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looked up at Helsa, who exclaimed acts of violence in public—and was about to \in the countenance. The President proceed to the worst extremities against her and caught her words,
husband and his friends. Were a judge's 11 is not your fault-but I am dying. But I am sure I should have died on land, and before wife to demean herself in this manner in mothis. And I have escaped. Tell my husband so dern times, he would hardly, perhaps, take“I will. Shall I raise you?
so decisive a step as shipping her off to the “No ; take no notice. I cannot bear to be pitied. Hebrides; but most assuredly some restraint I will not be pitied; as this was my own act. But would be put upon her. The connivance of it is hard . .
so many persons of known probity, and the " It is hard : but you have only to pass one acquiescence of her sons and daughter, sufother threshold courageously, and then you are ficiently prove the general impression regardfree indeed. Man cannot harm you there.' « « But to-day, of all seasons . .
ing her, and go far towards showing that her “• It is hard but you have done with captivity. husband erred less in substance than in No more captivity! My dear Lady Carse, what form. remains! What is it you would have! You The case mentioned in a note to Miss would not wish for vengeance! No; it is pain! Edgeworth's Castle Rackrent, is a far more --you are in pain. Shall I raise you ?
remarkable one. It happened, moreover, in « « No, no ; never mind the pain. But I did comparatively modern times. The lady hope to see my husband again.'
was known to many persons still living, and «. To forgive him. You mean, to forgive him ?' - No: 1 meant . .
the incarceration lasted twenty years.
The " But you mean it now? He had something parties were Lady Cathcart and Colonel • to pardon in you.'
M'Guire ;—the prison was an upper room * True. But I cannot Do not ask me.' in an Irish country-house, but not a solitary
". Then you hope that God will. I may tell or deserted house ; for the tradition is, that him that you hope that God will forgive him.'
the Colonel frequently entertained his “That is not my affair. Kiss my Janet for me. friends, and never failed at dinner to send a
“I will; and all your children .... What? Is it growing dark? Yes, it is, to us as well as to message to his wife, the invariable answer you. What is it that she says ? he inquired of to which was, “ Lady Cathcart's compliHelsa, who had a younger and quicker ear. ments, and she has everything she wants."
“She says the widow is about lighting her It is stated by Mr. Edgeworth, that “when lamp. Yes, my lady, but we are too far off to she was first told of his death, she imagined see it.'
that the news was not true, and that it was • Is she wandering ? asked the President. “No, Sir; quite sensible, I think. Did you At his death she had scarcely clothes suffi
told only with an intention of deceiving her. speak, my lady?" - My love...
cient to cover her ;—she wore a red wig, “« To Annie, my lady? I will not forget.'
looked scared, and her understanding seemed “ She spoke no more. Sir Alexander contrived stupified ;—she said she scarcely knew one to keep from the knowledge of the boatmen for human creature from another." Lady some hours that there was a corpse on board.” Grange died in a state of imbecility, but Those who wish to learn more about her understanding, for at an after period she
Lady Cathcart appears to have recovered Lady Grange, will find ample particulars in earnestly recommended her young female the publications enumerated below.* It friends to take warning by her example. strikes us that the story has now received as “ I have been three times married ;—the much attention as it deserves, and that too first time for money ; the second, for rank; much has been laid upon it as illustrative of the third, for love—and the third was Scottish manners at the period. Lady worst of all.' Grange was a woman of ungovernable tem
The remarkable pamphlet, entitled “A per, and habitually given to intoxication. Word to the Public, by the author of LucreShe had been guilty of several outrageous tia,” &c., did not reach us till after this arti
Scots Magazine (new series), vol. I. (for 1817); cle was written, or we might have someChambers's Edinburgh Journal for March 7, 1846; what moulded our preliminary remarks with Tales of the Century, &c., by John Sobieski and reference to it; and having alluded to LuCharles Edward Stuart, Edinburgh, 1847 ; Burton's cretia, we think it right to add, that, if the Life of Lord Lovat, just published, p. 187-192; and author has been assailed in the manner he especially some original Letters to and from Lord mentions, he has been most unjustly asGrange, in the third volume of The Miscellany of sailed; and that, in our opinion, his answer the Spalding Club, which has been given to the public (or at least to the members) even since Mr. to the assailants is complete. He is one of Burton's publication.
