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kind Providence and your Grace's abilities, that | Whig party should be called to the king's day is now come; and well it is so, for, indepen. councils. Lord Russell gives the following dent of all other private considerations, the state of account of the negotiations which ensued :my health is such, and any constant application to business is declared to be so fatal to me, that I

“ Nothing could be more unpalatable than such find myself under the unpleasant necessity of put. advice. Still the weakness which the Duke had ting my much-loved sovereign in mind of his pro- pointed out was felt; and the death of Lord Egre. mise. I have done so ; and after scenes tbat I can mont, which happened soon after, made it necesnever forget, his tenderness for me has got the sary to hit on some new expedient for keeping the better of his partiality to my poor endeavors to great Whig chiefs out of power. At this emerserve him, and he approves my determination. gency the Duke of Bedford was again applied to, Since this, I have often talked with his Majesty and a special agent was sent to Blenheim with oron the subject of a new administration, and he is ders to see the duke secretly at Woodstock. This come to the final resolution of putting the Treasury time the duke advised that Mr. Pitt should be sent into Mr. Grenville's hands, as the only person in for, and asked to propose his own terms. the House of Commons in whom he can confide

“ Lord Bute relished this counsel as little as the so great a trust; Mr. Fox having taken the king's former. But seeing there was no remedy, he sent word when he first entered on the management of himself to Mr. Pitt, and consented that he should his affairs, that, the peace made, he might be per- have an audience of the king, carefully concealing mitted to go to the House of Lords. Three things the fact that the Duke of Bedford had advised this the king is determined to abide by, and to make the basis of his future administration as they have “ The proposals made by Mr. Pitt were, acbeen of his present.

cording to the only accounts which were pub“ 1st Never upon any account to suffer those lished, somewhat extraordinary. It is said that he ministers of the late reign, who have attempted 10 not only desired to form a compact ministry of the fetter and enslave him, ever to come into his ser- principal Whigs of the kingdom, but that he refused vice while he lives to hold the sceptre.

to allow Mr. Grenville the office of paymaster, and “2dly. To collect every other force, and above put an absolute veto on the Duke of Bedford, as all, that of your Grace and Mr. Fox to his coun-well as all others who had been concerned in the cils and support.

peace of Paris. It is to be lamented that a letter “Zdly. To show all proper countenance to the of Mr. Pitt relating to these transactions, has not country gentlemen acting on Whig principles, and been made public. The interview ended with a on those principles only supporting his govern. declaration of the king, which broke off the negoment.”—Pp. 223, 224.

tiation : Mr. Piit, this will never do. My honor It is scarcely necessary to dwell on the is concerned." inaccuracies of this letter. If one thing be

• What is certain is, that the king, who had more obvious than another, it is that Bute hitherto been so cautious and reserved, spoke had from the first been designed for the of- openly of Mt. Pitt's conditions, and took pains to

inflame the anger of the proscribed. In particular, fice he filled, and that bis retirement, so he told Lord Hertford that “Mr. Pitt proscribed far from being part of a preconcerted plan, several, particularly his friend Lord Powis, had was induced by fear, and was in direct op- said little of Mr. Legg, and still less of the Duke position to the wishes of the king. The of Grafton.” He desired Lord Sandwich to inform obstinacy of the monarch would have brav- the Duke of Bedford that Mr. Pitt would not even ed a storm before which the weaker and consent that he should hold a place in the housemore timorous favorite quailed.

The ex

hold. clusion alluded to, obviously points to Bedford should advise the king to send for Mr.

“ It seems not a little strange that the Duke of Newcastle and Pitt, with whom, however, Pitt, and that Mr. Pill's first condition should be ere many months had passed, Bute was the exclusion of the Duke of Bedford from the again in correspondence with the design of king's councils. What Mr. Pitt really said to the forming another administration. Moreover, king is not yet known. But there is no reason to the Whigs, and Whig principles, were the doubt the duke's own assertion, that he did not objects of his special" hatred.

