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English poetry, leave no very favourable impression of this strife of sounds; yet from its constant occurrence in their poetry it evidently must have pleased the "conquerors of the world." If" Enitor" will accent the celebrated soliloquy of Hamlet (Act iii., sc. 1), and get some foreigner who knows very little of our pronunciation to read it, he will find that the effect is ludicrous, although the accentuation may be correct. I heard it tried in the case of a Frenchman, who could write our language well, but whose knowledge of our pronunciation was confined to the results of a few days' experience in this country. The first line sounded (as nearly as I can indicate) like: "Toby', ore note' Toby', dat' ees de kais'-tcheon." The facility with which the beat (ictus) of some of the simple Latin rhythms (especially the Trochaic, Iambic, and Anapæstic) can be applied to English poetry, has led to the introduction of the terminology of Latin prosody into our grammar, and to the idea that English poetry may be scanned and otherwise maltreated in a manner foreign to its genius; if, however, we even go so far as to allow that English metre is a mere system of accent, it cannot well be denied that it is not based on quantity, and therefore, to take the lowest ground, a distinct prosodiacal system and nomenclature would save much confusion of things that differ. It is amusing to glance at the examples of English scansion on p. 195, and to find that the interjection "Oh!" and the preposition" of" are long or short at the whim of the poet; that in the word "unforgotten," the first "o," though really the longer sound, is to be considered short, and the second "o," which is short, is to be deemed long; that "had," which is as short as any syllable can be, must nevertheless be marked long, &c. Surely the scanning system works but ill in these favourable specimens. And how the evervarying swell of Shaksperian or Miltonic verse can be fitted with feet and quantities, at any expense of whimsicality and inconsistency, I am unable to conceive. It really would be a treat to see a classic pedagogue applying his measuring rule to the exquisite music of our prince of living poets-Tennyson; we would set him to work first at some such little gem of melody as that entitled "Claribel."

So much then for the general character of metre. As to its species and varieties in Latin, any attempt of mine to instruct" Enitor" would be very like" the blind leading the blind." I know of no short elementary work so likely to assist him as "Zumpt on Metre," published separately as a supplement to the grammar already mentioned; it is clear, concise, and practical.

In conclusion, " scanning" should be the practical application of our knowledge of quantity and metre: it too often is a mere mechanical feat. Let" Enitor" take 50 lines of the Eneid, or any other Hexametric poem, and having by the aid of a gradus or dictionary carefully marked the quantity of each syllable, divide each line into six feet (dactyls or spondees); then let him read the lines aloud half-a-dozen times, laying a strong emphasis on the first syllable of each foot, and giving to each long syllable twice the time of utterance of a short one. His ear by that time will be so drilled into the beat (ictus) of the metre, that he will be able, as most schoolboys are, to scan hexameter verse without a thought of quantity. The pentameter, having only the two first feet

doubtful (i. e., spondees or dactyls), may be scanned in this manner with still greater ease and certainty. Let him, however, understand me,-I do not recommend such a practice; it is merely serving poetry as some annoying people serve music, by beating or kicking time to it, and so adding an accompaniment the very reverse of pleasing to a musical ear. Moreover, this sing song scanning will fail him in the varying and complex metres of the great lyrist Horace: scanning there must be bona fide, and based upon hard-earned knowledge.-B. S.

236. George Sand.-One of the difficulties which beset a young reader, who is toiling in the upward path to knowledge by self-aid alone, arises from frequently meeting, in his course of study, with names of writers, "sages and philosophers," of whom, previously, he was ignorant, and concerning whom he may be led to form opinions diametrically opposed to their real character. Such was the manner in which the writer was deluded as to the real character and genius of "George Sand." Reading, some years ago, a work which contained a profound quotation from this author, I was led to form a very flattering idea of his talents. My surprise was unbounded when reading in a literary journal of the day a statement that Madame Dudevant was the real "George Sand," and further, that the said lady was a robust, masculine-looking person, standing five feet six inches in height, her hair forming a natural shawl, covering her shoulders; that she wore a pointed cocked hat, mustachios, boots and spurs, and was an inveterate cigar smoker. I have been able to glean a few facts relating to the curious career of this most remarkable woman.

