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a work went to the press without being first |ed back to Hof, and had the melancholy submitted to Otto's judgment; and it was satisfaction of seeing her features once he who advised him to try his fortune again again. Among the relics she left her son, in the literary world. Accordingly, Paul was a little book in which she kept an acsent his first romance to the Counsellor count of her gains by her midnight spinMority, at Berlin, whose daughter was ning. " If all other books were destroyabout to marry a famous bookseller there. ed,” writes Paul to Otto, “ I would keep Mority was astonished at the genius evin- this, wherein is found the record of her ced by the manuscript, and wrote imme- nights of misery." diately to Richter, saying, that he had We need not follow Richter, step by. found a printer who would give a hundred step, any further. His end was gained : ducats for the work. We will not attempt fame and admiration awaited him, although to picture Paul's happiness : as soon as he money was still difficult to obtain. received the money, he hastened to Hof, 1801 he married Caroline, the daughter of and gave his mother the shining treasure. Herr Von Meyer of Berlin, a woman in His troubles were over : the perseverance every way fitted to be the wife of so extrawith which he had battled against adverse ordinary a man. After his marriage, he circumstances was amply rewarded; his settled at Meiningen, and diligently set to hopes were realized ; and, above all, his work to complete his most famous producefforts to rescue his mother from poverty tion—“Titan.” He lead a quiet, retired were successful. He gave up the master- life, for his means were still straitened ; ship of the school at Schwarzenbach ; and and after the birth of a daughter, he left having taken his mother from her misera- Meiningen, and took up his residence in ble little dwelling to a cheerful but modest Bayreuth, where he hired a small house adhouse near his friend Otto, his next care joining that of his friend Otto. Here he was to repay his old schoolmaster Werner lived till the day of his death, beloved by the money which she had borrowed. all around him. In 1808 a pension of
The time which he now passed at Hof eighty-five pounds was granted to him ; was a time of nearly unalloyed happiness; and this, together with his own earnings, but his disappointments were not all over. was sufficient for his comfort. His romance did not meet with the success Nothing remarkable occurs in the history he expected ; and consequently, when he of Richter's life for several years. He presented his second work, "Hesperus,'' for generally passed a great part of the sumsale, he could only obtain two hundred dol- mer in travelling, and was everywhere relars for it. During the following summer ceived with marks of respect and admirahe made a visit to Bayreuth, having formed tion. But a bitter blow struck him, from an acquaintance with a Jewish merchant which he never recovered. His son Max there. Here, to his great surprise, he found was at the gymnasium at Munich, and aphis works read and appreciated, and he re-pears to have been distinguished for his talturned with redoubled industry to his pen.ents and industry. He had unfortunately His next production, a novel, drew upon inherited his father's sensitiveness of dishim the attention of all Germany: letters position, which, having been fostered by of congratulation poured in from all quar- early education, settled at last into proters, but more especially from Weimar, the found melancholy, and his health giving town in which Goethe, Schiller, Herder, way, he returned home to die. Richter's and Wieland, the four greatest poets of the spirits sank under this misfortune; and his age, were residing. He could not resist incessant weeping is said to have brought the flattering invitations given him, and he on the disease wbich eventually deprived made his appearance in that little circle of him of sight. In the autumn of 1823, his great men. The Duchess Amelia received strength rapidly declined ; his nephew him with marks of distinction, and the cheered his hours of suffering by reading to Princess of Hohenlohe besought him to un- him ; and he had a piano placed near bis dertake the instruction of her two sons; a couch, which he sometimes accompanied request which he politely refused.
with his voice, describing the ideas which In 1797, Richter found his health so bad, floated through his mind as he played. On that he was obliged to go to the baths of the evening of the 14th of November he Eyer, in Saxony; and while here, he re- breathed his last, beloved, honored, and ceived the intelligence that his mother was regretted by his countrymen. He was bur
Overcome with grief, he hasten-lied by torchlight in the church of Bayreuth,
an unfinished manuscript being placed onings, consisting of poetry, prose fiction, his coffin, and an ode by Klopstock sung and philosophy, are unfortunately unsuitover his grave. Thus ended the life of one | able to the current of sentiment in English who, however great he may have been in minds, and they must therefore, like most intellect, was still greater from the beauty German productions, continue to be little of his domestic character, his modesty, his known in this country. humility, and his uprightness. His writ
From the Westminster and Foreign Quarterly Review.
