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soul. Is the analogy, then, perfect? Does Anaximenes endow the Infinite with intelligence and will? Does a mere vital energy operate in the production of all, or do the primary activities of Nature receive their impulses from a sovereign will? The analogy is grand and striking; it captivates and dazzles, True, even then, it might be construed into Pantheism, or into something, if possible, worse. But we must not be misled by analogies, we must still keep our thoughts chained within the circle of inexperience; we must not attribute modern culture to an age of speculation so crude and immature as this; we have no grounds for believing that Anaximenes had ever risen to the conception of an intelligent cause as necessary for the completeness of his theory. But do not let us judge harshly or unfairly; Anaximenes unquestionably believed in the religious mythology of his age. It formed no part of his scheme to construct a Philosophy of Religion; the Philosophy of Nature was all he sought to understand. The gods of the people satisfied him well enough, he had no wish to search for new ones. Like his master, he seems to have believed that Theogony and Cosmogony were different departments of thought and knowledge, and that to connect the one with the other tended unnecessarily to embarrass and complicate the researches of philosophy. There is no incompatibility between the belief that the king and father of gods and men-immortal Jove-sits on his Olympian throne in dignity supreme, having delegated to the minor gods the conduct of the destinies of men and things; and the attempt to learn from the operations of phenomena the laws which are prevalent, and the proximate agencies which are employed in the production or origin of things. At all events, Anaximenes could not be expected to observe how unsatisfactory an explanation of mere phenomenal change must be as an ultimate solution of the mystery of existence. Assuredly, he did not feel called upon to do more than complete the hypothesis of his master in its most obvious and simple sense, and felt perfectly satisfied when he had realized the ideal of his master; had

“ To a thought such shape and image given" as might bring it within the comprehension of his fellow men, and had withdrawn the philosophy of Anaximander from the abstract state in which he left it, into the living world of concrete forms and sensible phenomena. He, too, had added to the sum of human thought, had helped to uncloud the mind, and had aided in bridging the chasm which lay between man and a knowledge of the phenomena that surrounded him. To him, as to Thales, most probably “all things were full of gods,” but Religion, however imperfectly, had acquainted him with the characters and the behests of most of them, as well as of the relation which existed between them and him: but of Nature he knew little. How could he do otherwise, then, than expend the chief energies of his thinking powers in acquiring a knowledge of that upon which “ shadows, clouds, and darkness" hung!

The question of direct discipleship deserves a moment's notice. With Thales, the supposition of an invariable element the origin of all things was posited. That primordial substance he discovered in water; for water was, as it appeared to him, the least fixed in its förm, the most mutable in its appearances. This conception Anaximander could not reduce to the conditions of the thinkable-could not reconcile with the necessities of the Reason; he, therefore, sought in the reason itself for a guide-clue to the true conception of the (åpx) origin of all things. He asked, what will really and truly suffice to explain to the reason the origin of all? Let reason itself answer. This answer he found in the Infinite, a vague abstraction destitute of realization. How realize it? How bring it within the ken of intelligence? Of what phenomenal agency may infinity be predicated? Water? No! Of what then? This query Anaximenes answered. Air is the infinite, and, because it is so, it is the invariable, essentially changeless element from which all things are forth-formed. The progress is evident, the steps consecutive; whence, then, the improbability of the sequence of their discipleship, as well as of their lives? We can see none. Do our readers see any?

One other observation and we have done. Anaximenes has, along with many other ancient philosophers, been stigmatized as an Atheist. Against this we feel bound to protest. In the absence of distinct proof, it is inconsistent with that “charity which thinketh no evil” to lay any great thinker under the ban-or charge any noble mind with bona fide Atheism.

“ You may recall to mind an ancient sage,
Who being asked the nature of his God,
Demanded certain weeks, then certain months,

Then certain years to frame bis answer in." Was he an Atheist because he could not rattle glibly forth some formula of words, and clothe his high conception of his God in earth's imperfect language? Or did not the sacredness of silence impart a more awful significance to the question, and give a sublimity to the thought which he retained unuttered,

“ Shut in its close and sad receptacle " a thinking mind?