Marie Aurore Dudevant was born, I believe, at Berry, or Berri, in France. The following particulars, as to the rank of the lady, I extract from a short memoir prefixed to a recent edition of the "Enchanted Lake:"-" Every one knows, or is supposed to know, that Marshal Saxe was the natural son of Augustus II., King of Poland, and of the Countess of Koenigsmark. Under a Saxon outside, the hero of Fontenoy possessed a truly French heart. In his lifetime he had made a number of conquests; and the issue of one of these, in 1750, proved to be a daughter, Marie Aurore, recognized as such after the death of the Marshal by a decree in parliament. Her first marriage was with Count Horn: she remained a widow but for a short period. The Countess Horn retired to her country seat, l'Abbaye-aux-Bois, and under that predestined roof-which, at a later period, sheltered a beauty immortalized by goodness and grace-she held her delightful re-unions, the most distinguished in those days; the old Maréchal de Richelieu frequented them, and was, it seems, one of her most devoted admirers. Remarkably goodlooking and witty, the young widow inspired a M. Dupin Franceuil, son of Claude Dupin, with a feeling of love. They were soon after united; and he took her to Berry, where he was just nominated to a very valuable government appointment. Afterwards, she resided successively at Chateuroux, and the castle of Nohaut, about a league from Chatre. Madame Dupin again found herself a widow, in 1786, with a son, Maurice Dupin. He married at an early age, and had just gained, under the Empire, a high military grade, when he died suddenly at Chatre, of a fall from a horse, leaving an only daughter, named, like her

grandmother, Marie Aurore, and whose education | subsequent popularity, and the manner by which was confided to her care.' It appears she remained under the care of her grandmother some years, or until she was near 14 years of age, when the old lady began to think it high time her granddaughter should receive an education suiting her rank and birth; with this in view, Marie Aurore was placed in the convent of the Dames Anglaises. It is related, that while here, her ardent imagination began to show itself. The tranquillity and retirement of the cloister, coupled with the pomp of the Roman Catholic religion, produced such an effect upon her mind, that she was suddenly seized with fits of fervid devotion, which increased to such a degree, that ultimately we find her a resident in the castle of Nohaut. About six years after this time a husband was selected for her, and she became united to a man who, it appears, was of an opposite temperament to her own, and "held refinements of the heart and mind as idle nonsense; not very learned, and very abrupt and ungentlemanly." He is described as a retired soldier, and of the name of Dudevant. From this period, or a year or two later, we find the troubles of Madame Dudevant commence, and in the year 1828, while at Nohaut, she was suddenly missed. All were ignorant of where she had gone, but it subsequently transpires that she retraced her steps to the convent of her younger days, and there for some time found a suitable residence. The after-part of her life became clouded. She is supposed to have lived some years with a wood engraver, who, in one of her works, she calls Watelot; and it was while thus living, in a secluded part of the country, apparently unknown, that she produced her first work, entitled "Rose and Blanche; or, the Actress and the Nun;" and in less than ten years afterwards, she produced more than thirty volumes. Her works are chiefly fictious and politico-philosophical, but I think F. S. will not lose much if he should never meet with them.

she emerged from obscurity and obtained a field for her talent, is singular and amusing, as described by herself. We ought here to state that the Baroness Dudevant had left her husband, and was living under the protection of Jules Sandeau, a novelist of some reputation in France, half of whose name the lady appropriated to herself, and has since immortalized by her talent. The character of" Watelot" is meant to represent Sandeau, and "Margret Lecomte" the fair authoress herself. Some time after the July Revolution, there appeared a book entitled, "Rose and Blanche; or, the Actress and the Nun." The book, which at first passed unnoticed, fell by chance into a publisher's hands; he read it, and, struck by the richness of certain descriptive passages, and by the novelty of the situations, he inquired the author's address. He was referred to a mean lodging-house, and on applying there was conducted to a small attic. There he saw a young man writing at a little table, and a young woman painting flowers by his side. These were Watelot and Margret Lecomte. The publisher spoke of the work, and it appeared that Margret, who could write books as well as Watelot, and even better, had written a good part, and the best part of this one. Encouraged by the publisher's approval, she took from a drawer a manuscript written entirely by herself; he bought it, and doubtless very cheap; it was "Indiana." Soon after this she left Watelot, and, taking half his name, called herself" George Sand."

The authoress of "Indiana" is usually represented, particularly in the higher circles, as a woman of abandoned and depraved morals, of coarse appearance, and masculine habits. That she is eccentric, we are not prepared to deny; but any little foibles that may serve the purpose of her detractors, are far-far counterbalanced by the many virtues she possesses. In the Department of the Indre, where she resides, her charity is unbounded; and her pen, as well as her purse, is at the service of the unfortunate and the distressed.

66 'Modesty's the charm

That coldest hearts can quickest warm;
Which all our best affections gains,
And gaining, ever still retains."

-ALFRED H., Liverpool.