PRIVATE LIFE OF ROBESPIERRE.
We had hoped to be able to give in the six years' residence in Paris, attest the extreme present number some account of the history sobriety of his tastes and his expenditure. of the Girondins by M. Lamartine, two
“ His habits were those of a thrifty artisan. volumes of which have been announced for
He lodged in a house in the Rue St. Honoré, op. posite the church of the Assumption.
It was a speedy publication ; but at the moment we low building
with a court-yard in front, surrounded write they have not yet made their appear- by sheds, filled with planks, pieces of scaffolding, ance in Paris. We are in possession, how- and other building materials, and had an almost ever, of a fragment of the work, describing rustic appearance. It consisted of a kitchen on a the private life of Robespierre, and this we level with the yard, with a common sitting room will proceed to lay before our readers. It adjoining, and separated from it by a corridor, at the has long been known in literary circles, that end of which was a wooden staircase leading up to an Lamartine intended to take Robespierre Aloor opened on the roof, and had no other prospect under his protection, le réhabiliter, as they than the yard, in which the sounds of the axe and say in France. The horror and pity which the saw were always heard, and where the misRobespierre's name excites will, we think, tress of the establishment and her daughters were be increased rather than diminished by the constantly engaged in the household occupations. perusal of the following eulogium on his “The house belonged to a carpenter and builder domestic virtues.
named Duplay, who having been acquainted with
Robespierre's family in Artois, of which he was “The life of Robespierre bore testimony to the a native, offered the deputy of Arras a domicile on disinterestedness of his sentiments; that life bis arrival in Paris. Long cohabitation, a common was the most eloqnent of his discourses. Had his table, and many years' close intercourse, converted master, Jean Jacques Rousseau, quitted his cabin Duplay's hospitality into mutual attachment. The at the Charmeites, or at Ermenonville, to become family became as it were a second family of his the legislator of humanity, he would not have led own for Robespierre. He made it adopt his opian existence of more sober seriousness, or of nions without in anywise divesting it of the simpligreater poverty, than that of Robespierre. That city of its habits, or even of its religious practices. poverty was meritorious, for it was voluntary. It consisted of the father, the mother, a son, who Repeatedly assailed by efforts of corruption on the was still a child, and two daughters, the one part of the court, of the Mirabeau, the Lameth, eighteen, the other twenty years of age. The and the Girondin party, during the two Assemblies, father, after spending the whole day in ihe busihe had daily his fortune within reach of his own ness of his trade, used to go in the evening and hand, but he disdained to grasp it. Called after hear Robespierre at the Jacobins, and return home wards, by election, to exercise the functions of filled to fanaticism with admiration for the orator public accuser and judge, in Paris, he cast every of the people, and with hatred for the enemies of thing aside to live in pure and high-souled indi- that young and pure patriot Madame Duplay gence. His whole fortune, and that of his brother shared her husband's enthusiasm for their guest. and sister, consisted in the rent of a few parcels of The glory of lodging Robespierre rendered honoraland in Artois. The farmers, who were them- ble and welcome in her eyes the little voluntary selves poor, and related to his family, paid their domestic services she rendered him, as though she arrears very irregularly. His daily salary, as bad not been so much his hostess as his mother. deputy, during the Constituent Assembly and Con- Robespierre requited those services and that devention, supplied the necessities of three persons. voted feeling with affection. He shut up his heart He was obliged sometimes to have recourse to the within the walls of that poor dwelling Converpurses of his host and of his friends. His debts, sational with the father, filial with the mother, which amounted notwithstanding at his death but paternal with the son, familiar and almost on the to the moderate sum of four thousand francs, after footing of a brother with the daughters, he inspired
and experienced, in the domestic circle formed clothes, and household utensils. The window of around him, all those sentiments which an ardent Robespierre's room opened on the roof, and the soul inspires and experiences only by diffusing room itself contained only a bed with serge furniitself over a wide space abroad.