Atheism has never been, can never be, extensively prevalent amongst the monarch thoughtsmen of an age. We think it is preposterous as well as unwise to press this charge home upon every great heathen who has not uttered a confession of faith to the contrary; because it is much more likely that these noble souled men were so thoroughly convinced of the existence of one who is

“The crown, the wisdom, the intelligence,

Kindness, and strength, and beauty, splendour, worth,

Original and rule" of all creation, as to believe it needless to enforce that truth by argument, than that they looked

the universe as a poor uncaptained skiff, ploughing the main of immensity uncared for and unnoticed. Let us be thankful when they do mention their belief in a divine governance and providence operative in human things; but do not let us throw discredit on their greatness if they do not go out of their way to speak of God and things divine. Should Euclid be required to demonstrate the being of God in the midst of the geometrical problems which engaged him, or on failure of doing so be charged with Atheism? Certainly not! In like manner, whenever any author is expressly treating upon a topic from which such considerations must be excluded, it is unfair to construe his silence on this point into guilt. Atheism is the creed of thoughtlessness, not of thought; and it is unwise to place in the catalogue of Atheists the names of the great and good whose memory history has embalmed; for unthinking men, caught by the glitter of their reputation, may be led, much to the prejudice of truth, to rank themselves, with egotistic complacency, as the companions in unbelief of the

“Great unsceptred sovereigns, who rule

Our spirits from their urns."






The present being a question of "what | surface truths or literal sense of the divine saith the scriptures?" we purpose offering word may be classed under two denominasome observations on the general charac- tions, real and apparent, much in the same teristics of boly writ; confining ourselves, way as our ordinary conversation is a mixhowever, to a notice of such features as have ture of real facts and facts as they appear to a bearing upon positions in regard to the pre- the senses. Thus, we ordinarily speak of sent question subsequently to be established. the sun's rising and setting, albeit this is not The scriptures, then, present to us divine or a scientific truth or real fact, but only an absolute truth finited, or made adequate to appearance; just so, the scriptures say that human or finite and relative comprehension. God is


with the wicked every day,” This process of letting down heavenly truth that he punishes, that “vengeance" belongs we conceive to be effected by clothing it with to him, &c., all of which class of passages, language, embodying images taken from na- imputing the infliction of misery, devastation, ture, and human—that is, Jewish-history. and destruction to the Lord, are only appaThese images, however, are not selected arbi- rent truths, or spiritual realities described as trarily, but according to rule, the rule of cause they appear to man in his lower and suborand effect, whereby “the invisible things of dinate sphere of existence,* the real or absoHim from the creation of the world are clearly lute truth being that “God is love"—infiseen, being understood by the things that are nite, essential love; and that no attribute made;" while Jewish history, as related in pertaining to him is inconsistent, or at variscripture, being that of a theocracy whose ance with this most glorious attribute.

It peculiar institutions were formed by God, and belongs to subsequent arguments to show their progress and development, as a nation, how the“ eternal punishment of the wicked" superinduced or conformed by his providence, is compatible with the character of Deity as present us with one continuous type of spi a God of infinite love. ritual realities. We must here observe that It is in the very nature of love to desire a our remarks are applicable only to such parts subject out of, or extrinsic from, itself as the of the common Bible as are plenarily inspired, which parts are concisely indicated by our Lord himself as “the law, the prophets, and that occasion had solely in view the above indithe psalms.” To these we of course add the which F. J. L. deems so conclusive against our four gospels, which, being a record of the position are drawn from the Epistles, which are words, actions, and circumstances of the not included therein, and consequently not in “Word made flesh”—Deity finited to huma- point. We hold the Epistles to be the productions

of illuminated but not inspired writers; and in nitarian circumstances and position-must no proper sense can they be called the word of needs be pregnant with a spiritual meaning. God. We do not believe that the afflatus of inWe also include "the Revelation of Jesus spiration was continuous or personal with any of Christ, which God gave to him to show granted for the occasion. Thus St. John's writ

the writers of the inspired word, but specially unto his servants things which must shortly ings exhibit specimens of three distinct classes of come to pass; and he sent and signified by scripture writing—the historical (Gospel), the prohis angel unto his servant John."* The phetical (Apocalypse), the dogmatic ( Epistles).