236. Perhaps the following sketch of "George Sand" (which I condense from "Reynolds's Political Instructor") may answer the wants of F. S., and may not be altogether uninteresting to your readers generally :

"Consuelo," and "The Countess of Rudolstadt," are among the most popular of her late works; and if F. S. requires more, he will find them in the "Literature of all Nations." I may just mention that she has disposed of her (own written) " Memoirs;" and it is probable that they will be brought before the eyes of the British public before long.-A.

243. Trial of the Pyx.-J. C. F. will find an elaborate description of the "Trial of the Pyx" in the Illustrated London News of December 16th, 1854. We will, however, briefly explain this ancient custom. The word "pyx "signifies the box in which are placed specimens of the coinage issued during the four preceding years. object of the trial is to ascertain whether the coinage is of the standard fixed by acts of parlia


George Sand," or to use a more correct appellation, Madame Dudevant was left an orphan at an early age, under the care of her grandfather, Receiver-General of Taxes in the Department of the Indre, a position of high consideration and emolument. Upon the death of this relation, she was placed by her grandmother in a convent, and upon emerging from thence was married to Baronment, and thus prevent a depreciated currency. Dudevant. The death of her grandmother left The court consists of four members of Her her, at the very moment she quitted the convent Majesty's Privy Council, the Lord Chancellor alwhere she had been brought up, alone and ieud ways being one; and is attende by sundry less. Totally ignorant of the world, she allowed officers of the Crown, a deputation from the Goldherself to be married to a rough old soldier, who smiths' Company, and the Mint authorities; led a monotonous existence in an old country twelve practical goldsmiths or silversmiths conhouse, and was perfectly destitute of romance, stituting the jury. The Master of the Mint takes sentiment, or love. This excuse is often urged an oath that the specimens produced are a fair by her admirers in extenuation of her conjugal selection. A bar of standard gold is then proinfidelity. The origin of Madame Dudevant's duced by the assayer of the Goldsmiths' Company,

there be bled. Doubtless, the competition for custom was great, because, as our ancestors were great admirers of bleeding, they demanded the operation frequently. At length, instead of hanging out the identical pole used in the operation, a pole was painted with stripes round it, in imitation of the real pole and its bandagings; and thus came the sign.

from which a piece is clipped off to form the standard, and which, together with the coins, is entrusted to the jury, who, after being sworn, retire to the Goldsmith's Hall, where the real trial or analysis takes place. The Master of the Mint is allowed a very trifling deduction, on account of unavoidable errors, otherwise the standard is rigidly adhered to. It may gratify J. C. F. to know that the recent trial proved the currency to be above the required standard.--SIGMA. This is nothing more than a ceremonial meeting held before the Privy Council, to which the Lord Chancellor is president, respecting the assaying of the gold and other coin in circulation. There is an ancient chapel at Westminster, called the Pyx Chapel, and here standard pieces of the currency are deposited, time after time, as they issue from the Mint. The trial is performed at the Exchequer office, under a jury of twelve practical goldsmiths. It does not appear that any particular time has been appointed for the ceremony, as four years have elapsed since the last trial. The goldsmiths appear by summons, and their duty is to verify the state of the coinage, and check the Master of the Mint, to see that his issue is standard, and the piece correctly executed The trial, therefore, is one of importance, and, like most city ceremonies, is of considerable antiquity. JOHN BROWN.

That the use of the pole in bleeding was very ancient, appears from an illumination in a missal of the time of Edward I., wherein the usage is represented. Also in "Comenii Orbis Pictus' there is an engraving of the like practice. "Such a staff," says Brand, who mentions these graphic illustrations, " is to this very day put into the hand of patients undergoing phlebotomy, by every village practitioner."-F. J. L., B. A., Bedford. I have copied the following extract from the "Encyclopædia Perthensis" relative to the term, barber's pole:-"The term, barber's pole, has been subject to many conjectures, some conceiving it to have originated from the word poll, or head; the true intention, however, of that parti-coloured staff was to show that the master of the shop practised surgery, and could bleed a vein, as well as mow a beard; such a staff being to this day, by every village practitioner, put into the hand of the patient while undergoing the operation of phlebotomy. The white band which accompanies the staff was meant to represent the fillet thus elegantly turned about it.-J. L.