“ His inclinations, however, wire changed compassed their exclusion from power, and when he found himself proscribed. In the heat of had raised up as their competitors a knot his indignation, inflamed by the king's personal of reconciled Jacobins, who were content request, he accepted at once the office of President to forward the policy of the Stuarts under of the Council." But in resuming a place in the the house of Hanover. The Duke of Bed- cabinet, he insisted that Lord Bute should retire ford, in his reply to Bute's application, from the king's presence and councils; and this pointed out the weakness of the adminis- indeed was the absolute condition in which the ad

ministration stood. Thus Lord Bute recommended tration which it was proposed to form, and the king to send for the Duke of Bedford, who advised that one should be constituted on proscribed Lord Bute ; and the Duke of Bedford a broader and more stable basis, particular- advised his Majesty to send for Mr. Pitt, who ly urging that the leading members of the proscribed the Duke of Bedford. In this confu.

He had wish for office.

sion of persons and parties, a ministry was created , his descendant has made against the fierce which lasted for nearly two years.”—pp. xxxvi- onslaught of Junius. If we do not misread xxxix.

the signs of the times, there is a tendency The same course of intrigue was continu- amongst our political writers to depreciate ed under the administration of Mr. Gren- unduly this most marvellous of anonymous ville, which led the Duke of Bedford to

assailants. Indiscriminate eulogy was forseek an audience with the king, in order to merly fashionable, and we are now in danremonstrate against the system that was ger of going to an opposite extreme. Adpursued. His conduct on this occasion confess that it is much—and the letters of

mit all that can fairly be urged—and we has been variously represented, but we are Junius will get remain amongst the most bound to say that the defence of Lord John is substantially satisfactory :

lucid, condensed, vigorous, and withering

specimens of political writing in our lan“ There appears," he says, “ no reason to doubt, guage.

At a time when men feared to that from the commencement of the reign there write their thoughts, and the nation was was a party called the King's friends," who at refused a report of the debates of its repretempted to exercise all real power, while the show sentatives, this masked champion entered of it was only left to the responsible ministers; the lists, and by his undaunted bearing and that on them all favor was bestowed, and by them weight of metal, bore down every opponent. the measures of the court were directed: that That he was unscrupulous, we admit. The while such was their influence, they kept in the back-ground, occupying permanently lucrative sub floating rumor of the day was adopted, priordinate places, and leaving the labor and the risk vate vices were dragged to light; even naof political affairs in the ostensible rulers of the tural deformities, as with fiendish exultacountry: that at a signal from the court, any min. tion, were dilated on, and where other ister was at once removed; and a subservient materials were wanting, invention was perHouse of Commons were directed to transfer their mitted to enlarge, to aggravate, and to votes to some other puppet, destined to hold a rank blacken, the follies or the misdeeds of those equally powerless, by a tenure equally preca- whom he sought to overwhelm with public rious. “ If there be truth in these delineations, it was

infamy. The moral of Junius was inferior surely the duty of an old counsellor of the Crown to the mental. His character, however, to warn the sovereign of his danger; to implore cannot be duly estimated, without regard him to permit his authority and his favor to go being had to the circumstances and spirit of together; and either to invest his ministers with his age. The more healthy modes of exthe influence belonging to his royal station, or to pressing public opinion were suppressed. produce in open daylight the secret depositaries of Men were forbidden to speak and write as his confidence. By such conduct the Duke of Bedford showed that he well knew the eternal they felt, while the sacredness of the condifference between a true and sworn friend of the stitution was violated, and public liberty monarchy, and a slippery sycophant of the court. openly assailed. It is not for the advocates

" The king, having resolved to keep his favor of such a policy to censure the vices of Jufor his private friends and the Bute party, told the nius. They were the growth of their own chancellor that he considered the Duke of Bed measures, the stealthy, unscrupulous, and ford's remonstrance as a resignation ; nor could it revengeful indignation with which an outthe alternative bad been put to him, that he should raged people gave utterance to their maletake bis choice of the course he preferred. He dictions. We would his letters had been was resolved not to govern as George the First and free from these vices, but as the atrocities George the Second had governed, by means of of the French revolution were the natural open parliamentary ministers.”—pp. xliv—xlvi. fruit of the heartless tyranny and sensualism