* Some of the reasons for this are sufficiently obvious, viz., the necessity of adapting the lan.

guage of scripture to even the lowest order of * We take this opportunity of replying to the comprehensions, and of subordinating its most strictures of F.J.L.on our argumentin reference to literal teachings to the inculcation of that one the scriptures, in our article on the “Universities" idea, “God in all things," which it is of the last question (vol. v., p. 453). Our observations on limportance for men to entertain.

object of its affection, solicitude, and of its end of his Creator in his creation; but man benefits; in its higher developments it also would perversely stem the tide that led to a requires reciprocal affection on the part of blissful immortality. By a perverse use of its object.

Thus, we regard the Divine love his free will, and a concomitant reception of as the moving cause to creation, and “its falsity in his intellect, he formed to himgrand end a heaven out of the human race;"' self such a character for eternity as was a community of beings who could be the unfit for, and opposed to the order of, heaven, grateful recipients of their Creator's benefi- " the highest state of social happiness;" but cence, and the free and intelligent recipro- immortality still adhered to him, since it cators of his love. In order to this end, man was one of the laws of the order of being was created “in the image and likeness of into which he was created. Hence resulted God;" that is, formed with a capacity for a class and community of immortal characimmortality, and endowed with the attributes ters, necessarily, and in virtue of their inheof free will and intellect, and placed in this rent genius, excluded from heaven, and lower world to form his character for eter- forming a sphere of existence antagonistic nity.* It is self-evident that a probationary to its influences. Such is hell, the lowest sphere of existence, which gave man freedom state of social wretchedness. The question to choose between good and evil, obedience before us recognizes hell as the “punishment and disobedience, was necessary to the for- of the wicked.” It is so, in effect; but not in mation of the element called character. the Divine intention, since, as we have seen, The results, in man's regard, are well known hell owes its origin to the perverse use that to the student of Revelation :

man made of the faculties with which he

was endowed by his beneficent Creator for " Faultless thou dropp'st from his unerring skill, his highest good (the very existence of which With the bare power to sin, since free of will. Yet charge not with thy guilt his bounteous faculties implies the ability to abuse them). love;

We hold that all men would be saved, if that For who hath power to walk hath power to rove. were possible; that is, if it were consistent Who acts by force impelled can nought deserve; with the laws of order, which are the laws of And wisdom short of infinite may sweve. Borne on thy new-imp'd wings thou took'st thy Infinite Wisdom, according to which Proviflight;

dence acts. This order was conceived and Left thy Creator, and the realms of light; Disdained his gentle precept to fulfil;

brought into existence by the Divine Wisdom And thought to grow a God by doing ill."

before man was created. Man was born

into this order; and so long as he continued The "fall” is that epoch in the history of to act in conformity with its requirements, it man from which sin, and religion--the means was conducive to his highest well being; but of reclaiming him from the dominion and when he acted contrary to it, from confirmed effects of sin-take date. To this event, principles, then this order reacted to his too, hell owes its origin. Man, we have excommunication and punishment. Thus, seen, was predestinated to heaven, and the the “punishment of the wicked" is not the stream of providence” which surrounded execution of a sentence to that effect; but him was conducive to this grand and final is incurred by the wilful infringement of the

laws of spiritual order, analogously as the

infringement of the natural laws produces * We reject the notion of angels being created immediately as such. Such beings as this idea disease and suffering with the unhappy ofsupposes could be nothing more than automatons, fender. We maintain that God permits to moved in a given direction by a given impulse; the wicked the enjoyment of all the happiand, as such, unsatisfactory objects of the regard ness their nature is capable of, to the extent of Infinite Love and Wisdom to have been men who achieved the angelic cha- of leaving the laws of spiritual order uninracter by a life, in a sublunary world, in conform- fringed; but this is at best but spiritual ity with God's laws, and through a voluntary misery, just as their immortal life is spiritacceptance, on their part, of the “means of