246. The Barber's Pole.-The following account is from Hone's "Every Day Book," vol. i., p. It was formerly the custom of our ancestors to 1270:-The barber's pole is still a sign in coun- be blooded in the spring and fall of the year. This try towns, and in many of the villages near Lon-operation was performed by the barbers, the pole don. The origin of the barber's pole is being an instrument which the patient used to to be traced to the period when the barbers were play his fingers upon, to cause the blood to flow also surgeons, and practised phlebotomy. To as- easier; their sign being a pole, decked with a sist this operation, it being necessary for the metal basin, having an oval piece out of the rim, patient to grasp a staff, a stick or a pole was to fit the arm of the patient. The stripes down the always kept by the barber-surgeon, together with pole were intended to represent the bandages used the fillet or bandaging he used for tying the pa- after the operation. This custom originated, I tient's arm. When the pole was not in use, the believe, in ancient Rome, and was continued in tape was tied to it, that they might be both England up to the seventeenth century. The bartogether when wanted. On a person coming in bers then discontinued the practice of bleeding to be bled, the tape was disengaged from the pole, (with the exception of an occasional slip of the and bound round the arm, and the pole was put razor). They retained, however, the pole, and in into the person's hand; after it was done with, some instances the basin. The season-bleeding was the tape was again tied on the pole: and in this continued up to the commencement of the present state pole and tape were often hung at the door, century by surgeons. Bleeding is now generally for a sign or notice to passengers that they might discountenanced by the medical profession.-J.H.

The Young Student and Writer's Assistant.


Perform the Exercise for the Senior Division, in the March No., 1854, Vol. V., p. 116, beginning with "underline the adjectives," &c.

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6. The number of inhabitants in London are

(is) considerably upwards of two millions.

7. Every one of the copies are (is) sold. 8. At the late fire in Cheapside every one of the books were (was) saved.

9. If we look through nature we shall find that the happiness of organized beings consist (consists) in the accomplishment of the end of their existence.

10. It is by means of the nerves of sensation that constant communications from all parts of the body to (with) the brain is (are) carried on.

11. The buildings of the institution has (have) been enlarged.

12. My sister, as well as my brother and 'me

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18. Two triangles have each a base of 20 feet, but the altitude of one of them is 6 feet less than that of the other, and the area of the greater triangle is twice that of the less; find their altitudes. 19. A and B began to play with equal sums, A won 12s., then 6 times A's money was equal to 9 times B's; what had each at first?

(b) 16. A rectangle is 8 feet long, and if it were 2 feet broader its area would be 48 feet; find the


17. Two rectangular boards are equal in area; the breadth of the one is 18 inches, and that of the other 16 inches, and the difference of their length, 4 inches; find the length of each, and the common


(c) 20. How many square yards of paving are in the trapezium, the diagonal of which is 65 feet, and the two perpendiculars let fall on it 28 and 38.5 feet?

14. The distributive adjective every requires the gation? Why? noun and pronoun in the singular.

15. See 2.

21. What is the area of a trapezium, the diagonal of which is 1084 feet, and the perpendiculars 654 and 603 feet?


Junior Division.

Perform Exercise 2, in the March No., 1854, Vol. V., p. 117.

Senior Division.


1. What forms the chief watershed of England? 2. Account for the greater length of the rivers flowing towards the East.

3. Principal plains?

4. Explain the name Bedford Level. How is it drained? How protected from the sea? Why? 5. Give the names of the four chief rivers.

6. The part drained by the Thames ?

7. Its source? length? direction?

8. Where does it discharge itself?

9. Its tributaries on the right bank? on the left bank?

10. Give the same particulars of the Severn, Trent, Ouse.

11. Is the Thames or Severn best fitted for navi

12. The distance very large vessels can come up the Thames ?

13. How is the tide felt?

14. What is remarkable in the tide of the Severn? 15. Name some particulars which make the Thames interesting or important.

16. The drawbacks to the navigation of the Severn?

17. How have the evils been in part obviated? 18. For what is the Wye remarkable?

19. The size of the basin of the Thames? Severn? Trent? Ouse?

20. Explain the word Avon?

21. Other rivers draining the district East of the Pennine range? the country between the basins of the Trent and Thames? South of the Thames and Severn? the Cambrian range beside the Severn?

22. A general characteristic of English rivers?

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The Societies'
Societies' Section.