the last writers we should accuse of endea
voring to undermine public morals or lower writer of fiction, is virtually to deprive him public taste, by selecting low subjects or of the use of all crimes punished by modern treating them in a low manner. It does not law, and enacted in the modern day; as if appear to us to be the prevailing character there were no warning to be drawn from of his books to make heroes of criminals; men that are not ennobled by ermine and nor should we think the worse of them on purple; as if there were no terror in the that account, if it were. Most assuredly condemned cell, no tragedy at the foot of “it is (as he says) the treatment that enno- the gallows.” bles, not the subject. Grant that the cha Here, again, the accomplished writer does racters are what convention calls low-in not distinguish with his usual acuteness. birth, station, instruction; born in a cellar, The doctrine for which we contend deprives dying on the gibbet, they are not one jot, for the writer of fiction of the use, not, by any these reasons, made necessarily low to art. means, of all crimes, but only of all criminals, Art can, with Fielding, weave an epic from punished by modern law, &c. The four adventures with gamekeepers and barbers. pleas of the crown are at his disposal ; the Art can, with Goethe, convert into poetry whole Newgate Calendar is open to him ; the most lofty, the homely image of the girl but we object to the actual Weare in his gig, condemned for infanticide ; and confine the or the actual Tawell in his straight-cut coat; vast war between spirits and men to the and it is no use telling us that poetic as well floor of her felon cell."
as strict matter-of-fact justice has been done In short, we give in our almost unquali- to them; for it is not so much the moral fied adhesion to most of the general princi- tendency as the artistical fitness of such subples laid down by him: but this does not jects, that we differ about. " The past candeprive us of the right to question their ap- not monopolize the sorrows and crimes of plication in each individual case. A man ages. While we live, we ourselves become born in a cellar and dying on a gibbet, is not a past. But we must wait till we have acnecessarily made low to art: but neither is tually become a past. We do not even say a man necessarily made high to art by being that such works may not be highly satisfachanged. To say he is, would be to adopt to tory to posterity, but only that some law of its full extent the doctrine of Lelia, in George association, which it is impossible to reason Sands’ novel of that name, when she silences down, prevents them from being satisfactory her
young admirer, who is at a loss to dis- to us. cover what she can see to admire in Tren “ Folly and error," continues Sir Edward, mor, by saying, “ Ecoutez, jeune homme, il a “vice punished by ridicule, constitute thé subi cinq ans de travaux forcés.” A man of main materials of the comic writer, whether education, who has undergone such an or- he employ them in a drama or a novel. deal, undoubtedly presents a tempting sub- Must we not grant to the writer who seeks ject for the imagination of a woman like for the elements of tragedy that exist in his Lelia, or for a popular dramatist of the Porte own time, the equal license to seek for the Ste Martin school; but, to give legitimate materials to which tragedy must apply ?” art a fair chance with a real criminal, the The answer is, that tragedy and comedy story, we think, must be obscurely known— stand on a totally different footing. Acthere must be distance as to time or space, cording to the old proverb, familiarity breeds or the veil of foreign manners, or a misty contempt: but it does not prevent laughter ; vagueness of some sort thrown over it. if and associations which do not impair comic Black George had been actually tried for effects, may utterly destroy tragedy for the poaching on Squire Western's preserves just time. Any one conversant with the history before the appearance of Tom Jones -or of the stage, could relate instance after inMargaret for child-murder just before the stance in which an accidental circumstance appearance of Faust, they would have been of the ludicrous character has decided the materially damaged, if not rendered abso- fate of an entire representation ; as when lutely useless, for the purposes of art; and Quin, seated in the pit and speaking loud we much doubt whether Fielding and enough for every one to hear, compared Goethe would have meddled with them. Garrick in Othello to the black boy bringing
Sir Edward Lytton says, “All crimes now, in the tea-things in Hogarth's Marriage-a-laif detected, must obtain the notoriety of Mode; or when, in John Philip Kemble's the Old Bailey, or reap their desert in New- day, the ghost in Hamlet, by some unlucky gate ; and to contend that Newgate and the jerk of the machinery, was suddenly flung Old Bailey unfit them for the uses of the upon the stage, in helmet, cuirass-kersey
mere breeches and dirty cotton stockings ! We should be glad to analyse a few other For ourselves, we own we could never quite passages of this pamphlet, but our allotted get over Werther's top-boots, or Charlotte's space is exhausted ; and we will only add cutting bread and butter for the children; now, that, in our opinion, Sir Edward Lytton and we do not know a single instance of a has laid far too much stress on the illiberal modern domestic tragedy, in which the low- attacks made upon him. Dr. Johnson was ering effect of familiarity has been kept fond of saying that no author was ever writdown, except by an accumulation of appal- ten down except by himself; and authors, ling details, decidedly inimical to that mood like Sir Edward Lytton, who are read and of mind which it is the peculiar province of admired in every quarter of the globe, have high art to inspire and sustain. La Dame surely nothing to fear from the misrepresende Saint Tropez, a drama founded on the tations of critics, and little cause to complain Laffarge case, was as successful as such a of the tardy justice of contemporaries. Si drama well can be ; but is there one critic monumentuin requiris, circumspice. of taste throughout these realms, who would wish for a repetition of the experiment ?
