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In “ Types of Mankind” the Caucasian, the Jewish, the various African, the Egyptian, the Negro, the American and other types are taken up in succession as they exist to-day, and carried back historically step by step as far as written or monumental evidence will carry them, showing that, so far as we know, none of them have ever changed. This portion of the work is profusely illustrated with wood-cuts, upon which a great part of the evidence rests, and which cannot be reproduced here, even if space were not wanting. We can only recommend the attentive perusal of the 200 pages in which the proof is elaborated.
The ground now gone over cannot be better recapitulated than in the words of Nott and Gliddon, (p. 465.) The following points they consider established.
1. That the surface of our globe is naturally divided into several zoological provinces, each of which is a distinct centre of creation, possessing a peculiar fauna and flora; and that every species of animal and plant was originally assigned to its appropriate province.
2. That the human family offers no exception to this general law, but fully conforms to it; mankind being divided into several groups of Races, each of which constitute a primitive element in the fauna of its peculiar province.
3. That history affords no evidence of the transformation of one Type into another, nor of the origination of a new and Permanent Type.
4. That certain Types have been Permanent through all recorded time, and despite the most opposite moral and physical influences.
5. That Permanence of Type is accepted by science as the surest test of specific character.
6. That certain Types have existed (the same as now) in and around the valley of the Nile, from ages anterior to 3,500 years B. C., and consequently long prior to any alphabetic chronicles, sacred or profane.
7. That the ancient Egyptians, had already classified mankind, as known to them, into Four Races, previously to any date assignable to Moses.
8. That high antiquity for distinct races is amply sustained by linguistic researches, by psychological history, and by anatomical charae. teristics.
9. That the primeval existence of man, in widely separate portions of the globe, is proven by the discovery of his osseous and industrial remains, in alluvial deposits and in diluvial drifts; and more especially, of his fossil bones, imbedded in various rocky strata, along with the vestiges of extinct species of animals.
10. That Prolificacy of distinct species, inter se, is now proved to be Do test of common origin.
11. That those races of men most separated in physical organizationsuch as the blacks and the whites do not amalgamate perfectly, but obey the laws of Hybridity. Hence,
12. It follows, as a corollary, that there exists a Genus Homo, em. bracing many primordial types or “species.”
That the diversity theory is absolutely proved, no one can maintain, so long as names venerable in the roll of science hold out against it. But thus much, at least, must, in our judgment, be conceded in a review of the whole subject :-Either there were separate creations of different types of mankind, or man must have existed on earth for Chiliads of years. Both of these propositions may be true—one of them must be true.
Art. II.—East FLORIDA: HER LANDS AND AGRICLTURAL PRO
DUCTIONS. 1. MANUAL DO FAZENDEIRO OU COMPENDIO DE LA FLORIDA
ORIENTAL, por el Senor Don Augustin de Mazantez, Membro Correspondente da Sociedade Real de Madrid. 12 mo. Madrid, 1818.' 2. Farmer's MANUAL OR COMPENDIUM OF EAST FLORIDA, by
Signor Don Augustin de Masantez, Corrresponding Member of the Royal Society of Madrid. 12 mo. Madrid, 1818.
In the progress of our country, attention seems to have been recently more directed towards the State of Florida than at any time previous. The planters and farmers of the South, whose conservative principles and habits render them, as a class, slow to enter upon new or untried fields of labor, have at length become impressed with the value of the lands and climate of this portion of our confederacy in producing many of the products and staples of agriculture ; while the crowds of the North whose physical systems involve the strumous diathesis are looking in greater numbers every year to the Peninsula as the El Dorado where they are to obtain a new lease of life by averting the shaft of the fell destroyer.
Although oneistory of the 1312, by Poncea
Although one of the youngest in our galaxy of States, there is much in the history of the past to interest us in Florida. The Peninsula was first visited in 1512, by Ponce de Leon, in search of the “ Fountain of Youth," whose waters were supposed to possess the miraculous power of restoring youthful vigor to old age.