City of Madras Young Men's Literary Society. The sixth anniversary meeting of this society took place on Thursday, 26th October, 1854, at seven in the evening, in the society's spacious hall, in the Broadway Town. Alexander Hunter, M D., Director of the Madras School of the Industrial Arts and Manufactures, presided. No resolutions were passed by the assembly; but, as is the custom now with all associated bodies of this kind, sentiments were introduced, and in this case they were spoken to by Mr. J. Frost, the Rev. A. Vencataramiah, and the Rev. N. Hurd. The report, read by Mr. James Lyons, the secretary to the society, announced that the strength of the society was 100; that the amount of collections, consisting of annual, quarterly, and monthly subscriptions, was rs. 1,213, a. 5, p. 7, and the expenditure rs. 1,114, a. 1, p. 3, leaving a balance of rs. 99, a. 4, p. 5, at the society's credit; to which, by adding the advances made on account of house rent and subscriptions to English newspapers for the ensuing year, the amount available for the expenditure of the current year rises to rs. 170; it is pleasing to observe that the income of the society for the year ending 31st Angust, 1854, exceeds that for the year preceding by rs. 300; and there is reason for believing that for the current year it will be even more abundant. The reading room is still supplied with the periodicals and newspapers already reported in the Controversialist. The visitors to the room during the past year number 6,341, or 3,598 in excess of the previous year. The library has received an addition of 43 works, or 124 volumes. During the year, 677 volumes were taken out by 431 members. Compared with the returns of the previous year, the number of readers appears to have increased twofold, aud the demand for books to have increased in like proportion. Only one lecture was delivered during the year, the Rev. E. C. Jenks, of the Wesleyan Mission, being the lecturer. Of the classes I ain sorry to say that I cannot furnish so satisfactory a report. However, the discussion class is still in a vigorous state. It met forty-five times, and discussed forty-four subjects. The aggregate attendance for the year was 3,085, or, on an average, 69 weekly, the extreme numbers being 25 and 160. I subjoin some of the subjects which have been discussed. You will perceive that many of them are of a local nature; several of them being purely Indian subjects. The class meets every Friday evening, at seven o'clock. It is open to the public; that is to say, auy person present is at perfect liberty to speak on the subject under debate.

Subjects discussed:-Who is the greater poet, Milton or Shakspere ?-Is sporting justifiable?How has India benefited by the establishment of steam navigation between her and Europe?What are likely to be the political, commercial, and social results of the formation of railways in India?What are the uses to which felspar may be applied?-If science only, or literature, formed the basis of the primary education of youth, would the former or the latter be desirable or

advantageous to them in after-life?-Is Dr. Samuel Johnson's criticism on Milton liberal and fair?-Can Mary, Queen of England, be justified for putting to death the Lady Jane Grey?-Is the Rev. Mr. Godfrey's theory of hat and table moving worthy of consideration?-Is phrenology true?Does the nature or direction of a feeling constitute it virtuous or vicious?-Is the import or export trade of a country the surer criterion of its prosperity ?-Can mind overcome the influence of climate?-What constitutes morality?-Is the perusal of works of fiction beneficial?-What are the causes of the decline of the Indian trade and manufactures ?-Has the Great Exhibition of 1851 benefited India?-Is the principle of utility or expediency a safe moral guide ?-In the present state of the Madras Presidency, is Colonel Cotton's proposal of cheap land and water communications preferable to railroads?-Is the practice of imparting a christian education in missionary institutions by heathen agents objectionable?-Is it possible for a Russian army to invade India?

Is the employment of architectural decorations and instrumental music in churches at variance with the simplicity of Christianity ?-Is caste among Hindoos a religious or civil institution?In which way are works of fiction beneficial?-Is beauty inherent in objects?-Does Christianity forbid all resort to physical force?-Does the doctrine of the immortality of the spirit influence the conduct of mankind?-Is the moderate use of alcoholic drinks injurious?-Does the knowledge of one's-self influence our conduct in life?-Does the father or mother form the character of a child? --Who deserves the most praise, the inventor or the improver?

I give this long list of subjects actually dis cussed in the society's hall, for the purpose of letting your readers know what we are doing in this place. I may also state that I have recently been reading Dr. Hudson's work on Adult Education; and at the conclusion of the book I was amazed to find that in 1848 a Mechanics' Institute existed in Madras. Where Dr. H. had his information from, I can't say; but I much recommend him, if he intends to issue a second edition of his work, to consult your magazine first. In fact, I think that in course of time the Controversialist will contain the most accurate and authentic history of adult education. It is a pity that some more of your foreign or colonial readers do not send a summary of the proceedings of their soci eties half-yearly to you for publication. I am sure their accounts will be read by all with peculiar interest.

I may, in my next, write not only of the Young Men's Literary Society, but also tell you something of kindred institutions in this city.- A MEMBER.

Meirion Literary Institution. The fourth anniversary meeting of the above society was held at Bala on Christmas evening. Deputies from all the branches met at one o'clock, for the purpose of reporting on their present state, as well as providing measures for their further advancement.

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