of the ruling classes of that country, so the The Grenville administration is known untruths, the slanders, the bitter malevoin English history by one of the most im- lence of Junius, find their cause and explapolitic and mischievous pieces of legislation nation in the political condition of hiş ever perpetrated. The resolutions which times. One thing he accomplished, and it carried for imposing stamp duties on for this we shall never withhold our gratiAmerica, led to the revolt of the colonies, tude. He had great faults ; but he won and ultimately to their independence for the people the right of free speech. He But we cannot enter on this theme. Our often penned untruths, and for this he is business is with the Duke of Bedford, and to be censured; but he established the before closing our notice of his Correspon- claim of Englishmen to utter within the dence, we must advert to the defence which hearing of their rulers, the indignant re

bukes of an insulted people. At the com- crimes charged upon him. No candid reamencement of his career his printer, Wood- der of the Introduction to this volume will fall, dared not publish, without considerable fail to acquit him, whatever estimate may alterations, a report which he had furnished be formed of his patriotism or ability. of one of Burke's speeches ; but within two The Introduction itself forms an appropriyears that same printer published his cele- ate comment on the period to which the brated “Letter to the King.” The nation Letters refer. It is characterized by good had found a champion, and they nobly sus sense and clearness of style, and may tained him.

read with advantage by the historical stuLord Russell has successfully defended dent. The noble author is, of course, his ancestor from the attacks of Junius. somewhat partial to the memory of his anThis is simple justice. Though not above cestor. It would have been strange had it the morality of his day, the Duke of Bed- been otherwise. His partiality, however, ford did not fall below it. He was not is seen, not so much in any exaggerated guilty in the special matters alleged by Ju- (estimate of his worth, as in the denuncianius. He was probably incapable of the 'tion of his merciless assailant.

be

From Tait's Magazine.

CATALINA DE ERAUSO, THE NAUTICO-MILITARY NUN OF SPAIN.

BY THOMAS DE QUINCEY.

Why is it that Adventures are so generally contemporary chronicles, and from several repulsive to people of meditative minds? official sources scattered in and out of Spain, It is for the same reason that any other want some of them ecclesiastical, the amplest of law, that any other anarchy, is repulsive. proofs have been drawn, and may yet be Floating passively from action to action, as greatly extended, of the extraordinary events a withered leaf surrendered to the breath of here recorded. M. de Ferrer, a Spaniard winds, the human spirit out of which comes of much research, and originally incredulous all grandeur of human motions) is exhibit- as to the facts, published about seventeen ed in mere Adventures as either entirely years ago a selection from the leading doculaid asleep, or as acting only by lower or- ments, accompanied by his palinode as to gans that regulate the means, whilst the their accuracy. His materials have been ends are derived from alien sources, and are since used for the basis of more than one imperiously predetermined. It is a case of narrative, not inaccurate, in French, Gerexception, however, when even amongst such man, and Spanish journals of high authoriadventures the agent reacts upon his own ty. It is seldom the case that French difficulties and necessities by a temper of writers crr by prolixity. They have done extraordinary courage, and a mind of pre- so in this case. The present narrative, mature decision. Further strength arises to which contains no sentence derived from such an exception, if the very moulding ac- any foreign one, has the great advantage of cidents of the life, if the very external co- close compression ; my own pages, after ercions are themselves unusually romantic. equating the size, being as 1 to 3 of the They may thus gain a separate interest of shortest continental form. In the mode of their own, And, lastly, the whole is locked narration, I am vain enough to flatter myinto validity of interest, even for the psy- self that the reader will find little reason to chological philosopher, by complete authenti- hesitate between us. Mine will, at least, cation of its truth. In the case now brought weary nobody; which is more than can be before him, the reader must not doubt ; for always said for the continental versions. no memoir exists, or personal biography, that is so trebly authenticated by proofs and On a night in the year 1592 (but which attestations direct and collateral. From night is a secret liable to 365 answers), a the archives of the Royal Marine at Seville, Spanish “ son of somebody,"* in the fortified from the autobiography of the heroine, from

* i. e.," Hidalgo."