This absurd fable originated, it is said, with the Cuba Indians, who assured the Spaniards that the “ Fountain" lay somewhere to the north. To a people like the Spaniards in those days, fond of the supernatural and the marvellous—a nation of gobe-mouchesthe story appeared very reasonable, and was as firmly believed by them as the miracles wrought by the relics of Saints, or the wonders produced by demonology and witchcraft. Easter-day, called by the Spaniards Pascua Florida, having been the day on which the shore was reached by Ponce, he gave it the latter name, which it still bears. The celebrated expeditions of Pamphilo de Narvaez, in 1526, and Ferdinand de Soto, in 1539, to this fabled El Dorado are well known. At a later period, 1565, King Philip II. of Spain, whose head was so filled with religion that there was no space left in it for common sense or common humanity, planned a crusade against an unoffending colony of French Protestants, who, had recently fled from Catholic persecution in France to the wilds of America, and settled at the mouth of the river St. John, where they had fondly hoped to enjoy “freedom to worship God.” The design was sufficiently successful. After a variety of fortunes, the Spaniards admirably succeeded in butchering these Frenchmen for the honor of God. The cruel history may be read in numerous pages, which are sufficiently accessible to the reader. We forbear accordingly going into the details. Enough to say that, in some degree, human vengeance was taken upon the pious murderers. A brave Gascon, named Gorgues, surprised and butchered the Spanish colonists, even as they had butchered the Huguenots, but unhappily, without including among their victims, the cruel leader of the Spanish host, Pedro Melandez; and without being able, in any way to assail, or to affect the bigotted and savage monarch, to please whom, chiefly, and to satisfy his notions of what the cause of Christ required, the sangunary expedition was undertaken, and its horrid purpose consummated. No more terrible tragedy than that which is involved in the fortunes of Ribault, Laudonniere, Melendez and Gorgues is to be found in the chronicles of the new world!
Having destroyed the French colony of protestants, Malendez planted his settlement of Spaniards and more orthodox Christians. Thus did bigotry and intolerance originate the first known European settlement in Florida. The green fields and forests were to be baptized in Christian blood, before they could be consecrated a nd accommodated to Christian uses. But retributive justice has not slept, and another and a hostile race, triumph over the very realm for which the Spaniards had saturated their souls with crime. The change has been full of the happiest auspices for humanity everywhere; and the avenger still tracks the footsteps of the murderous race, through all the lands which have been incarnadined by their sangunary progress.*
The name of Florida, was for a long time applied to an indefinite extent of country, embracing both Carolina and Georgia; but it was gradually contracted to its present limits, by the encroach
* We are never so much inclined to look with contempt and disgust upon our race, as when contemplating the history of religious bigotry, intolerance and persecution. All that is cowardly, mean, selfish and black in the nature of man, seems to have had its full development under the pretext of zeal for religion. At this enlightened day it becomes every good citizen to regard with scorn and indignation the least manifestation of the spirit of intolerance on account of religious opinions; for, humiliating as may be the avowal, we are not entirely free from it even in these United States. · It should be borne in mind, while reciting the deeds of Spanish Catholics towards French Calvinists, that Calvin himself defended the putting of heretics to death. Calvin was a Frenchman. Unable to convert to his religious belief the celebrated Servetus, a Spaniard, he consigned him tɔ the flames“for the love of God !”
Even so late as the present year (1854) we find the public prosecutor of Stockholm, prosecuting seven women in that city, for having abandoned the Lutheran faith, and embraced that of Rome; and recently we find the Trustees of Columbia College, New York, rejecting the Professor of Chemistry, on the ground of his being a Unitarian !
When, it is asked, is all this intolerance of religious opinions to cease ? Never, we answer, so long as the lust of power is veiled under the garb of piety; so long as sectarian bigotry and mere partizan zeal pass current for Christian piety; and men make merchandise of religion."..
ments of the English colonies on the north. The settlement of Georgia by the English under Oglethorpe gave great offence to the Spaniards, because of its enfringement upon their asserted boundaries. This, however, was but one of the causes of hostility. The Spanish Government complained of the illegal trade which English colonies and English vessels carried on with her colonial dependencies, by which the commerce of the mother country was reduced to one-seventh of its tonnage and value. On the other hand, the British Government was incensed at the oppressive restrictions imposed by Spain on English bottoms trading in her colonies, the interruptions to the alledged lawful traffic, and the seizure and condemnation of her vessels, to the great destruction of her colonial commerce. The encroachments of the British on the territory and the commercial policy of the Court of Madrid drew forth the implacable hatred of the Spaniards; and although they refrained, for a time, from open aggression, through fear no doubt of so powerful a nation, they yet put in motion many secret agencies by which the peace of the English was frequently disturbed; for the murders perpetrated by the Indians in Carolina, the desertions practiced by the negroes, and the insurrections which broke out among the slaves, were all plotted by the Spaniards in Florida. '
In 1763, the Peninsula was ceded to Great Britain, but it was restored to Spain by the peace of Paris in 1783. In 1811-12, Spain having claimed the country to the Mississippi as part of Florida, which the Government of the United States considered as bounded by the Perdido, the latter took possession of Baton Rouge and Mobile in the disputed territory. In 1812 and 1813 East Florida was invaded by a body of quondam patriots protected by the United States flag, under the pretence that it was called for by a movement on the part of the inhabitants in favor of republican government; but it was nothing more than an arranged plan to take possession of the Peninsula, with a view to keeping out the British, who, it was apprehended, by our Government, would attempt to occupy it during the war then pending. This invasion proved a great injury to the Peninsula. Devastation and ruin befell every plantation in the district; and this was