ture striped blue and white, a table, and four straw. “ Love itself attached his heart to the spot where bottomed chairs. The place served Robespierre toil, poverty, and earnest meditation fixed his life. both for a sleeping room and a study. His papers, Eléonore, Duplay's oldest daughter, inspired Robes- reports, and the autograph manuscripts of his pierre with a serious and tender attachment. This speeches, in a regular but laborious hand, with feeling, which was rather a predilection than a many corrections, were carefully ranged on deal passion, was more deliberate in Robespierre- shelves along the wall, along with a very few more ardent and spontaneous in the girl. Neither select books. A volume of J. J. Rousseau or of could have said when the inclination began; but it Racine was almost always open on his table, testihad grown up with age in the soul of Eléonore, fying his philosophic and literary predilection for with habit in the heart of Robespierre. This at- those two writers. tachment gave the orator the fond feelings of a “Such was the spot in which Robespierre lover and no torments, happiness, and no distrac- passed the greater part of the day preparing his tion. It was the love that suited a man cast every speeches. He used only to leave it in the morning day into the agitations of public life, a repose of to attend the sittings of the Assembly, and at seven heart after the exhaustions of the mind. • Virile in the evening to go to the Jacobins. His dress, soul! he used to say of his mistress; she is one even at the period when the demagogues affected to that could die as she can love.' Their mutual flatter the people by imitating the coarseness and regard, avowed by both and approved of by the slovenliness of indigence, was neat, decent, and family, was self-respected in its purity. They correct, like that of a man who respects himself lived in the same house as two betrothed persons, in the eyes of others. His somewhat fastidious not as two lovers. Robespierre had asked the attention to his dignity and to his style was exhand of the young girl of her parents : she was hibited even in bis outward appearance. His hair, promised to him. His penury, and the uncertain powdered and thrown back on the temples, in the aspect of the future, prevented his uniting himself form called ailes de pigeon, a blue coat, buttoned with her until the destiny of France should have round the waist and open on the breast to display been cleared up; but he longed,' he said, 'only a white waistcoat, yellow knee-breeches, white for the moment when, the revolution once ended stockings, and shoes with silver buckles, formed and consolidated, he might withdraw from the his invariable costume during all his public life. turmoil, wed her whom he loved, and go live in It was as though he designed, by never changing Artois on one of the farms he retained of his family the form or color of his garments, to imprint an property, and there merge his obscure happiness in image of himself always the same, a medal as it The common felicity.'
were of his figure, on the eyes and the imagination “ In the Duplay family, along with Eléonore, of the multitude. lived a sister of Lebas, named Sophie, who was “ His features and the expression of his countebeloved by St. Just, and engaged to that young nance betrayed the perpetual tension of a mind that disciple of Robespierre. Sophie, who was hand- sternly strove with itself, rather than the malevosomer and less reserved than her young friends, lence, disorder, and perversity of a wicked man. often disturbed their home by the storms which her The lines of his face relaxed even to gaiety in his vain and volatile character stirred up between her home, at table, or, at even, round the fire of chips and St. Just. Robespierre often reproached ber in the carpenter's humble parlor. His evenings for these inconstancies of heart. He did not like were always passed in the family circle, talking Lebas' sister. He had a great esteem for Duplay's over the emotions of the day, the plans for the youngest daughter Elizabeth, who was sought in morrow, the conspiracies of the aristocrats, the marriage, and soon afterwards wedded to his prospects of the future for each of them after the countryman and colleague Lebas. This young revolution ; it was a type of the people in miniawoman, on whom Robespierre's friendship entailed ture, with its simple manners, its jealous suisceptithe loss of her husband's life the day after their bilities, its whisperings and declamations, its preunion, lived more than half a century after that judices against the rich, its bursts of rage, and day without once disowning her respeci for Robes- sometimes its fits of tenderness. pierre, and without ever comprehending the male “A small number only of Robespierre and dictions heaped by the world upon that young Duplay's friends were admitted by turns into the brother of her youth, who appeared in her remem- privacy of their home; the Lameths sometimes; brance so pure, so virtuous, and so gentle! Lebas and St. Just always ; Panis, Sergent, Cofin
“No outward vicissitudes of fortune, influence, hal, Fouché, who was in love with Robespierre's and popularity, made any change in the simple sister, and whom Robespierre did not like ; Tastenor of Robespierre's life. The multitude camechereau, Legendre, Le Boucher, Merlin de Thionto the gate of that house to implore favor, or life, ville, Couthon, Péthion, Camille Desmoulins, but nothing entered it that belonged to the world Buonarroti, a Roman patriot, emulous of the fame without. Robespierre's lodging consisted in a of the tribune Rienzi; one Nicolas, printer of ground-floor room over the timber-yard, and sepa- the journal and the speeches of the orator; a lockrated from that occupied by the heads of the house smith named Didier, a friend of Duplay's; some only by a small room common to himself and the workmen, constant attendants at the Jacobins; family, in which were kept water, firewood, and lastly, Madame de Chalabre, a noble and
wealthy woman, full of enthusiasm for Robes- I will die together, or the people shall triumph,' repierre, devoted to him like the widows of Co-plied Duplay. Sometimes on Sunday the whole finth or of Rome to the apostles of the new family made an excursion out of Paris with Robesfaith, placing her fortune at his command for the pierre, and the tribune, become again a man, popularization of his ideas, and courting the friend-roamed with his bride, and with Eléonore's moship of Duplay's wife and daughters that she ther, sister, and brother, in the woods of Versailles might merit a look from Robespierre.