7

town of St. Sebastian, received the disa- which,” said the malicious old fellow, “my greeable intelligence from a nurse, that his pussy will never find her way out to a thorny wife had just presented him with a daugh- and dangerous world.” Won't she? I suster. No present that the poor misjudg- pect, son of somebody, that the next time ing lady could possibly have made him you see “pussy,” which may happen to be was so entirely useless for any purpose of his. also the last, will not be in a convent of any He had three daughters already, which hap- kind. At present, whilst this general renpened to be more by 2+1 than his reckon- dering of thanks was going on, one person ing assumed a reasonable allowance of only took no part in them. That person daughters. A

A supernumerary son might be was“ pussy," whose little figure lay quietly stowed

away ; but daughters in excess were stretched out in the arms of a smiling young the

very nuisance of Spain. He did, there- nun, with eyes nearly shut, yet peering a fore, what in such cases every proud and little at the candles. Pussy said nothing. lazy Spanish gentleman was apt to do—he It's of no great use to say much, when all wrapped the new little daughter, odious to the world is against you. But, if St. Sebashis paternal eyes, in a pocket handkerchief; tian had enabled her to speak out the whole and then, wrapping up his own throat with truth, pussy would have said :-“So, Mr. a good deal more care, off he bolted to the Hidalgo, you have been engaging lodgings neighboring convent of St. Sebastian ; not for me ; lodgings for life. Wait a little. merely of that city, but also (amongst seve. We'll try that question when my claws are ral convents) the one dedicated to that grown a little longer.” saint. It is well that in this quarrelsome Disappointment, therefore, was gathering world we quarrel furiously about tastes ; a-head. But for the present there was nosince agreeing too closely about the objects thing of the kind. That noble old crocoto be liked and appropriated would breed dile, papa, was not in the least disappointed much more fighting than is bred by disa- as regarded his expectation of having no greeing. That little human tadpole, which anxiety to waste, and no money to pay, on the old toad of a father would not suffer to account of his youngest daughter. He instay ten minutes in his house, proved as sisted on his right to forget her; and in a welcome at the nunnery of St. Sebastian as week had forgotten her, never to think of she was odious elsewhere. The superior her again but once. The lady superior, as of the convent was aunt, by the mother's regarded her demands, was equally content, side, to the new-born stranger. She, there- and through a course of several years; for, fore, kissed and blessed the little lady. as often as she asked pussy if she would The poor nuns, who were never to have any be a saint, pussy replied that she would, if babies of their own, and were languishing for saints were allowed plenty of sweetmeats. some amusement, perfectly doated on this But least of all were the nuns disappointed. prospect of a wee pet. The superior thank- Everything that they had fancied possible ed the hidalgo for his very splendid present. in a human plaything fell short of what The nuns thanked him each and all; until pussy realized in racketing, racing, and eterthe old crocodile actually began to cry and nal plots against the peace of the elder nuns. whimper sentimentally at what he now per- No fox ever kept a hen-roost in such alarm ceived to be excess of munificence in him- as pussy kept the dormitory of the senior self. Munificence, indeed, he remarked, sisters; whilst the younger ladies were run was his foible next after parental tender- off their legs by the eternal wiles, and had

their chapel gravity discomposed, even in What a luxury it is sometimes to a cynic chapel, by the eternal antics, of this privithat there go two words to a bargain. In leged little kitten. the convent of St. Sebastian all was grati The kitten had long ago received a baptude; gratitude (as aforesaid) to the hidal- tismal name, which was Kitty ; that is, Cago from all the convent for his present, un- tharine, or Kate, or Hispanice Catalina. It til, at last, the hidalgo began to express was a good name, as it recalled her original gratitude to them for their gratitude to him. name of pussy. And, by the way, she had Then came a rolling fire of thanks to St. also an ancient and honorable surname,

viz, Sebastian ; from the superior, for sending a De Erauso, which is to this day a name future saint; from the nuns, for sending rooted in Biscay. Her father, the hidalgo, such a love of a plaything; and, finally, was a military officer in the Spanish service, from рара, for sending such substantial and had little care whether his kitten should board and well-bolted lodgings, “from turn out a wolf or a lamb, having made over

ness.