From Tait's Magazine.
BY THOMAS DE QUINCY.
[The reader will hardly suspect from the strange title of the schoolmaster differed from him on the spellfollowing article, either its drift or its humor. It is in the ing of a word, the question between them happiest vein of the “Opium Eater," and hits off with biting should be settled by a stand-up fight. Both sarcasm, a prevailing fault.-ED.)
parties would have the victory at times : As we are all of us crazy when the wind sits “justice rul'd the ball,” the schoolmaster
and if, according to Pope's expression, in some particular quarter, let not Mr. Landor be angry with me for suggesting three times out of four'; no great matter
(who is always a villain) would be floored that he is outrageously crazy upon
whether solitary subject of spelling. It occurs to point of spelling discussed. It is in this
wrong or not upon the immediate me, as a plausible solution of his fury upon way, viz. from the irregular adjudications school-days, when it is understood that he arisen under such a mode of investigating was exceedingly pugnacious, he may have the matter, that we may account for Mr. detested spelling, and (like Roberte the Landor's being sometimes in the right, but Devillet) have found it more satisfactory too often (with regard to long words) égrefor all parties, that when the presumptuous giously in the wrong. As he grew stronger
* With a special reference to the Works of Wal- and taller, he would be coming more and ter Savage Landor. *" Roberte the Deville :"-See the old metrical ro
more amongst polysyllables, and more and mance of that name: it belongs to the fourteenth more would be getting the upper hand of wood engravings of the illuminations. Roberte, would have it all his own way; one round century, and was printed some thirty years ago, with the schoolmaster; so that at length he however, took the liberty of murdering his schoolmaster. But could he well do less ? Being a reign would decide the turn-up; and thenceforing Duke's son, and after the rebellious schoolmas- wards his spelling would become frightful. ter had said
Now, I myself detested spelling as much as Syr, ye bee too bolde :
all people ought to do, except Continental And therewith tooke a rodde hym for to chaste."
compositors, who have extra fees for docUpon which the meek Robin, without using any toring the lame spelling of ladies and took out a long dagger " hym for to chaste," which he gentlemen. But, unhappily, I had no did effectually. The schoolmaster gave no bad lan- power to thump the schoolmaster into a guage after that.
M. conviction of his own absurdities; which,
however, I greatly desired to do. Still, my usually he forgets his own reforms, and if nature, powerless at that time for any ac- he should not, everybody else does. Not tive recusancy, was strong for passive re to travel back into the seventeenth century, sistance; and that is the hardest to con- and the noble army of shorthand writers quer.
