Imagens das páginas

to elect Senators; reserving to themselves the right to elect Representatives. If this is not true, then the Legislatures reserved to themselves the power to elect Senators, and granted power to the people to elect Representatives. But this idea is a mere absurdity, for the Legislatures have no ability to grant powers to the people, who are the owners of all power. But, absurd as this idea is, it is yet gravely stated that this "is a confederacy, because the extent of the powers of the government depends not upon the people of the United States collectively, but upon the State Legislatures, or on the people of the separate States, acting in these State Conventions." It is not true that the government exercises any power in any extent, by leave of—or that the extent of any power depends upon—the State Legislatures; it depends solely, and altogether, upon the peoples of each State. Not even the head of the federal party, Mr. Hamilton, much less a member of the democratic party, would venture to attribute, to a Legislature, any original power not derived from the people. If that is not the meaning of the words "upon the State Legislatures"—and these are mere surplusage—then let them be stricken out. But, in striking them out, you throw confusion into, and make nonsense of, the whole document. For it is a fundamental maxim of • Mr. Calhoun, that "ours is a system of governments," and that the General Government is the agent of governments. Then, of course, it derives its powers from the governments, not the peoples of the States. A more naked attribution of sovereignty to the Legislature, in contradistinction to the people, has never been propounded. But we return from this digression, to, the main point, and affirm it to be true that in stating that this government is partly federal and partly national, we repeated the authoritative sentiments of the people of South-Carolina.

We apprehend, therefore, that the tract of Mr. Walker is not justly chargeable with politically heretical sentiments, either on the subject of consolidation, or that of the general welfare. It does not, it is true, servilely copy the opinions propounded by Mr. Calhoun in his disquisition. It takes leave to differ from^them; and this the author might do without violating any duty to the State. Those who believe in the infallibility of Mr. Calhoun, will, doubtless, censure a protestant against such "base abandonment of reason." Yet it would be well for them to remember that they are themselves, and have been, for a quarter of a century, protestants, too, against the infallibility of the government of the United States. Is that an offence in the private, which is commendable in the officer? But, censured or not censured, ostracised or not ostracised, we will assert, for ourself, the freedom of thought and of speech; and do, and will, deny the infallibility of any man, however illustrious by office and genius. Finally, in criticising the writings of our great statesman, John C. Calhoun—" Cldrum et venerable nomen gentilus et multum nestree prodorat urbi"—we act in perfect accordance with his expressed wishes. In a letter, 4th November, 1849, he says:

"/ wish my errors to be pointed out. I have set down only what I believed to be true, without yielding one inch to the popular opinions and prejudices of the day."*

Our purpose has been to gratify that wish in the amplest, and, at the same time, the most respectful manner.

J. M. W.

Art. VI.—Necessity Of The Classics.

Grundriss der Griechischen Litteratur; mit einem vergleichenden Ueberblick der Romischen. Von G. Bkrnhardy. Zweite Bearbeitung. Erster Theil: Innere Geschichte der Griechischen Litteratur. Halle, bei Eduard Anton. 1852. (Outlines of Grecian Literature.)

However slight the analogy may be between ancient and modern colonization, it is, notwithstanding, interesting to

• Preface, p. 1.