or Issy. " Their talk was of the revolution; or at times, “ Thus lived a man whose power was nothing after a short playful conversation with the two immediately round his own person, but became girls, Robespierre, who wished to adorn the mind immense as it receded from that centre. That of his affianced bride, would read aloud to the power was but a name—a name that reigned only family. He generally chose the tragedies of Ra- in public opinion. Robespierre's gradually becine, for he loved to give sonorous utterance to came the only name incessantly in the mouths of those grand lines, whether to exercise himself for the people. By dint of putting himself forward on the efforts of the forum, or to elevate the simple every rostrum as the champion of the oppressed, souls of his friends to the level of the great senti- he had petrified his image and his patriotism in ments and great catastrophes of antiquity, to the thoughts of that part of the nation. His resiwhich his own public part and their course of life dence with the carpenter, and his domestication were daily acquiring a closer analogy. His eve- among a family of honest artisans, contributed not nings were seldom spent abroad. Twice or thrice a little to make the name of Robespierre stick fast a year he used to take Madame Duplay and her in the revolutionary but sound mass of the people daughters to the theatre, and then it was always of Paris. The Duplays, their journeymen, and to the classical representations of the Théâtre their friends in the various quarters of the capital, Français. Theatrical, even in his dreams and his talked of Robespierre as the very type of truth recreations, he loved only those tragic declama. and virtue. In those times of the fever of opinion tions that reminded him of the forum, of tyranny, the working men were not in the habit of dispersthe people, the scaffold, of great crimes and great ing, as they do now, 10 places of pleasure or devirtues. On other days Robespierre went early to bauchery, to spend their evening leisure in idle bed, and rose again in the night to work. The talk. One sole thought agitated, dispersed, and innumerable speeches he delivered in the two na- re-assembled the multitude; nothing was isolated tional assemblies and at the Jacobins, the articles and individual in their impressions ; everything written for his journal while he had one, the still was collective, popular, tumultuous. Passion more numerous manuscripts of the speeches he breathed out from and over all hearts simultane. composed but did not deliver; the elaboration of ously. Journals, with an incalculable number of the style discoverable in these speeches, the inde- subscribers, fell every hour on all the strata of the fatigable corrections with which his pen has mark- population like fiery rain on combustible materials. ed the manuscripts, attest his sleepless nights and Placards of all shapes, dimensions, and colors, arhis persevering industry. The perfection of art rested the attention of the passers in the great tho. was at least as much as empire the object of his roughfares; the popular societies had their rostra aim. He knew that the multitude like what is and their orators in all the quarters. Public afcomely quite as much as what is true; and he fairs were become to such a degree the affairs of treated the people as great writers treat posterity, every man, that even those of the people who without counting their own pains, and without could not read used to form groups, in the markets familiarity. He robed himself in the stately dra- and squares, round itinerant readers, who read the pery of his philosophy and his patriotism. His public prints for them, and commented on their only amusements were lonely walks, in imitation contents. of J. J. Rousseau, his model, in the Champs “Out of all the names of deputies and orators Elysées or in the environs of Paris, accompanied that rang in its ears, the people chose some favoronly by his great mastiff, that used to sleep at his ites, regarded them with passionate admiration, chamber door, and always followed his master their enemies with wrath, and confounded their when he went abroad. "This colossal dog, well own cause with theirs. Mirabeau, Péthion, Maknown in the quarter, was called Bloum. Robes- rat, Danton, Robespierre, had been in their turns, pierre was very fond of the animal, and was con or were still, these personifications of the multitinually playing with it. It was the only escort tude. But of all these men there was none whose of that iyrant of opinion who made the throne popularity had more slowly and deeply struck tremble, and drove the whole aristocracy of the root in the minds of the masses than that of the country as fugitives to foreign lands. In moments deputy of Arras. Mirabeau's popularity, rational of extreme agitation, and when fears were felt for rather than democratic, had more prestige, that of the lives of the democrats, Nicolas, the printer, Robespierre had more solidity. Marat disgusted, Didier, the locksmith, and young Duplay, used to and only moved the dregs of the populace. The follow Robespierre at a distance with weapons blood with which he stained his pages only pleasconcealed under their clothes. He was annoyed ed the people in their wrathful mood; in cooler by these precautions taken without his know. moments the public mind reverted to Robespierre. ledge. Let me leave your house and go live Péthion was declining; the favor of Paris did not alone, he would say to his host; 'I endanger survive the services which the concurrence of the your family, and my enemies will make it a crime mayor of Paris had rendered to the agitators. Pé. in your children to have loved me.'—'No, no, we thion was liked only for his weakness. He was
