perception is imtures which cannot be distinguished from perfect. Where the organization is sound, what we call reason; and we feel persuaded vigorous, and healthy, perception is proporthat the more they are observed the more tionally vigorous and clear. "Where the orfrequently we shall be struck by them. ganization is iinpaired, perception is enfeebled Several remarkable anecdotes have been al- and obscured. And when the organization ready related in the previous papers: we ceases, perception appears to cease.” Reaalso could add to the
mber, but for the oning, therefore, from analogy, we are juspurpose of our argument do not think it ne- tified in believing that the same organ subcessary, as no candid person can deny the serves the same end in the lower orders of frequent recurrence of such manifestations. creation to what it does in the higher ;
But, farther, there is the physiological and though, from the inferior degree of organizaanatomical view of this subject, which merits tion in the former, necessarily in a much less some consideration, and we think strongly perfect manner. And here we may ask, Why tends to support our view of the argument. should man be unwilling to concede these We are well aware that, despite the labours lower creatures a modicum of reason, and