the fee simple of his own interest in the lit-| found that Kate, with a sabre in hand, and tle Kate to St. Sebastian," to have and to well mounted, was but too serious a fact. hold," so long as Kate should keep her hold The day is come--the evening is come of this present life. Kate had no apparent when our poor Kate, that had for fifteen intention to let slip that hold, for she was years been so tenderly rocked in the arms of blooming as a rose-bush in June, tall and St. Sebastian and his daughters, and that strong as a young cedar. Yet, notwith- henceforth shall hardly find a breathing standing this robust health and the strength space betweeen eternal storms, must see her of the convent walls, the time was drawing peaceful cell, must see the holy chapel, for near when St. Sebastian's lease in Kate the last time. It was at vespers, it was durmust, in legal phrase, “determine ;” and ing the chanting of the vesper service, that any chateaux en Espagne, that the Saint she finally read the secret signal for her demight have built on the cloistral fidelity of parture, which long she had been looking his pet Catalina, must suddenly give way in for. It happened that her aunt, the lady one hour, like many other vanities in our Principal, had forgotten her breviary. As days of Spanith bonds and promises. After this was in a private 'scrutoire, she did not reaching her tenth year, Catalina became choose to send a servant for it, but gave

the thoughtful, and not very docile. At times key to her niece. The niece, on opening she was even headstrong and turbulent, so the 'scrutoire, saw, with that rapidity of that the gentle sisterhood of St. Sebastian, eye-glance for the one thing needed in any who had no other pet or plaything in the great emergency which ever attended her world, began to weep in secret-fearing through life, that now was the moment for that they might have been rearing by mis- an attempt which, if neglected, might never take some future tigress—for as to infancy, return. There lay the total keys, in one that, you know, is playful and innocent even massive trousseau, of that fortress impregnain the cubs of a tigress. But there the ladies ble even to armies from without. Saint Sewere going too far, Catalina was impetu- bastian ! do you see what your pet is ous and aspiring, but not cruel. She was going to do? And do it she will, as sure as gentle, if people would let her be so. But your name is St. Sebastian. Kate went woe to those who took liberties with her ! back to her aunt with the breviary and the A female servant of the convent, in some key; but taking good care to leave that authority, one day, in passing up the aisle awful door, on whose hinge revolved her to matins wilfully gave Kate a push ; and in whole life, unlocked. Delivering the two return, Kate, who never left her debts in articles to the Superior, she complained of arrear, gave the servant for a keep-sake a a head-ache-[Ah, Kate! what did you look which that servant carried with her in know of head-aches, except now and then fearful remembrance to her grave. It seem- afterwards from a stray bullet or so ?) ed as if Kate had tropic blood in her veins, upon which her aunt, kissing her forehead, that continually called her away to the tro- dismissed her to bed. Now, then, through pics. It was all the fault of that “blue re- three-fourths of an hour Kate will have joicing sky,” of those purple Biscayan moun- free elbow-room for unanchoring her boat, tains, of that tumultuous ocean, which she for unshipping her oars, and for pulling beheld daily from the nunnery gardens. Or, ahead right out of St. Sebastian's cove into if only half of it was their fault, the other the main ocean of life. half lay in those golden tales, streaming up Catalina, the reader is to understand, wards even into the sanctuaries of convents, does not belong to the class of persons in like morning mists touched by earliest whom chiefly I pretend to an interest. But sunlight, of kingdoms overshadowing a new everywhere one loves energy and indomitaworld which had been founded by her kins- ble courage. I, for my part, admire not, men with the simple aid of a horse and a by preference, anything that points to this lance. The reader is to remember that this world. It is the child of reverie and prois no romance, or at least no fiction, that he founder sensibility who turns away from the is reading; and it is proper to remind the world as hateful and insufficient, that enreader of real romances in Ariosto or our gages my interest : whereas Catalina was own Spenser, that such martial ladies as the the very model of the class fitted for facing Marfisa, or Bradamant of the first, and Bri- this world, and who express their love to it tomart of the other, were really not the im- by fighting with it and kicking it from year probabilities that modern society imagines. to year. But, always what is best in its Many a stout man, as you will soon see, I kind one admires, even though the kind be

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