a popular puppet, yielding to every impulsion and force of conviction in the ideas of that man, a never originating any. Danton had great energy, mysticism in his name, a sort of apostleship in the but no good name; the instinctive honesty of the part be played, an appearance of martyrdom in his people blushed in secret for the bad reputation of poverty, his patience, and his sequestered existiheir favorite. Danton was, in the estimation of ence, endured for the cause of all. In loving Ro. Paris, the ideal of a seditious mover, not of a legis- bespierre the people thought they loved themlator. The attachment which the people felt for selves.” Robespierre was one of esteem. There was a
From the Edinburgh Review.
ROCK AND BILLOW-HISTORICAL FICTIONS.
The announcement of a new work by Miss tal; and when all the thought, observation, Martineau was always a pleasing announce artistical skill and brilliant writing lavished ment to us : but it is doubly so now, by on Lucretia, or the Children of the Night, reason of the risk to which we were recent- fail to neutralize the painful feelings with ly exposed of being deprived of her alto- which we run over such a catalogue of gether : and the work before us, we are crimes or contemplate such monsters of inihappy to say, gives ample proof that her quity, we are told, that some fifteen or restoration is complete, that her mental twenty years ago, an artist, named Wpowers have been strengthened rather than did actually poison two of his female relaimpaired by Mesmerism, and that her long tives, for the purpose of defrauding the intrials have left no traces of other than surance offices. healthful influences, such as the admirable It consequently becomes necessary to rebook entitled Life in the Sick-Room would assert what we thought had long ago
been lead every reader of taste, feeling, or reflec- firmly established as an axiom, that the tion, to expect.
strictly imitative school is the very lowest The Billow and the Rock is not, like most in all branches of art, not even excepting the of her other tales or stories, written to illus. most imitative of all--painting; an axiom trate any peculiar principle or doctrine of which can scarcely be denied by any one legislation or political economy; but it is a who is not prepared to assert the superiority tale founded upon Fact. Is this an advan- of Van Stein and Teniers over Raphael and tage or a disadvantage ? ought it to be put Michael Angelo. A truly great artist maniforward as a recommendation or the con- fests his greatness by heightening, elevating, trary? We shall endeavor, before coming idealizing; by addressing himself to our sento the Tale itself, to answer this question as sibility and imagination ; by making us glow precisely as such a question can well be an- with enthusiasm, or filling our minds with swered: for a good deal of error is afloat beautiful and sublime associations--not by concerning the points involved in it; and simply calling our powers of observation, a class of writers who are now exercising a memory, and comparison into play. To be wide-spread influence in both France and true to nature, and to present nothing but a England, have evidently decided it some- servile copy of nature, are very different what summarily in their own way; since things. The Apollo and the Venus are they seem to think that all objections to a types of the ideal, not the real; and tradition scene, description, character, or plot, are an- says that even the Fornarina was indebted swered at once by proving it to be a faithful to the rich warm pencil of her lover for the drawing from life or nature, or an actual most glorious part of her surpassing though occurrence in society. To take only two thoroughly mundane loveliness. No fine prominent examples-when we turn away portrait (as we once heard Sir Thomas Lawrepelled and sickening from the pictures of rence remark) was ever painted directly physical suffering and moral debasement from the original, or except from an image which abound in Les Mystères de Paris, M. distinctly present in the mind of the painter; Sue assures us that the originals may be and it is well known that Sir Thomas himseen at the shortest warning in the hospi- self, even in the ordinary every-day practice tals or lunatic asylums of the French capi- of his profession, and when dealing with