I took one lesson of this infernal who have all made war upon orthography, art, and then declined ever to take a for secret purposes of their own, even in second; and, in fact, I never did. Well I the last century, and in the present, what remember that unique morning's experience. a list of eminent rebels against the spellingIt was the first page of Entick’s Dictionary book might be called up, to answer for that I had to get by heart; a sweet senti- their wickedness at the bar of the Old mental task; and not, as may be fancied, Bailey, if anybody would be kind enough the spelling only, but the horrid attempts to make it a felony! Cowper, for instance, of this depraved Entick to explain the sup- too modest and too pensive to raise upon posed meaning of words that probably had any subject an open standard of rebellion, none; many of these, it is my belief, En- yet, in quiet Olney, made a small émeute as tick himself forged. Among the strange, to the word “Grecian.” Everybody else grim-looking words, to whose acquaintance was content with one "e;" but he, recolI was introduced on that unhappy morning, lecting the cornucopia of es, which Proviwere abalienate and ablaqueation-most dence had thought fit to empty upon the respectable words, I am fully persuaded, mother word Greece, deemed it shocking to but so exceedingly retired in their habits, disinherit the poor child of its hereditary that I never once had the honor of meeting wealth, and wrote it, therefore, Greecian either of them in any book, pamphlet, throughout his Homer. Such a modest rejournal, whether in prose or numerous form the sternest old Tory could not find in verse, though haunting such society myself his heart to denounce. But some contaall my life. I also formed the acquaint- gion must have collected about this word ance, at that time, of the word abacus, Greece ; for the next man, who had much which, as a Latin word, I have often used, occasion to use it-viz. Mitford *—who but, as an English one, I really never had occasion to spell, until this very moment.
* Mitford, who was the brother of a man better Yet, after all, what harm comes of such known than himself to the public eye, viz. Lord
Redesdale, may be considered a very unfortunate obstinate recusancy against orthography? author. His work upon Greece, which Lord Byron. I was an
occasional conformist;" I con- celebrated for its “ wrath and its partiality,” really formed for one morning, and never more. entirely partial, as nearly perfect in its injustice, as
had those merits: choleric it was in excess, and as But, for all that, I can spell as well as my hunan infirmity would allow. Nothing is truly neighbors ; and I can spell ablaqueation perfect in this shocking world; absolute injustice, besides, which I suspect that some of them alas! the perfection of wrong, must not be looked
for until we reach some high Platonic form of polican not.
ty. Then shall we revel and bask in a vertical sun My own spelling, therefore, went right, of iniquity: Meantime, I will say--that to satisfy because I was left to nature, with strict all bilious and unreasonable men, a better historian neutrality on the part of the authorities. of Greece, than Mitford, could not be fancied. And Mr. Landor's too often went wrong, because his harvest of popularity, down comes one of those
yet, at the very moment when he was stepping into he was thrown into a perverse channel by omnivorous Germans that, by reading everything, his continued triumphs over the prostrate and a trifle besides, contrive to throw really learned schoolmaster. To toss up, as it were, for men and perhaps better thinkers than themselves the spelling of a word, by the best of nine --into the shade. Ottfried Mueller, with other ar
chæologists and travellers into Hellas, gave new asrounds, inevitably left the impression that pects to the very purposes of Grecian history. Do chance governed all; and this accounts for you hear, reader not new answers, but new questhe extreme capriciousness of Landor.
tions. And Mitford, that was gradually displacing It is a work for a separate dictionary in the unlearned Gillies
, &c., was himself displaced by quarto to record all the proposed revolu- work on“ The Harmony of Language," though one tions in spelling, through which our English of the many that attempted, and the few that accomblood, either at home or in America, has plished, the distinction between accent and quantity, thrown off, at times, the surplus energy that
or learnedly appreciated the metrical science of
Milton, was yet, in my hearing, pronounced utterly consumed it. I conceive this to be a sort unintelligible by the best practical commentator on of cutaneous affection, like nettle-rash, or Milton, viz. the best reproducer of his exquisite efring-worm, through which the patient gains
fects in blank verse, than any generation since Mil
ton has been able to show. Mr. Mitford was one of relief for his own nervous distraction, whilst, the many accomplished scholars that are ill-used. in fact, he does no harm to anybody : for Had he possessed the splendid powers of the Landor, VOL. XI. No. II.