grace" held out to them. God 'being Infiuite Love, we

ual death, for so it is called in scripture. have à priori grounds for believing that if angels | It is the dreadful lot of the wicked to be beings in whoin the ends of Divine love could rest incited to the infringement of the laws of of exposure in this lower world, we shonli all goodness and truth, and consequently to the have been created into this order of existences. incurrence of condign punishment through their reaction, by the very outshining of the To suppose a work of Divine Wisdom to Sun of Righteousness for the perfection and end in nothingness is to imply a defect in happiness of the blest; analogously as the the Infinite, which is an absurdity. Besides, natural sun, whose rays are conducive to the we submit that hell itself has its uses in the growth and nourishment of all normal ob- spiritual economy over which Providence jects, is at the same time productive of presides; thus, it is serviceable in exciting hurtful influences and noxious growths, by temptations which are necessary, in order to acting on excremental and abnormal objects. bring to the surface the latent evils in man's Thus we “justify the ways of God to man,” nature, and so to promote his purification in the matter of the “eternal punishment” and regeneration. In general, the uses of of the" wicked.”

hell and its adjuncts are analogous to those There are two arguments which would be of wild beasts, noxious reptiles, vermin, poivalid for the purpose of proving the negative sonous and excremental substances, &c., all of the present question, could they be sub- of which are demonstrably serviceable, in stantiated; one is, for the possibility of various ways, in the economy of nature. reforming the wicked, the other for their Thenannihilation; but we have adduced princi

Look to thy soul, o man! for none can be ples, in the course of the foregoing, which surety for his brother: negative both these propositions. For the “ Behold! for heaven or for hell, thou canst first, we have seen that the human character,

not escape from immortality." formed in freedom, and under the auspices The direct scriptural proof of the affirmaof the faculty of intelligence, must needs be tive side of the present question has already indelible, and incapable of being essentially been copiously and forcibly adduced by changed to all eternity, for any such change “ L'Ouvrier.” We have had “ Sigma’s ” would be equivalent to the annihilation of production in view while penning the forethe identity of the subject, and the creation going arguments; and although we have not of a new personality. Besides, there is direct formally noticed his article, it will be seen scriptural authority against the opinion ; that we have dealt with his arguments, and “ Can the leopard change his spots?” The something more. We have shown that the state of the wicked is termed ®“ death” and “eternal punishment of the wicked" is quite the “grave," indicating the utter extinction compatible with “ the character of God” as of, or deadness to, goodness and truth, and a “ God of love," and consequently compatithe finality of the state. True, there are ble with “the genius of Christianity;" some who may be saved“ as by fire;" and it have shown the impossibility of the essenis said of our Lord, “ A bruised reed will he | tially wicked being reformed in the state not break, and smoking flax will he not beyond the grave; and we have anticipated quench;” but these are evidently extreme the argument for their annihilation. It recases, exceptions which prove the rule we mains to be seen what other arguments can contend for. For the second, we have seen be adduced, either from scripture or from that“ immortality” is

reason, in favour of the non-eternity of the “A word from Wisdom's mouth which cannot be

punishment of the wicked.” unspoken."

BENJAMIN. NEGATIVE ARTICLE.-II. HAVING in a former paper treated at brimstone,” which to us appear simply figu. some length the general question, we pro- rative of a moral and spiritual purgation; and ceed briefly to examine the popular interpre- the more we consider it, the less able are we tation of certain passages, and to consider to accept the popular idea attached to these sundry collateral points which demand atten- words. And our view is entirely substantion. We will

tiated by Mal. iii. 1-4, which alone suffiI. Examine the popular interpretation of ciently explains the passages alluded to. certain passages. Only a few can be selected, But we may be referred to Matt. iii. 12; which at the moment occur to us as of pri- Mark ix. 43–48; and others of similar immary importance. In our former article, port. Now, bearing in mind what we have reference was made to the terms “ fire” and said as to the design of punishment, let us


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