observe even the faint semblances of prototypes, which lie scattered throughout the range of history, and to recognize a foreshadowing of our own genesis in the foundation of states long extinct. Sybaris had been destroyed in one of those internecine wars which disfigure the annals of Lower Italy, and the beneficent genius of Athens prompted united Hellas to found a common colony on the ruins of the fairest city of Magna Graecia. Apollo was selected as the leader, and Thurii arose, celebrated on account of its origin and constitution.* We, too, are a common colony of united Europe ; every nation has sent its contingent, and our origin and constitution are, like those of Thurii, unique. But who is the leader of our grand colony? Is it the Grecian Apollo or the Roman Mcrcucy? A few more generations, and we shall be as little a colony of Europe as England is a colony of Hengist and Horsa. The old colonists are dead, the old elements have become effete or have passed over into new forms, and, in this chaos, culture and lucre may well seem to the vulgar apprehension to be striving for the mastery. From all sides we hear outcries against the utilitarianism of our century and of our country. Plautus, the poet, is grinding at the mill. Pegasus is impounded, and Castaly choked up. Such declamations are useless. The greatest geniuses move but in and with their time, and "like the waves which, forced away by the passage of a ship, rush together immediately behind it, so doth error, when masterspirits have crowded it out and made room for themselves, close with natural rapidity in the rear." All that is not founded on the necessities of the age, is evanescent, and all attempts to revive a dead science can end, at best, in a momentary galvanization. Were it our purpose to repeat the story of the revival of learning, to fall into raptures over Plato the divine and Ovid the holy,f the judicious reader would do well to pause on the threshold. It might become a sanguine humanist like Poliphilus* to prove at length that, of all nations, the Greeks have dreamed the most beautiful life-dream, or a philosopher like Hegel to wish himself a Cecropiad of Athens' palmy days. We have a far different task from that of dreaming and wishing. We must watch the chaos not as idle spectators, but as sentient participants. There never has been an age so profoundly introspective as our own—none so zealous in giving itself an account of its own impulses. It is to this century that we owe the thousand and one essays on the "Genius of Christianity," "The Spirit of our Present Age," " Our Condition and Prospects." In this consciousness of our state, many have seen the symptoms of our unhealthiness. It has been fashionable for some years to speak of the unconsciousness of genius, to speak of self-analysis as the sure sign of sickliness and weakness, and every school-boy holds forth on the text furnished by Mr. Carlyle's "characteristics." The greatest poet of the two preceding generations inculcated this maxim with the utmost ardour; repeated it in every form. Not even the dullest reader ever arose from the perusal of Goethe without at least this one idea, that the great characteristic of genius is unconscious spontaneity, j" "On the whole," says Carlyle, who has adopted this principle and applied it in his peculiar manner, "genius is ever a secret to itself. Of this old truth we have, daily, new evidence. The Shakspeare takes no airs for writing Hamlet and the Tempest, understands not that it is anything surprising: Milton, again, is more conscious of his faculty, which is, accordingly, an inferior one." What becomes, then, of Carlyle's great idol, Goethe himself, whose power of self-analysis is unparalleled? The ancients appear to us less conscious of their individual power than others, because our acquaintance with them is, after all, confined to a limited sphere. With the exception of Pindar and a few precious fragments, all the lyric poetry of Greece has perished. It is to this department that we must look for a display of self-consciousness; not to the Epos, which, in its antique form, is foreign to our culture; nor to the drama, for the individuality of the author is modified in the two great coryphaei, under whom the Attic tragedy reached its culmination, by the characters represented both in the dialogue and the chorus. It is in lyric poetry and the professedly personal parabasis of the old comedy, that we find as perfect a recognition of self, and as clear a statement of the principles of art, as can be found in any modern poet. Pindar and Simonides carried on a controversy in their odes, and evidently pursued different theories of art.* Pindar, as true and antique as a statue from the Parthenon, measured his own proportions as carefully as Phidias did those of his Pallas, and proudly asserted his own superiority in lines which strongly reminded us of Goethe's own self-exaltation.f How many men, in the whole range of literature, are secrets to themselves? Homer has escaped the charge of self-consciousness from the remoteness of his antiquity and the mystery of his origin, Shakspeare from the peculiar nature of the drama; and yet Homer and Shakspeare, if carefully studied with reference to this point,

* We avoid current quotations from the classics. Ste K. F. Hermann, Griech. StaatsalterthQmer, § BO, 22—(Political Antiquities of Greece). The dodecade of the £tW nf Thurii is, according to Neibuhr—(Lectures on Ancient History, II. 137, Eng. trans.)—a multiple of the Ion c tetrad and the Doric triad.

t Coleridge, i.ot: to the Garden of Boccaccio.

* Id his Hypnerotomachia. See Wachler, Handbuch der Geschichte der Litteratur, b. III., ». 11; Comp. Goelhe. Werke.b III., B. 191.

t To hedge in the assertion of the text with such limitations as readily suggest tbrmselves, would be equivalent to cancelling it, and wa must, therefore, " reserve the point." Wo subjoin a brace of quotations from Xenia:

"Ja, das if t das rechte Gleis,

Dass man nicht weiss

Was man denkt,

Wenn man denkt,

Allen ist als wie geschenkt."

And again—

"' Wie liaet du's denn so weit g< bracht?
Sie sagen, du habe.-t es gut vollbrachtl'
Mein kind! icli hub' ej klug gemacht,
Ich hobs nie fiber das Lenken g< d.icht."

* Bernhardy, Geech. der Gr. Litteratur, s. 511. More in gchneidewin's Prolegomena to Simonides, p. xxx. Rauchenstein, Einleltung in Pindar's Siegeslieder, g. 66.

t Find. 01. II., 86 aeqq. fiaWvns it \&8foi

,rayy\oiffia> KtfpaVcr «f, (tx^ayta. yatfcrov
Aids *?d£ tyvt%a SeTov.
Goethe in his Xenia—

Sollen die Dohlen dich nicht umscbrein
Musjt nicht Knopf auf dem Kirchthurm aeyn.

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