wrote that “ History of Greece" so eccen- | a key to the principles of these absurdities? tric, and so eccentrically praised by Lord In his very title pages, nay, in the most Byron, absolutely took to spelling like a obstinate of ancient technicalities, he showheathen, slashed right and left against de- ed his cloven foot to the astonished reader. cent old English words, until, in fact, the Some of his many works were printed in whole of Entick's Dictionary (ablaqueation Pall-Mall; now, as the world is pleased to and all) was ready to swear the peace pronounce that word Pel-Mel, thus and no against him. Mitford, in course of time, otherwise (said Ritson) it shall be spelled slept with his fathers; his grave, I trust, for ever. Whereas, on the contrary, some not haunted by the injured words whom he men would have said : The spelling is well had tomahawked; and, at this present mo- enough, it is the public pronunciation which ment, the Bishop of St. David's reigneth in is wrong. This ought to be Paul-Maul; his stead. His Lordship, bound over to or, perhaps-agreeably to the sound which episcopal decorum, has hitherto been spar- we give to the a in such words as what, ing in his assaults upon pure old English quantity, want—still better, and with more words : but one may trace the insurrection gallantry, Poll-Moll. The word Mr., ary taint, passing down from Cowper through again, in Ritson's reformation, must have the word Grecian, in many of his Anglo- astonished the Post-office. He insisted that Hellenic forms. For instance, he insists this cabalistical-looking form, which might on our saying—not Heracleide and Pelo-as reasonably be translated into monster, pida, as we all used to do, but Heracleids was a direct fraud on the national language, and Pelopids. A list of my Lord's barbari- quite as bad as clipping the Queen's cointies, in many other cases, upon unprotected age. How, then, should it be written? words, poor shivering aliens that fall into Reader ! reader ! that you will ask such a his power, when thrown upon the coast of question ! mister, of course ; and mind that his diocese, I had-had, I say, for, alas ! you put no capital m; unless, indeed, you fuit Ilium.
are speaking of some great gun, some mister Yet, really, one is ashamed to linger on of misters, such as Mr. Pitt of old, or percases so mild as those, coming, as one does, haps a reformer of spelling. The plural, in the order of atrocity, to Elphinstone, to again, of such words as romance, age, horse, Noah Webster, a Yankee-which word he wrote romanceës, ageës, horsces; and means, not an American, but that separate upon the following equitable consideration ; order of Americans, growing in Massachu- that, inasmuch as the e final in the singusetts, Rhode Island, or Connecticut, in fact, lar is mute, that is, by a general vote of the a New Englander*—and to the rabid Rit- nation has been allowed to retire upon a
Noah would naturally have reduced superannuation allowance, it is abominable us all to an antediluvian simplicity. Shem, to call it back upon active service— like the Ham, and Japhet, probably separated in con- modern Chelsea pensioners—as must be sequence of perverse varieties in spelling; done, if it is to bear the whole weight of a so that orthographical unity might seem to separate syllable like ces. Consequently, him one condition for preventing national if the nation and Parliament mean to keep schisms. But as to the rabid Ritson, who faith, they are bound to hire a stout young can describe his vagaries ? What great e to run in the traces with the old original arithmetician can furnish an index to his e, taking the whole work off his aged shoulabsurdities, or what great decipherer furnish ders. Volumes would not suffice to exhaust he would have raised a clatter on the armor of mo
the madness of Ritson upon this subject. dern society, such as Samson threatened to the giant And there was this peculiarity in his madHarapha. For, in many respects, he resembled the ness, over and above its clamorous ferocity, Landor: he had much of his learning--he had the that being no classical scholar (a meagre same extensive access to books and influential circles in great cities--the same gloomy disdain of po: self-taught Latinist, and no Grecian at all) pular falsehoods or common-places—and the same though profound as a black-letter scholar, disposition to run a muck against all nations, lan. he cared not one straw for ethnographic reguages, and spelling-books.
*** In fact, a New Englander.” This explana-lations of words, nor for unity of analogy, tion, upon a matter familiar to the well-informed, it which are the principles that generally is proper to repeat occasionally, because we English | have governed reformers of spelling. He exceedingly perplex and confound the Americans was by calling, for instance, a Virginian or Kentuck by under the monomaniac idea that an action
an attorney, and moved constantly the name of Yankee, whilst that term was originally introduced as antithetic to these more southern lay on behalf of misused letters, mutes States.
liquids, vowels, and dipthongs, against